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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462751 matches for " Beth A. Holloway "
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Myosin Gene Expression and Protein Abundance in Different Castes of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Coptotermes formosanus)
Matthew R. Tarver,Christopher B. Florane,Christopher P. Mattison,Beth A. Holloway,Alan Lax
Insects , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/insects3041190
Abstract: The Formosan subterranean termite ( Coptotermes formosanus) is an important worldwide pest, each year causing millions of dollars in structural damage and control costs. Termite colonies are composed of several phenotypically distinct castes. Termites utilize these multiple castes to efficiently perform unique roles within the colony. During the molting/caste differentiation process, multiple genes are believed to be involved in the massive reorganization of the body plan. The objective of this research was to analyze the muscle gene, myosin, to further understand the role it plays in C. formosanus development. We find that comparing worker vs. solider caste myosin gene expression is up-regulated in the soldier and a myosin antibody-reactive protein suggests changes in splicing. Comparison of body regions of mature soldier and worker castes indicates a greater level of myosin transcript in the heads. The differential expression of this important muscle-related gene is anticipated considering the large amount of body plan reorganization and muscle found in the soldier caste. These results have a direct impact on our understanding of the downstream genes in the caste differentiation process and may lead to new targets for termite control.
A Novel Role for MAPKAPK2 in Morphogenesis during Zebrafish Development
Beth A. Holloway,Sol Gomez de la Torre Canny equal contributor,Ying Ye equal contributor,Diane C. Slusarski,Christina M. Freisinger,Roland Dosch,Margaret M. Chou,Daniel S. Wagner ,Mary C. Mullins
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000413
Abstract: One of the earliest morphogenetic processes in the development of many animals is epiboly. In the zebrafish, epiboly ensues when the animally localized blastoderm cells spread, thin over, and enclose the vegetally localized yolk. Only a few factors are known to function in this fundamental process. We identified a maternal-effect mutant, betty boop (bbp), which displays a novel defect in epiboly, wherein the blastoderm margin constricts dramatically, precisely when half of the yolk cell is covered by the blastoderm, causing the yolk cell to burst. Whole-blastoderm transplants and mRNA microinjection rescue demonstrate that Bbp functions in the yolk cell to regulate epiboly. We positionally cloned the maternal-effect bbp mutant gene and identified it as the zebrafish homolog of the serine-threonine kinase Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activated Protein Kinase 2, or MAPKAPK2, which was not previously known to function in embryonic development. We show that the regulation of MAPKAPK2 is conserved and p38 MAP kinase functions upstream of MAPKAPK2 in regulating epiboly in the zebrafish embryo. Dramatic alterations in calcium dynamics, together with the massive marginal constrictive force observed in bbp mutants, indicate precocious constriction of an F-actin network within the yolk cell, which first forms at 50% epiboly and regulates epiboly progression. We show that MAPKAPK2 activity and its regulator p38 MAPK function in the yolk cell to regulate the process of epiboly, identifying a new pathway regulating this cell movement process. We postulate that a p38 MAPKAPK2 kinase cascade modulates the activity of F-actin at the yolk cell margin circumference allowing the gradual closure of the blastopore as epiboly progresses.
Ceramics for Dental Applications: A Review
Isabelle Denry,Julie A. Holloway
Materials , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ma3010351
Abstract: Over the past forty years, the technological evolution of ceramics for dental applications has been remarkable, as new materials and processing techniques are steadily being introduced. The improvement in both strength and toughness has made it possible to expand the range of indications to long-span fixed partial prostheses, implant abutments and implants. The present review provides a state of the art of ceramics for dental applications.
