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Evaluation of Cassia occidentalis for in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines and antibacterial activity
Bhagat Madhulika,Saxena Ajit
Indian Journal of Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: Objective : To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity and antibacterial properties of Cassia occidentalis (whole plant) via alcoholic, hydro-alcoholic, and aqueous extracts against eight human cancer cell lines from six different tissues and four bacterial strains. Material and Methods : In vitro cytotoxicity against the human cancer cells, cultured for 48h in presence of different concentrations C. occidentalis extracts and percentage of cell viability, was evaluated using the sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay. The antibacterial activity was performed using the standard protocol against bacterial strains. Results : It was observed that aqueous extract of C. occidentalis (whole plant) had more potential than hydro-alcoholic and alcoholic extracts against HCT-15, SW-620, PC-3, MCF-7, SiHa, and OVCAR-5 human cancer cell lines at 100, 30, and 10 μg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. The hydro-alcoholic extract showed potential against Bacillus subtillis. Conclusion : The plant can be explored for the possible development of lead molecules for drug discovery.
Biological evaluation of 8-alkyl xanthines as potential cytotoxic agents  [PDF]
Renuka Suravajhala, Nitasha Suri, Madhulika Bhagat, Ajit Kumar Saxena
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2013.33035
Abstract:

A series of 8-substituted alkyl xanthines were evaluated in vitro to test the cytotoxocity in cells. For this experiment, we utilized different mammalian cancer cell lines primarily representing prostrate and lung. One of the compounds synthesized, viz. 8-tertbutyl caffeine showed potent anticancer activity at low concentrations against DU145 when compared to adriamycin. Further experiments were carried out to check the cell cycle arrest in the DU145 cells treated with adriamycin, caffeine and 8-tert butyl caffeine. We observed that there was an arrest in G1 phase of cell cycle at 24 hours while at 48 hours of incubation, the cells were constantly distributed (59.71% -70.79%). We conclude that the effect of 8-tertbutyl caffeine is relatively comparable to caffeine whereas in adriamycin treated cells, we observed the cells underwent G2 arrest. We evaluate the studies on these effects by showing potent analogues which could be used as promising anticancer agents.

In vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Calotropis procera (Ait.) roots against human cancer cell lines
Bhagat Madhulika,Arora Jatinder,Saxena Ajit
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: This study was designed to determine the antiproliferative activity of three extracts (alcoholic, hydro-aqueous and aqueous) and their fractions from the root part of Calotropis procera using human oral (KB) and central nervous system (SNB-78) cancer cell lines as a model system. KB and SNB-78 cells were cultured in the presence of extracts and fractions at various concentrations (10, 30 and100 μg/ml) for 48 h, and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by the sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay. Our result indicates that out of the three extracts of C. procera (root), alcoholic extract had shown greater potential for growth inhibition followed by hydro-aqueous extract at three different concentration of 10 μg/ml, 30 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml in a dose-dependent manner, whereas aqueous extract was found to be least active against both oral and CNS human cancer lines. On evaluation of the fractions prepared from alcoholic and hydro-aqueous extracts, it was observed that chloroform fraction from alcoholic extract was antiproliferative for oral (KB) cancer cell line and n-butanol fraction from alcoholic extract was antiproliferative for CNS cancer cell line than remaining fractions at three different concentration of 10 μg/ml, 30 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, our result indicates that the root part of C. procera possess in vitro cytotoxicity against oral and CNS human cancer cell lines. Further investigations are required to obtain the clinically important lead molecules for the drug development.
Sociolinguistic Approach In English Language Teaching: A Critical Assessment
Madhulika
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Today, English is recognized as an associate official language of the Union of India. It is the only language which is a window to the world of knowledge for Indians. In every sphere of life whether social, political, academic, cultural or economic, it holds a significant value. It has played a very important role in building modern India. It enjoys a previleged position. Higher Education in science, medicine, engineering, technology etc. is not possible without English. Higher studies in any discipline are not possible without English. In this era of Information Communication Technology, and the Internet, no country can afford to live without English. It is essential for e-education, e-learning, e-commerce and e-governance. English has become an international asset which can be called world English. English is spoken and understood all over the globe, so it has got international importance. Naturally its popularity on the basis of its utility all over the globe determines its strength. It is through English that we can establish political, cultural, intellectual and economic relations with the rest of the world. It is the means of international communication. After the initial turmoil and resistance against continuing English in India, there is a shift in the attitude of Indians who now recognize the significance of English for national growth.
