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Análisis estadístico para datos de conteo: aplicaciones para el uso de los servicios de salud
Salinas-Rodríguez,Aarón; Manrique-Espinoza,Betty; Sosa-Rubí,Sandra G;
Salud Pública de México , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342009000500007
Abstract: objective: to describe some of the statistical models for the study of count variables in the context of the use of health services. material and methods: we used the seguro popular evaluation survey to estimate the effect of seguro popular on the frequency of use of outpatient health services, using poisson regression models and negative binomial, zero-inflated negative binomial and the hurdle negative binomial models. we used the akaike information criterion (aic) to define the best model. results: results show that the best statistical approach to model the use of health services is the hurdle model, taking into account both the main theoretical assumptions and the statistical results of the aic. discussion: the modelling of count data requires the application of statistical models to model data dispersion; in the presence of an excess of zeros, the hurdle model is an appropriate statistical option.
Prevalencia de dependencia funcional y su asociación con caídas en una muestra de adultos mayores pobres en México
Manrique-Espinoza,Betty; Salinas-Rodríguez,Aarón; Moreno-Tamayo,Karla; Téllez-Rojo,Martha M;
Salud Pública de México , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342011000100005
Abstract: objective: to determine the prevalence of functional dependency (fd) on mexican elderly living in extreme poverty conditions and to estimate the association between falls and fd. material and methods: a survey was conducted with three stages for selection, stratified by type of locality (rural or urban) and nationally representative of the 2006 oportunidades program. the target population was composed of individuals 70 years of age and older who were beneficiaries of the oportunidades program. results: a total of 30.9% of the elderly presented fd. the gender stratified logistic regression model resulted in an odds ratio (or) for women of 1.25 (i.c:1.13-1.39) for the association between the increase in the number of falls and fd and or=1.12 (i.c:0.97-1.29) for men. conclusions: given the vulnerable conditions in which these older adults live, specific interventions need to be implemented to prevent falls in order to reduce the risk of functional dependency.
Identifica o dos usuários segundo nível de satisfa o nos módulos gerontológicos empregando a análise de conglomerados Identificación de los pacientes según nivel de satisfacción en módulos gerontológicos empleando el análisis de conglomerados Identification of users using cluster analysis according to degree of satisfaction with geriatric care services
Gustavo Nigenda-López,Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez,Mariana Gómez-Camponovo,Betty Manrique-Espinoza
Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP , 2013,
Abstract: Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos identificar os grupos de usuários segundo o grau de satisfa o com a aten o recebida nos Módulos Gerontológicos e determinar os principais fatores associados. Trata-se de estudo transversal realizado com 181 usuários nos 36 módulos do Seguro Social dos Trabalhadores Públicos, no México. O nível de satisfa o foi avaliado segundo três aspectos: características gerais da aten o recebida, amabilidade no trato e infraestrutura. Foi realizada uma análise de conglomerados para identificar grupos de usuários segundo o grau de satisfa o e um modelo de regress o logística ordinal para identificar os fatores associados. Estiveram satisfeitos com o servi o 53% dos usuários; medianamente satisfeitos, 34,3%; e insatisfeitos, 12,7%. Os principais fatores associados com maior grau de satisfa o foram: ser mulher, maior idade e ser chefe/a de família. O sistema de saúde deve dirigir sua aten o para esse grupo populacional que é crescente e incentivar o desenvolvimento de uma aten o de qualidade que contemple as suas necessidades. Se objetivó identificar grupos de usuarios según grado de satisfacción con la atención recibida en Módulos Gerontológicos, y determinar los principales factores asociados. Estudio transversal, muestra de 181 pacientes de los 36 módulos del Seguro Social de Trabajadores Estatales, en México. El nivel de satisfacción fue evaluado bajo tres aspectos: características generales de la atención recibida; amabilidad en el trato e infraestructura. Se realizó análisis de conglomerados para identificar grupos de pacientes según grado de satisfacción y un modelo de regresión logística ordinal para identificar factores asociados. Resultaron satisfechos con el servicio 53% de los pacientes; medianamente satisfechos 34,3% e insatisfechos 12,7%. Los principales factores asociados a mayor grado de satisfacción fueron: ser mujer, mayor edad, ser jefe/a de familia. El sistema de salud debe dirigir su atención a este grupo poblacional creciente, e incentivar el desarrollo de una atención calificada que contemple sus necesidades. The aim of this study was to identify groups of users according to their degree of satisfaction with geriatric care services and determine the primary factors associated with satisfaction. This was a cross-sectional study of 181 people enrolled in 36 modules pertaining to the State Workers Social Security Institute (ISSSTE) in Mexico. Degree of satisfaction was measured according to the following three areas: general characteristics of services offered, friendliness of staff and infrastructure. A clu