Genome-wide expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis in maize
Beth Holloway, Stanley Luck, Mary Beatty, J-Antoni Rafalski, Bailin Li
BMC Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-336
Abstract: A hydroponics-based genetical genomics study in roots of a Zea mays IBM2 Syn10 double haploid population identified tens of thousands of cis-acting and trans-acting eQTL. Cases of false-positive eQTL, which results from the lack of complete genomic sequences from both parental genomes, were described. A candidate gene for a trans-acting regulatory factor was identified through positional cloning. The unexpected regulatory function of a class I glutamine amidotransferase controls the expression of an ABA 8'-hydroxylase pseudogene.Identification of a candidate gene underlying a trans-eQTL demonstrated the feasibility of eQTL cloning in maize and could help to understand the mechanism of gene expression regulation. Lack of complete genome sequences from both parents could cause the identification of false-positive cis- and trans-acting eQTL.Genomic sequencing of crop species has shed light on causative relationships between sequence polymorphisms and traits of agronomic interest. Ongoing efforts in maize QTL (quantitative trait locus/loci) mapping have identified genetic intervals whose underlying genes variably contribute to interesting phenotypes such as oil content [1], root architecture [2], and pest resistance [3]. While many trait variations (quantitative and qualitative) result from amino acid differences [1,4], gene expression differences can also result in observable phenotypes [5]. Considering the burgeoning fields of epigenetics and transcriptomics, analysis of gene expression regulation is playing an important role in understanding gene interactions that lead to traits of interest.The concept of "genetical genomics" [6] was proposed with the advance of high throughput gene expression profiling technologies. In traditional QTL analyses, linkage mapping leads to the detection of genomic regions which are associated with phenotypic variations within a population. Genetical genomics employs this same approach, except that the phenotypes are levels in gene expre
Jets and the emission-line spiral structure in IRAS 04210+0400
W. Steffen,A. J. Holloway,A. Pedlar
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/282.1.130
Abstract: We examine models in which jets are responsible for the formation of the emission-line spiral structure in IRAS 04210+0400. The kiloparsec-scale radio lobes in this active galaxy appear to be related to its extended emission-line spiral structure. The radio structure consists mainly of extended symmetrically bent, FR\,I-type lobes, which follow the emission-line spiral structure at their inner edge. In the central region of the galaxy a double radio source is observed with a separation of approximately 1\,arcsec between its components, which are extremely well aligned with the hotspot from which the southern lobe expands outwards. Hill et al (1988) suggested a model for the emission-line spiral structure invoking compressed interstellar matter, which is dragged away from the original jet path by the rotating ambient medium. From consideration of the propagation speed of the jets and the transverse ram pressure exerted by the rotating environment, we exclude this scenario as a possible origin of the spiral structure. We favour a model in which the jets themselves are bent by the rotating interstellar medium and possibly follows the emission-line spiral arms. We present fits of the model to the observed optical spiral structure. High sensitivity radio observations will be required to decide on the nature of the peculiar spiral structure in IRAS 04210+0400.
IRAS04210+0400: Modeling the optical spectra from flaring large scale jets
W. Steffen,A. J. Holloway,A. Pedlar
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/282.4.1203
Abstract: The emission-lines in the active galaxy IRAS\,0421+0400 show a dramatic ($\sim$\,900\kms) increase in the velocity spread at the position of radio hot-spots which are located at the beginning of extended radio lobes. We study a simple geometric model of an opening outflow which reproduces the structure found in the long-slit emission-line spectrum of the hot-spot regions. The predicted bifurcations in the optical image structure of these regions is confirmed by deep \oiii\,line-imaging. We propose that this phenomenon is the result of a jet emerging from the galaxy through the boundary between the interstellar and intergalactic medium. A similar model has previously been suggested as an explanation for wide angle tail radio sources (WAT's). If our model proves to be correct in more detailed future observations, then IRAS\,0421+0400 provides a unique possibility to study the flaring jet phenomenon at optical wavelengths.