Synthesis, Spectroscopic, and Biological Studies on New Zirconium(IV) Porphyrins with Axial Ligand
Gauri D. Bajju,Gita Devi,Sapna Katoch,Madhulika Bhagat,Deepmala,Ashu,Sujata Kundan,Sunil Kumar Anand
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/903616
Abstract: A series of parasubstituted tetraphenylporphyrin zirconium(IV) salicylate complexes (SA/5-SSAZr(IV)RTPP, R = p-H, p-CH3, p-NO2, p-Cl, SA = salicylate, and 5-SSA = 5-sulfosalicylate) have been synthesized, and the spectral properties of free base porphyrins, their corresponding metallated, and axially ligated zirconium(IV) porphyrin compounds were compared with each other. A detailed analysis of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), proton nulcear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis suggested the transformation from free base porphyrins to zirconium(IV) porphyrins. The ability of the metal in this complex for extra coordination of solvent molecules was confirmed by ESI-MS spectra. Besides the fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, and thermogravimetric studies, the complexes were also screened for antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Among all the complexes, 5-SSAZr(p-NO2TPP) shows high antibacterial activity. 1. Introduction Synthesis and functionalization of porphyrins [1] have long been of great interest in the chemistry community because of the vast potentials and demands for porphyrin derivatives in diverse fields, such as materials [2, 3], supramolecular chemistry [4, 5], biomimetic models [6], catalysis [7, 8], photodynamic therapy [9], and ionophores [10]. Porphyrins were reported to exhibit a variety of biological activities. This is due to the fact that natural and synthetic porphyrins have relatively low toxicity in vitro and in vivo and they possess antitumor [11, 12] and antioxidant effects [13, 14] and have a good potential for metal ions complexation. The ability for numerous chemical modifications and the large number of different mechanisms by which porphyrins affect microbial and viral pathogens place porphyrins into a group of compounds with an outstanding potential for discovery of novel agents, procedures, and materials active against pathogenic microorganisms [15]. Metalloporphyrins are the basis of new antifungal, antiparasitic, and anticancer drugs because modification of the porphyrin periphery confers qualitatively a new spectrum of activities to metalloporphyrins [16, 17]. It has been reported that metal complexation alters the various physiological properties, especially the cytotoxic and antitumor activities, of many naturally occurring compounds. Zirconium(IV) porphyrins have gained attention from global researchers due to the peculiar characteristics of this class of compounds. To the best of our knowledge, the chemistry of zirconium(IV) porphyrinates remains underdeveloped,
Oxovanadium(IV) Complexes with Nitrogen Donors: Synthesis, Characterisation, and Biological Activities
Gauri D. Bajju,Puja Sharma,Ashu Kapahi,Madhulika Bhagat,Sujata Kundan,Deepmala Gupta
Journal of Inorganic Chemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/982965
Abstract: Some oxovanadium(IV) complexes of SA/SSA and 5, 10, 15, and 20-meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (H2tpp) with unidentate and bidentate nitrogen donors have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, magnetic susceptibility, UV-Vis, IR, mass spectroscopy, TGA/DTA, and 1H, 13C and 51V NMR studies to investigate the steric and electronic effects of axial ligands on the properties of porphyrins. On the basis of these studies, it has been investigated that the axial ligands bind to the sixth coordination site of the vanadium ion to form a relatively stable six-coordinate-porphyrin complex where as in the case of SA/SSA complexes the nitrogen donors bind to the equatorial position giving square pyramidal geometry. The in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines and antimicrobial activities of the synthesized compounds have been done against various fungal and bacterial pathogens. The [VO(SA/SSA)L/L-L] complexes were found to possess higher antibacterial, antifungal activity and in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines than VO(tpp)L complexes. 