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Impact of Temperature on Biological Denitrification Process
Iswar Man Amatya,Bhagwan Ratna Kansakar,Vinod Tare,Liv Fiksdal
Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/jie.v7i1.2070
Abstract: Nitrate removal in groundwater was carried out by biological method of denitrification process. The denitrification and without denitrification were performed in two different sets of reactors. Each reactor consists of two columns connected in series packed with over burnt bricks as media. The filtration rate varied from 5.3 to 52.6 m/day for denitrification process. The ammonia, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations were measured at inlet, intermediate ports and outlet. The temperature varied from 10 to 30°C at 2°C intervals. The results demonstrated that high amount of nitrate nitrogen removed in groundwater at denitrification process. The nitrate nitrogen removed by denitrification varied from 3.50 to 39.08 gm/m3/h at influent concentration from 6.32 to 111.04 gm/m3/h. Denitrification was found more significant above 16°C. Key words: Over burnt brick, Denitrification, Filtration rate and Temperature Journal of the Institute of Engineering , Vol. 7, No. 1, July, 2009?pp. 121-126 doi: 10.3126/jie.v7i1.2070 ?
Role of pH on biological Nitrification Process
Iswar Man Amatya,Bhagwan Ratna Kansakar,Vinod Tare,Liv Fiksdal
Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/jie.v8i1-2.5102
Abstract: It is important to determine the effect of changing environmental conditions on the microbial kinetics for design and modeling of biological treatment processes. In this research, the kinetics of ammonia oxidation by nitrifying process bacteria under varying pH and temperature conditions are studied. Ammonia oxidation in groundwater was carried out by biological method of nitrification process. The nitrification was performed in one set of reactors. The reactor consists of two columns connected in series packed with over burnt bricks as media. The filtration rate varied from 10.5 to 210.4 m/day for nitrification process respectively. The ammonia, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations were measured at inlet, intermediate ports and outlet. The temperature varied from 10 to 30°C at 2°C intervals. The results demonstrated that high amounts of ammonia nitrogen nitrified in groundwater at nitrification process. The average ammonia nitrogen oxidation efficiency of 77.27% was achieved from pH 7.3 to 8.0 in the reactor packed with OBB media at 20°C, for the flow rate 500ml/min due to biological nitrification. The total amount of ammonia nitrogen removed by nitrification varied from 0.76 to 17.80 gm/m 3 /h at influent concentration from 2.84 to 149.28 gm/m 3 /h. Key words: Over burnt brick; Filtration rate; Temperature; Nitrification and Nitrifying bacteria DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jie.v8i1-2.5102 Journal of the Institute of Engineering Vol. 8, No. 1&2, 2010/2011 Page: 119-125 Uploaded Date : 20 July, 2011
Cystoscopic removal of an intravesical gossypiboma mimicking a bladder mass: a case report
Romeo Kansakar, Bhairab Hamal
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-579
Abstract: We report a case of an intravesical gossypiboma in a 71-year-old man from western Nepal, who presented with urinary retention and persistent lower urinary tract symptoms one year after open cystolithotomy. He was diagnosed with an intravesical mass using ultrasonography. The retained surgical sponge was found during cystoscopy and removed through endoscopy.Intravesical gossypibomas are rare and can mimic a bladder mass. This is one of the few reported cases of cystoscopic removal.Gossypiboma denotes a foreign body made of cotton that is retained inside the patient during surgery [1]. Although it is an uncommon condition, it is the dread of every surgeon. It has been reported to occur following surgical procedures such as abdominal, thoracic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, urological and even neurosurgical operations [2-4]. It is estimated to occur in one in 100 to 3000 cases for all surgical interventions and one in 1000 to 1500 for intra-abdominal operations [5]. Preoperative diagnosis may be