Depressive symptoms among poor older adults in Mexico: prevalence and associated factors
Bojorquez-Chapela,Ietza; Villalobos-Daniel,Victor E.; Manrique-Espinoza,Betty S.; Tellez-Rojo,Martha M.; Salinas-Rodríguez,Aarón;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892009000700011
Abstract: objective: to describe the presence of depressive symptoms (ds) and factors associated with them among poor mexican older male and female adults (oa). methods: a survey was conducted among oa enrolled in a governmental poverty relief program (oportunidades) in mexico. participants completed a short version of the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale and answered questions about health and life conditions. results: the prevalence of ds over the cutoff point was 43% (confidence interval (ci) 39.5-46.4). ds were associated with different variables among male and female participants. for men, difficulties in performing daily life activities were associated with ds over the cutoff point (odds ratio (or) 2.62, ci 1.58-4.34) and literacy was associated with less ds (or 0.46, ci 0.31-0.68). for women, difficulties with daily life activities were associated with more ds (or 2.50, ci 1.57-3.97), and being head of the family was also positively associated (or 1.81, ci 1.11-2.93). conclusions: ds were frequent among this sample of poor oa. the differences between men and women in variables associated with ds highlight the importance of considering the gendered aspects of growing old.
Team Players and Team Managers: Special Educators Working with Paraeducators to Support Inclusive Classrooms  [PDF]
Betty Y. Ashbaker, Jill Morgan
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.33051
Abstract: This paper summarizes recommendations from a selection of international research literature urging teachers to take the initiative in their own classrooms to invite paraeducators to participate fully as team players in collaborative work. In US classrooms paraeducators (teacher aides/teacher assistants) have long been making valuable contributions in providing education services to students with a variety of needs. The literature documents change in their roles. Legislation has influenced their required qualifications—although legislation still refers to them as paraprofessionals. While some researchers have cast doubt on whether paraeducators are truly effective in their assigned roles, others have warned that the education system is over-reliant on them. In response to this changing perspective, teacher educators must revise programs to better prepare teacher candidates to effectively team with paraeducators. Personnel developers and school administrators must provide inservice training for a generation of teachers who have received little if any training in this area.
Effects of Neurokinin-1 Receptor Inhibition on Anxiety Behavior in Neonatal Rats Selectively Bred for an Infantile Affective Trait  [PDF]
Amanda L. Schott, Betty Zimmerberg
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.59096

Interest in understanding the etiology and developing new treatments for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents has led to recent studies of neurotransmitters not traditionally associated with neural pathways for fear and anxiety. The binding of the neurotransmitter substance P (SP) to its neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor may be a crucial component in mediating the anxiety response. While previous studies using rodent models have documented the anxiolytic effects of SP antagonists, the role of individual differences in affective temperament has not yet been examined in studies of drug response. This study used intracerebroventricular injections of the NK1 antagonist Spantide II at concentrations of 10 and 100 pmol to examine the consequences of blocking the SP-NK1 pathway in high and low line rats selectively bred for high or low levels of ultrasonic distress calls after a brief maternal separation. Affective temperament was a significant factor in determining drug response. Spantide II resulted in a significant reduction of distress calls in subjects in the high anxiety line, while low line subjects with low anxiety were resistant to the drug. These data indicate that the SP-NK1 pathway could be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of various stress disorders, but drug response might be influenced by the individual’s state anxiety or history of chronic stress.

