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Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research
Bertha Manninen
Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1747-5341-3-4
Abstract: This argument assumes two points that are rather contentious given a Kantian framework. First, the argument assumes that when Kant maintains that humanity must be treated as an end in itself, he means to argue that all members of the species Homo sapiens must be treated as ends in themselves; that is, that Kant regards personhood as co-extensive with belonging to the species Homo sapiens. Second, the argument assumes that the event of conception is causally responsible for the genesis of a Kantian person and that, therefore, an embryo is a Kantian person from the time of its conception.In this paper, I will present challenges against these two assumptions by engaging in an exegetical study of some of Kant's works. First, I will illustrate that Kant did not use the term "humanity" to denote a biological species, but rather the capacity to set ends according to reason. Second, I will illustrate that it is difficult given a Kantian framework to denote conception (indeed any biological event) as causally responsible for the creation of a person. Kant ascribed to a dualistic view of human agency, and personhood, according to him, was derived from the supersensible capacity for reason. To argue that a Kantian person is generated due to the event of conception ignores Kant's insistence in various aspects of his work that it is not possible to understand the generation of a person qua a physical operation. Finally, I will end the paper by drawing from Allen Wood's work in Kantian philosophy in order to generate an argument in favor of hESCR.One argument constantly used by detractors of human embryonic stem cell research invokes Immanuel Kant's formula of humanity, the second principal formulation of the categorical imperative. In the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (Groundwork, from hereonin), Kant states the second principle as follows:Now I say that the human being and in general every rational being exists as an end it itself, not merely as a means to be used by
Revisiting the argument from fetal potential
Bertha Manninen
Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1747-5341-2-7
Abstract: First, I will criticize the classical arguments proffered against the importance of fetal potential, specifically the arguments put forth by philosophers Peter Singer and David Boonin, by carefully unpacking the claims made in these arguments and illustrating why they are flawed.Secondly, I will maintain that fetal potential is morally relevant when it comes to the morality of abortion, but that it must be accorded a proper place in the argument. This proper place, however, cannot be found until we first answer a very important and complex question: we must first address the issue of personal identity, and when the fetus becomes the type of being who is relevantly identical to a future person. I will illustrate why the question of fetal potential can only be meaningfully addressed after we have first answered the question of personal identity and how it relates to the human fetus.One of the most famous, and concurrently one of the most derided, arguments against the morality of abortion is the argument from fetal potential. This argument maintains that the fetus' potential to become a human person and enjoy the valuable life common to human persons entails that its destruction is prima facie morally impermissible. It is important to note here that the term "person" is used here in the strict philosophical sense; it is not meant to denote any and all human beings, as it is normatively used, but rather any being, human or nonhuman, that has the mental capacity to be rational, self-conscious, autonomous, and a moral agent.One of the reasons that this argument is so interesting is that it is simultaneously ridiculed by some philosophers, and lauded by others. Many who reject the argument do so because they believe that it results in what is often called the "sperm/ova problem": if we regard the potential of a fetus to become a person as a morally relevant reason against killing it, we must also hold the same of human gametes, who also possess the potential to become per
Anfíbios Anuros da cole??o Adolpho Lutz: III - Hyla claresignata Lutz & B. Lutz, 1939
Lutz, Bertha;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1948, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761948000400005
Abstract: hyla claresignata lutz & lutz, 1939, is a large species apparently not closely allied to the other known brazilian hylas. it is characterized by the very small tympanum; the head is short and the snout rounded; the legs are long, the hands and feet unusually large, the latter extensively webbbed. the specific name is derived from the insular, irregular, or roughly triangular, dark spots, with a light halo, found mostly in the dorso-lateral region and on the legs. it belongs to the rain-forest fauna of the marítime range. the adult is a bromeliad-dweller and the tadpole rhyacophilous. description. vomerine teeth in two separate, oblique, groups, behind the large choanae, parallel to the posterior half of their inner border. tongue entire, short, very broad and hardly free behind. snout short, rounded, with distinct canthus rostralis and gradually sloping loreal region. eye very large and prominent, its horizontal diameter almost equal to the distance between its anterior corner and the tip of the snout. tympanum very small, less than one third of the