difficult due to nonspecific symptoms and inconclusive imaging findings [6]. There have been few reports of intravesical gossypibomas and even fewer reports of cystoscopic removal [7-9]. We report a case of a retained intravesical sponge following open cystolithotomy, with transurethral removal under cystoscopic guidance.A 71-year-old man from western Nepal presented to us with a history of urinary retention for 20 days for which a urinary catheter was placed. He had been experiencing increased urinary frequency, dysuria, suprapubic pain, intermittent fever and hematuria for the last six months. He had undergone an open cystolithotomy for vesical calculus one year previously in a peripheral hospital. On examination, his vitals were stable with a lower midline scar (Figure 1) and mild tenderness over his lower suprapubic region, with a Foley catheter in situ. A urine analysis showed pyuria, with12 to 15 red blood cells, and a urine culture showed growth of Proteus mirabilis sensit
Comparison of Two Electronic Root Canal Length Measurement Devices: The Differences between Ratio Two Impedance Frequencies and Multi Frequencies  [PDF]
Endang Suprastiwi, Ratna Meidyawati
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2014.45037
Abstract: Accuracy electronic root canal length measurement devices were important for root canal treatment. Aim: To evaluate and compare accuracy of the two electronic root canal length measurement devices; two frequencies impedance ratio and multi frequencies. Methods: Forty anterior teeth were sectioned on their cervical area. All samples were measured root canal length by radiographic. On the second phase, all the samples were measured by two frequencies impedance ratio and multi frequencies electronic devices. In the final phase, the teeth were split vertically and actual lengths were measured. All measurement by radiographic and electronic method was subtracted with actual length. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Results: Accuracy of the two frequencies impedance ratio 50% and multi frequencies 47.5%. No statistical significance between two frequencies impedance ratio and multi frequencies. Conclusions: There is no difference between ratio two impedance frequencies and multi frequencies.
Root Canal Treatment of Mandibular First Molar with Radix Entomolaris  [PDF]
Ratna Meidyawati, Endang Suprastiwi
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2016.69025
Abstract: Aim: To confirm the effect of root canal treatment on radix entomolaris. Case: Radix entomolaris was an additional root that located on the distolingual of mandibular first molars. In this case, the radix entomolaris was detected clinically and radiographically with root canal configuration such as curves. An awareness and understanding of this unusual root and root canal morphology could contribute to the successful outcome of endodontic treatment. Conclusion: Root canal treatment on this case shows the lack of symptoms and normal radiographic presentation for two months follow-up.
The Ability of Lysate-PRF Induces Proliferation of Fibroblast Cells in Endodontic Regenerative Therapy  [PDF]
Ratna Meidyawati, Endang Suprastiwi
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2018.85017
Abstract: Lysate-platelet rich fibrin (Lysate-PRF) is a scaffold that contains growth factor. Aim: To analyze the ability of two types of Lysate-PRF in inducing the proliferation of fibroblast cells. Material & Methods: Microplate with 24 wells each filled 200 μl suspension DMEM + 10% FBS and 10 × 104 fibroblasts. Then FBS is replaced with a concentration of 1%, for serum starvation process. Each 3 wells were exposed with 50%, 25%, 12.5% Lysate-PRF and 50%, 25%, 12.5% Lysate A-PRF respectively. Three other wells are exposed to 10% FBS. Microplate was incubated for 24 hour at 37°C with 5% CO2. The growth of fibroblast was calculated by automatic cell counter. Results: The highest mean value of the Lysate-PRF group was at 12.5% (312.833) while the Lysate A-PRF group at 25% (303.500). If all the groups compared did not show any significant differences. Conclusions: Lysate-PRF and Lysate A-PRF have the same ability as 10% FBS in inducing fibroblast cell proliferation or the same as physiological condition.