1. Introduction Macrocyclic nitrogen donor ligands [1] have received special attention because of their versatile coordination modes [2] and for their biological activities, that is, toxicity against bacterial [3] and fungal growth, anticancerous [4], and other biochemical properties [5]. Such ligands, for example, porphyrins, salicylates, and sulphosalicylates, are known to play a very important and vital role in the stability of the metal complexes with the factor of having specific cavity size, stereochemical rigidity, flexibility, and ability to coordinate with metal atom [6]. SA/SSA ligands and their complexes are widespread in nature and of considerable relevance in medicinal chemistry [7] and also in industries [8, 9] (e.g., in the preparation of heterometallic precursors to oxide materials). VO2+ complexes have extensive clinical applications. However, there have been no reports on the corresponding organo oxovanadium(IV) salicylates, sulphosalicylates and porphyrins, though these compounds are expected to be biomedically relevant [10, 11]. We report herein the synthesis of some mixed ligand complexes (containing different donor atoms) and characterisation by means of spectral and magnetic studies as well as in vitro biological assays of some of the complexes. Structural correlation of these complexes has also been made and a square pyramidal geometry around [VO(SA/SSA)L/L-L] and an octahedral geometry around [VO(tpp)L] complexes are proposed on the basis
UTILITY BOOST UP THROUGH PUBLIC RELATIONS IN UCBS TO MINIMIZE THE CUSTOMER ALLIED CHALLENGES
MADHULIKA SHAHOO
Golden Research Thoughts , 2013, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: Public relation' is an additional weapon at the UCB's hands in meeting theutility challenges while floating its financial products for more useful purpose. Ascommunications grew from word of mouth to fast reporting of corporate ills and skills, somarketing of goods and services and its utilities kept pace with UCBs and otherorganizations .Now UCB's are aware of the speed of public and media communication;people are experiencing unprecedented levels of good services from these organizationsowing to good training and monitoring of staff and facilities. There will always be badexperiences, rude or apathetic staff, arrogant management, and so on, but this isbecoming more and more confined to few UCBs and their business.If a UCB desires to procure funds and use it advantageously he has no otheroption but to keep up the Public Relations and boost utility .In the competitive marketingworld, Public Relations have occupied a predominant role to gain the goodwill of thepeople by enhancing utility of UCB. Public Relations in UCB Marketing always aim atharmonious blending of relationship between the UCB and the customer. In fact we cansay that Public Relations are present whenever banker comes into contact with thepeople. Thus, today, Public Relations to gain utility have emerged as key factor in everyUCB with which the public are concerned in one or other way. The banking goals,services or products are required to be promoted in a harmonious way by utilizing thePublic Relations techniques at banking floors. This assists to increase utility andthereby marketing efficiency.
A Harbinger of change: Internet Marketing and E-commerce
Madhulika Shankar
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Internet marketing, also known as web marketing, online marketing, webvertising, or e-marketing, is referred to as the marketing generally promotion of products or services over the Internet . I Marketing is used as an abbreviated form for Internet Marketing. Internet marketing is considered to be broad in scope because it not only refers to Marketing on the Internet , but also includes maketing done via e-mail and wireless media. Digital customer data and electronic customer relationship management ( ) systems are also often grouped together under internet marketing. marketing Internetmarketing Internet marketingECRM
Necessary and sufficient conditions for eventually vanishing oscillatory solutions of functional equations with small delays
Bhagat Singh
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 1978, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171278000307
Abstract: Necessary and sufficient conditions are found for all oscillatory solutions of the equation (rn ¢ ’1(t)(rn ¢ ’2(t)( ¢ ’ ¢ ’ ¢ ’(r2(t)(r1(t)y ¢ € 2(t)) ¢ € 2) ¢ € 2 ¢ ’ ¢ ’ ¢ ’) ¢ € 2) ¢ € 2) ¢ € 2+a(t)h(y(g(t)))=b(t) to approach zero. Sufficient conditions are also given to ensure that all solutions of this equation are unbounded.
Nonlinear oscillations in disconjugate forced functional equations with deviating arguments
Bhagat Singh
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 1983, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171283000083
Abstract: For the equation Lnv(t)+a(t)h(y(g(t)))=f(t) where Lny(t)=pn(t)(pn ¢ ’1(t)( ¢ € |(p1(t)(po(t)y(t)) ¢ € 2) ¢ € 2 ¢ € |) ¢ € 2) ¢ € 2 sufficient conditions have been found for all of its solutions to be oscillatory. The conditions found also lead to growth estimates for tle nonoscillatory solutions.
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