diameter of the eye, but distinct, partly covered by a short, heavy ridge. lateral fingers less than one third webbed; fourth finger slightly longer than the second, just reaching the base of the disk of the third; subarticular tubercles well developed; an angular pollex rudiment, more noticeable in the males. toes almost completely webbed, the edge of the web inserted at the base of the disk on the third and the fifth; an inner metatarsal tubercle. skin smooth above, granular beneath, on the throat minutely so. no dermal appendage on the hell. habit robust, head broader than long, body rather heavy, slightly narrowed in the postaxillary region. legs long, the tibiotarsal articulation reaching beyond the tip of the snout when adpressed. type (female): 61 mm. (fig. 1.) diagnosis of tadpole (by g. orton). "a large specialized, mountain-stream tadpole, with wide head an elongated, flattened snout, greatly enlarged lips and
A botanica no Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Lutz, Bertha;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1955, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761955000200035
Abstract: the instituto oswaldo cruz, known as instituto de manguinhos during the life-time of its foundr, is primus inter pares among the biological research institutions of brazil. it had a good beginning, for a number of outstanding men were brought together to lay the foundations of a school of research. future scientists were selected among the most promisin youn medical men. in half a century, it has assumed leadership, in tropical medicine and zoology, and in pure biology as well. several of the scientists have been interested in botany, foremost among them dr. lutz, who always collected plants and studied the flora wherever he went, and left a herbarium of about two thousan plants. drs. henrique arag?o and souza araújo, also collected in minas, and gave their collections to dr. lutz. a list of the plants collected by arag?o and lutz on the serra da mantiqueira, at pacáu, where dr. arag?o's family had a fazenda, especially at two interesting points, morro da mira and campos de safira, is given below. tribute is paid to dr. arag?o, dean of the living research workers of the instituto oswaldo cruz, for the stimulus, which as director, he gave to non-medical, biological research, including oceanography limnology and especially plant ecology.
Anfíbios Anuros do Distrito Federal
Lutz, Bertha;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1954, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761954000100009
Abstract: the frogs of the federal district of brazil are listed and discussed as to habit, biology and ecology. the f. d is situated 22° 54' 24" s. & 43° 10' 21" w gr. and comprises 1.356 km2. its topography includes sea-shore, maritime scrub, lagoons, plains and marsh, open slopes, forested mountains and great heads of rock. three thousand feet of altitude are attained at two points. fifty two different frogs occur in the f.d. three fifths of them live in open country. two fifths of these have never been found above the plains; the others range higher but mostly in open country. their environment offers conditions suitable for average tadpoles and adults. these frogs are more or less unspecialized. there are six genera and thirty species. two thirds of the latter belong to the type genera of the large neotropical families bufonidae, leptodactylidae and hylidae. only in the maritime scrub formation are conditions somewhat different. water for average tadpoles is provided by the lagoons. the xerophytism of the vegetation is, however, so marked that bromeliads growing on the ground provide almost the only appropriate shelter for adult tree-frogs used to sleeping upright on the vegetation. one large hylid genus lives entirely in them. it is casque-headed and phragmotic, shutting the lumen of the leaf-cup with head used as a plug. another large hylid genus shows a lesser degree of the same specialization. (lutz a & lutz b, 1939 ii). one genus with two species is entirely saxicolous; it lives on wet ledges of rock at all phases of its life history. (b. lutz 1948). the other two fifths of the frogs from f. d. are montane forest forms. their environment offers numerous and varied biotopes and is near optimum for adults. there is,however, hardly any standing water available for larvae. these frogs are ecologically diversified. they also show a general trend towards spawning in the adult biotipe, which leads to delayed hatching, semi-aquatic and terrestrial larvae and direct developm
Anfíbios novos e raros das Serras Costeiras do Brasil: eleutherodactylus venancioi n.sp., E. hoehnei n.sp. Holoaden bradei n.sp. e H. lüderwaldti Mir. Rib., 1920
Lutz, Bertha;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1958, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761958000200002
Abstract: field-work in the sierras near the sea-board of south-eastern brazil continues to yield new or rare frogs. four more of these forms are presented here. two of them, both new, are put into the genus eleutherodactylus, to which they belong by their general habitat, morphology, and also by the osteological characters. they differs from the known regional species of this genus only by the wider and shorter disks of some of the digits and the more lanceolate build. the other two species belong to the very little known genus holoaden, established by miranda ribeiro in 1920. one of them is his type-species, h. lüderwaldti, which continues to be very rare. the other, h. bradei, is new. it seems endemic to the upper itatiaia and is very plentiful there.