Aetiology, Clinical Presentation, and Outcome of Meningitis in Patients Coinfected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis
Smita Bhagwan,Kogieleum Naidoo
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/180352
Abstract: We conducted a retrospective review of confirmed HIV-TB coinfected patients previously enrolled as part of the SAPiT study in Durban, South Africa. Patients with suspected meningitis were included in this case series. From 642 individuals, 14 episodes of meningitis in 10 patients were identified. For 8 patients, this episode of meningitis was the AIDS defining illness, with cryptococcus (9/14 episodes) and tuberculosis (3/14 episodes) as the commonest aetiological agents. The combination of headache and neck stiffness (78.6%) was the most frequent clinical presentation. Relapsing cryptococcal meningitis occurred in 3/7 patients. Mortality was 70% (7/10), with 4 deaths directly due to meningitis. In an HIV TB endemic region we identified cryptococcus followed by tuberculosis as the leading causes of meningitis. We highlight the occurrence of tuberculous meningitis in patients already receiving antituberculous therapy. The development of meningitis heralded poor outcomes, high mortality, and relapsing meningitis despite ART. 1. Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The estimated relative risk of HIV-infected individuals developing TB is 20.6 compared to HIV uninfected, in populations with a generalized HIV epidemic [1]. HIV contributes significantly to the overall incidence, prevalence and poorer outcomes of meningitis. There is a predominance of chronic opportunistic meningitides in HIV-infected individuals with a higher risk of mortality and impaired cognition [2–6]. It is assumed that positive TB status would account for a greater proportion of tuberculous meningitis among HIV-TB coinfected patients as opposed to cryptococcal meningitis. However, in patients with advanced HIV infection, cryptococcus is the most common aetiology [2]. With increasing numbers of HIV-TB coinfected patients presenting to health facilities and high mortality related to meningitis, we aim to describe the aetiology, clinical presentation, and outcomes of meningitis in HIV-TB coinfected individuals. 2. Methods We retrospectively reviewed HIV-TB coinfected patients with suspected meningitis. Patients 18 years and older, with confirmed pulmonary TB and HIV, enrolled into the SAPiT study, presenting with suspected meningitis were included in this study. The SAPiT study was a prospective randomized control trial conducted in Durban, South Africa (June 2005–July 2008), investigating the optimal timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in patients on antituberculous therapy. All patients
Audit on body mass index in pregnancy
Ratna Aumeer
Clinical Audit , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CA.S9536
Abstract: udit on body mass index in pregnancy Other (3793) Total Article Views Authors: Ratna Aumeer Published Date November 2010 Volume 2010:2 Pages 117 - 120 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CA.S9536 Ratna Aumeer Foundation Year 2 Doctor, Macclesfield District General Hospital, East Cheshire NHS Trust, Mersey Deanery, UK Introduction and background: Obesity during pregnancy is a risk factor for many adverse outcomes such as stillbirth, macrosomia, and gestational diabetes, among others. Objective: To assess the quality of care and management of obese pregnant women at Dudley Hospital, United Kingdom. Design: A retrospective audit study. Setting: Dudley Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Standards and criteria: All pregnant women should have their body mass index (BMI) measured and recorded at their first prenatal visit. All pregnant women with BMI > 30 should have postprandial blood tests at 20 weeks and 26 weeks to screen for diabetes. All pregnant women should receive advice about sensible diet and exercise, which should be documented in their medical notes. Methods: Medical records for all patients with delivery dates between December 2008 and January 2009 were audited post delivery. Participants: Pregnant women (N = 91). Results: BMI is recorded for 98% of patients. Over a quarter of women with BMI > 30 did not have postprandial blood tests at 20 and 26 weeks. Conclusion: BMI is calculated and recorded for most patients, but uptake of postprandial blood tests is suboptimal in patients with BMI > 30. Recommendations: To add a section on obesity in the maternity notes.
Literacy: Its Importance and Changes in the Concept and Definition
Ratna Rintaningrum
TEFLIN Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Literacy has come to be seen as important aspect in nation development since being functionally literate is fundamental to all forms of both successes in school and in life. In global market, being literate is highly demanded in order that people are able to participate actively in larger society and in International activities such as international conference, research exchange, join research, and business and commerce. Being literate does not only contribute to personal development or personal learning, but being literate also leads to success in school and in life.
ADOPSI KONSERVASI SEBAGAI BENTUK INVESTASI USAHA JANGKA PANJANG (Studi Kasus Usahatani Kentang Lahan Kering Dataran Tinggi Pangalengan)
Ratna Katharina
Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis , 2007,
Abstract: The main objective of the study is to proof that the adoption of conservation is a decision according with the purpose of firm to increase its profit. To apply a good corporate governance, conservation is not just a firm’s burden but it’s part of the firm’s effort to maintain the sustainability of its business. The study was carried out in Pangalengan subdistrict, Bandung. The data for study analysis is collected from cross-sectional data of farm households. Respondent of 180 farmers ( 15 % of population) was drawn randomly from 13 villages. The respondent amount of each village was drawn proportionally. Financial Analysis, Benefit Cost Analysis and SCUAF model were applied to quantify farm income, productivity, and soil erosion of conservation farming practices in the short and long run. The findings of the study highlighted a significant difference in farm income, productivity, and soil erosion between farming practices with and without conservation measures. In the long run, adoption of conservation yield a higher net present value (NPV) and productivity, and they also conserve the soil.
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