Aintegumenta and Aintegumenta-Like6 regulate auxin-mediated flower development in Arabidopsis
Beth A Krizek
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-176
Abstract: Plants containing mutations in ANT or AIL6 alone or in both genes together exhibit increased sensitivity to disruptions in polar auxin transport. Both genes promote shoot growth, floral meristem initiation and floral meristem patterning in combination with auxin transport. However, differences in the responses of ant and ail6 single mutants to perturbations in auxin transport suggest that these two genes also have non-overlapping activities in each of these developmental processes.The enhanced sensitivity of ant and ail6 mutants to alterations in polar auxin transport suggests that these mutants have defects in some aspect of auxin physiology. The inability of ant ail6 double mutants to initiate flowers in backgrounds disrupted for auxin transport confirm the proposed roles for these two genes in floral meristem initiation.The phytohormone auxin is a central regulator of many aspects of plant growth and development. Within the shoot apical meristem, auxin accumulates in a graded and dynamic manner with sites of auxin maxima correlating with the sites of lateral organ initiation [1-3]. The formation of auxin gradients within the meristem appears to result primarily from directional transport of the hormone and local biosynthesis (reviewed in [4]). Directional transport is mediated by PINFORMED (PIN) proteins, which act as auxin efflux carriers and exhibit polarized plasma membrane localization [5]. Mutations in PIN1 result in inflorescences that do not initiate floral meristems and instead grow as pin-like structures [6]. This phenotype can be rescued by application of auxin to the meristem, demonstrating the importance of auxin to floral meristem initiation and the pivotal role that PIN1 plays in the generation of auxin gradients within the meristem [7]. These conclusions are also supported by studies showing that wild-type plants grown in the presence of the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) phenocopy pin1 mutants [6].In addition to regula
Partner violence during pregnancy: prevalence, effects, screening, and management
Beth A Bailey
International Journal of Women's Health , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S8632
Abstract: rtner violence during pregnancy: prevalence, effects, screening, and management Review (4186) Total Article Views Authors: Beth A Bailey Published Date June 2010 Volume 2010:2 Pages 183 - 197 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S8632 Beth A Bailey Department of Family Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA Abstract: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. Pregnancy IPV is a significant problem worldwide, with rates varying significantly by country and maternal risk factors. Pregnancy IPV is associated with adverse newborn outcomes, including low birth weight and preterm birth. Many mechanisms for how IPV may impact birth outcomes have been proposed and include direct health, mental health, and behavioral effects, which all may interact. Screening for IPV during pregnancy is essential, yet due to time constraints and few clear recommendations for assessment, many prenatal providers do not routinely inquire about IPV, or even believe they should. More training is needed to assist health care providers in identifying and managing pregnancy IPV, with additional research needed to inform effective interventions to reduce the rates of pregnancy IPV and resultant outcomes.
A review of the Clinical Economics of Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Beth A. Hahn .
Annals of Gastroenterology , 2007,
Abstract: SUMMARY Gastroenterologists are increasingly called upon to consider the clinical economic aspects of disease and intervention strategies in their medical decision-making. The clinical economics of IBS have not been comprehensively reviewed since 1997. The current paper integrates post-1997 findings on the direct, indirect, and intangible costs of IBS with earlier research and considers the extent to which knowledge of the clinical economics of IBS has advanced. The data show that little progress has been made in quantifying the direct and indirect costs of IBS in monetary terms. However, understanding of the impact on patients quality of life and functional ability has advanced. Recent data are consistent with previous findings in suggesting that IBS can significantly impair patients well-being and ability to function both at home and in the workplace. The magnitude of impairment of quality of life and functional ability is related to the severity and/or frequency of bowel symptoms. New evidence also suggests that psychological symptoms in IBS predict quality-of-life impairment. Thus, understanding of some of the clinical economic aspects of IBS has advanced, although more work is needed. Developing a solid foundation of clinical economic data regarding IBS will be particularly important in providing a baseline against which to evaluate IBS-specific pharmacotherapies now in development. Key words: Clinical economics, Quality of life, resource utilization
Partner violence during pregnancy: prevalence, effects, screening, and management
Beth A Bailey
International Journal of Women's Health , 2010,
Abstract: Beth A BaileyDepartment of Family Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. Pregnancy IPV is a significant problem worldwide, with rates varying significantly by country and maternal risk factors. Pregnancy IPV is associated with adverse newborn outcomes, including low birth weight and preterm birth. Many mechanisms for how IPV may impact birth outcomes have been proposed and include direct health, mental health, and behavioral effects, which all may interact. Screening for IPV during pregnancy is essential, yet due to time constraints and few clear recommendations for assessment, many prenatal providers do not routinely inquire about IPV, or even believe they should. More training is needed to assist health care providers in identifying and managing pregnancy IPV, with additional research needed to inform effective interventions to reduce the rates of pregnancy IPV and resultant outcomes.Keywords: intimate partner violence, pregnancy, pregnancy screening, pregnancy risks
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