A cabe?a voraz
Mindlin, Betty;
Estudos Avan?ados , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-40141996000200015
Abstract: the article focuses an indian myth about a flying and voracious head, that was told to the author by several indian tribes from the amazon, such as the tupari, the macurap, the jabuti, the aruá, the sateré-mawé. each version has a different plot, but the intriguing theme is always the same: the mutilation of the body, a head that is transformed or attaches itself to another being. the essay delves into the meaning of this myth, to which claude lévi-strauss dedicated a good portion of his two important books, l'origine des manières de table and la potière jalouse, and that was used by mário de andrade in his classic book about brazilian hero, macunaína, one of the few works of fiction to have been inspired by mythicalindian themes and characters. reporting this myth is just a small part of a large project of documentation of myths and traditions of brazilian indians that author has been working on for several years. the aim of this text is to show the rich imagination of brazilian indians, and to insist on the need to document contemporary cultures that are still widely unknown. brazilian art and fiction could enlarge their universe by exploring and trying to understant the heritage left to us by over two hundred different indian tribes. it is also important fot the indians to reaffirm their ethnic identity, and enhance the worth their participation in brazilian society, by writing, telling and spreading these myths, and by using them in their schools.
Leituras de operárias
Mindlin, Betty;
Psicologia USP , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-65642008000100005
Abstract: a defender of social causes and a poetic paladin crusading against injustice and inequality, ecléa bosi’s research into the reading habits of circa 50 women workers led to her book, cultura popular e cultura de massa: leituras de operárias, where she explores their access to books and the imaginary, their lives and how industrial society deprives them of artistic and literary creativity, despite their thirst for knowledge and self expression.
El mito de Yurupary: memoria ancestral como resistencia histórica
Revista de Estudios Sociales , 2006,
Abstract: this work explores some critical exercises that place the amazon indian within the occidental symbolic coordinates and the meaning transformations, which are imposed to him when he is moved into knowledge circuits distant from the cultural environment he comes from. meanwhile, it reconstructs and examines in a critical way the relation established by the critics of colombian literature with this symbolic system. in this analysis’ perspective, anthropologic, historical, and literary points of reference are continuously intertwined; however, the most important one is the in-depth and detailed research made by robin wright (1981) on brazilian baniwa groups.
Method and Myth in L. P. Hartley’s The Go-Between
Betty Jay
Studies in Literature and Language , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.sll.1923156320120503.2939
Abstract: Critical readings of The Go-Between often relate its depiction of sexuality, class and gender to the symbolism with which the author is frequently identified. Such connections can be further illuminated by considering T.S. Eliot’s notion of the “mythical method”. Hartley’s narrator seems to make extensive use of a personalised version of the “method” advocated by the poet. Mapping his world onto the Zodiac, Leo’s use of the “mythical method” enables him – at least for a short while – to order and control his experience. Initially offering him the mastery he craves, this method eventually renders Leo more vulnerable to the dramas that unfold around him. Once the integrity of his mythic structure is threatened, Leo’s own disintegration is assured. Given his absolute faith in the Zodiac, Leo comes only belatedly to recognise a different mythic parallel at work in his life. This other doubling sees Leo’s fate twinned with that of Icarus. Eventually acknowledged by Leo himself, this figure demonstrates Hartley’s on going concern with both method and myth and therefore suggests that his narrative – like its central protagonist, can offer the reader a critical perspective on the workings of each. Key words: Mythical method; Mythic doubles; Icarus; Zodiac; Mercury; Mastery; Structure; Order; Hierarchy; The fall
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