Die dilemma van die musiekwetenskaplike in die onderrigsituasie
Bertha Spies
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 1995, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v60i4.649
Abstract: The dilemma of the musicologist who is also a teacher. In this article a main educational objective, namely the interpretation of reality, forms the basis for discussing the dilemma of the musicologist who is also a teacher. Firstly, various facets of musical reality are discussed under the following headings: the meaning of reality for the musicologist, artistic representation of reality and an idealized musical reality. Secondly, the manner in which musical reality is interpreted is discussed. Thirdly, results of a fragmented musical reality are mentioned and finally, proposals aimed at solving the problem of the musicologist-teacher are put forward, arguing for a more objective view of reality as a whole, stressing the double responsibility of the musicologist-teacher to interpreting difficult texts and the necessity to re-evaluate traditional theories in the light of their didactic effectiveness.
Bertha Wikara
Sosial Humaniora , 2008, DOI: 10.12962/j24433527.v1i2.673
Abstract: Many incidents happen in the universe. They are make humans embittered and try to understand about them. Things about incident were searched in this research : how an incident emerge, actor of all incidents in universe, and formula that represents all incidents in universe and with the using of it. Inductive thinking by using datas which they are not results from an experiment was used as research method. The results of the research are : 1) An incident emerge because a movement, 2) Actor of all incidents in universe is mosen, 3) Formula that represents all incidents in universe is input = output. The formula called incident formula, 4) The using of incident formula is for the basic of zero change postulate making, which the postulate’s statement is, “ there is no change in each incident in universe. Change that happens is not real “, the incident formula is also used for the basic of mosen cycle postulate making, which the postulate’s statement is, “ each movement of mosen is a cycle ”. Point 1 to 3 plus zero change postulate called incident theory.
Psychological Intervention to Modify Anxiety, Depression and Quality of Life in Patients with an Implantable Pacemaker  [PDF]
Carlos Figueroa, Luis Alcocer, Bertha Ramos
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.73040

The objective was to determine the effectiveness of a psychological intervention program for the management of anxiety and depression for patients with potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia with a portable pacemaker. 11 patients from the Cardiology General Hospital of Mexico were evaluated. Cognitive behavioral intervention was conducted once a week for six weeks, for the management of anxiety and depression. The results showed 45.5% depression in patients that was reduced to 9.1% after the treatment, similar situation with anxiety that decreased to 45.5% compared to the initial psychological evaluation of 81.8%. The different factors of Health Related Quality of Life also were improved after the psychological treatment. It is suggested the necessity to identify and treat psychologically the emotional comorbidity of these patients.

Something old or something new? Social health insurance in Ghana
Sophie Witter, Bertha Garshong
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-9-20
Abstract: This article is based on analysis of routine data, on secondary literature and on key informant interviews conducted by the authors with stakeholders at national, regional and district levels over the period of 2005 to 2009.In relation to its financing sources, the NHIS is heavily reliant on tax funding for 70–75% of its revenue. This has permitted quick expansion of coverage, partly through the inclusion of large exempted population groups. Card holders increased from 7% of the population in 2005 to 45% in 2008. However, only around a third of these are contributing to the scheme financially. This presents a sustainability problem, in that revenue is de-coupled from the growing membership. In addition, the NHIS offers a broad benefits package, with no co-payments and limited gate-keeping, and also faces cost escalation related to its new payment system and the growing utilisation of members. These features contributed to a growth in distressed schemes and failure to pay outstanding facility claims in 2008.The NHIS has had a considerable impact on the health system as a whole, taking on a growing role in funding curative care. In 2009, it is expected to contribute 41% of the overall resource envelope. However there is evidence that this funding is not additional but has been switched from other funding channels. There are some equity concerns about this, as the new funding source (a VAT-based tax) may be more regressive. In addition, membership of the NHIS at present has a pro-rich bias, and a pro-urban bias in relation to renewals. Only a very small proportion is registered as indigent, and there is some evidence of 'squeezing out' of non-members from health care utilisation. Finally, considerable challenges remain in relation to strengthening the purchasing role of the NHIS, and also settling debates about its structure and accountability.Some trade-offs will be necessary between the existing wide benefits package of the NHIS and the laudable desire to reach unive
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