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Ixodid ticks, fleas and lice infesting dogs and cats in Hawassa, southern Ethiopia
Bersissa E. Kumsa,Shewit Mekonnen
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v78i1.326
Abstract: This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors and species composition of ticks, fleas and lice infesting dogs and cats in and around Hawassa in southern Ethiopia. In total, 200 dogs and 100 cats were examined from November 2008 to April 2009. Of the dogs and cats examined, 99.5% and 91.5%, respectively, were infested with one or more species of ticks, fleas or lice. The overall prevalence was higher in dogs than in cats. A total of six different species of ectoparasites were collected and identified from dogs, but only three species from cats. Ctenocephalides felis was the predominant species amongst the animals, with a prevalence of 82.9% on dogs and 67% on cats. Other prevalent species on dogs included Ctenocephalides canis (73.8%), Heterodoxus spiniger (4%), nymphs of Amblyomma spp. (3.5%), Pulex irritans (2.5%) and Haemaphysalis leachi (0.5%). C. canis (18%) and P. irritans (6%) were also found on cats. More female than male fleas and lice were observed. The study revealed that the prevalence of fleas, ticks and lice on dogs was not significantly different between male and female animals or between young and adult dogs. However, the prevalence of these ectoparasites was significantly higher in female than in male and in adult than in young cats. The study showed that the prevalence of ectoparasites on both dogs and cats was significantly higher on animals with flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) than those without FAD, and on animals with lesions on their skin compared with those without lesions. How to cite this article: Kumsa, B.E. & Mekonnen, S., 2011, ‘Ixodid ticks, fleas and lice infesting dogs and cats in Hawassa, southern Ethiopia’, Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 78(1), Art. #326, 4 pages. doi:10.4102/ojvr.v78i1.326
Comparative Efficacy of Albendazole, Tetramisole and Ivermectin Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Naturally Infected Goats in Ziway, Oromia Regional State (Southern Ethiopia)
Bersissa Kumsa,Etana Debela,Bekele Megersa
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.2905.2911
Abstract: A study was conducted to determine and compare the efficacy of the albendazole, tetramizole and ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected goats in Ziway in southern Oromia. About 60 male goats were divided into four groups of 15 animals each: the 1st group served as the untreated control, the 2nd was treated with albendazole, the 3rd with tetramisole and the 4th with ivermectin. Faecal samples were collected on day 0 before treatment and again day on 12 post treatment. Efficacy for each anthelmintic was determined by the Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT). About 100% efficacy against strongyle and Trichuris sp. was recorded in goats treated with albendazole and ivermectin. On the contrary, low efficacy of 90.1 and 63% against strongyle and Trichuris sp. was observed respectively in goats treated with tetramisole. Likewise, low efficacy of 62, 38 and 44% against Moniezia sp. was recorded in goats treated with albendzole, tetramisole and ivermectin, respectively. Coprocultures from all both pre and post-treatment samples revealed the pre-dominance of Haemonchus sp. The results of the study showed the presence of inverse relationship between the body condition score and their respective mean EPG (R2 = 0.99), suggesting the negative effect of parasitic load on the performance of goats. A questionnaire survey conducted to gather information on methods of control practices of nematodes of goats revealed lack of basic awareness among owners of goats about the best use and efficacy of anthelmintics. In addition, it indicated that farmers in the study area apply many practices that may lower the efficacy of anthelmintics and favor the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. Benzimidazoles group of anthelmintics were reported to be used at the most frequency followed by imidazothiazoles and the avermectins were used at lowest frequency. Further detailed investigations are necessary to clarify the current status of efficacy of the widely used anthelmintics in different agroecology, species of animals and management systems in Ethiopia.
Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia
Bersissa Kumsa,Kebede Beyecha,Mesula Geloye
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2012,
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus in the highland (31.7%) than in both the lowland (0%) and midland (1.9%) was observed. The risk of tick infestation in the lowland and midland was 9.883 times and 13.988 times higher than the risk in the highland, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of Ctenocephalides species was encountered in both the lowland (OR = 4.738, p = 0.011) and midland (OR = 8.078, p = 0.000) than in the highland agro-ecological zone. However, a significant difference (p = 0.191) amongst agro-ecological zones was not found for the prevalence of Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to des
Helminths of Sheep and Goats in Central Oromia (Ethiopia) During the Dry Season
Bersissa Kumsa,Tigist Tadesse,Teshale Sori,Reta Duguma,Bedru Hussen
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.1845.1849
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and identity of parasites of sheep and goats in and around Bishoftu during the dry season from November 2007 to April 2008. For this purpose, a total of 222 faecal samples were collected from small ruminants (157 sheep and 65 goats), all kept under an extensive management system. Flotation, sedimentation and coprocultures were employed to identify helminths. Out of the total, 222 faecal samples examined 81.5% (181) were found to harbor one or more genera of parasites. About 70.2% (156) of the examined small ruminants were positive for helminths while 46.4% (103) of them were positive for Eimeria oocysts. The results of the study showed that 81% (128) of the sheep and 83% (54) of the goats were found to harbor one or more genera of parasites. Overall, 11 genera of helminths were identified in sheep whereas, 8 helminth genera were identified in goats. On coproculture of positive samples, the genera of helminths in decreasing order of prevalence in sheep were Trichostrongylus/Teladorsagia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, Strongyloides and Bunostomum sp. Likewise in goats, the prevalence of genera of helminths in decreasing order was Trichostrongylus/Teladorsagia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum and Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus/Teladorsagia, Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum were identified as the most prevalent genera of nematodes in both hosts. In the study area where nutrition is generally poor during the dry season poor productivity in small ruminants is likely to be aggravated by a high prevalence of polyparasitism.
Endoparasites of Donkeys in Sululta and Gefersa Districts of Central Oromia, Ethiopia
Zerihun Asefa,Bersissa Kumsa,Bojia Endebu,Ayele Gizachew,Tesfaye Merga,Etana Debela
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.1850.1854
Abstract: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the species composition and prevalence of endoparasites of donkeys in Sululta and Gefersa districts of central Oromia from November 2008 to April 2009. For this purpose, a total of 417 faecal samples (209 from Sululta and 208 from Gefersa) were coprologically examined for nematode, cestode and trematode infections. In addition, 9 donkeys that died of various health problems or were euthanized for welfare reasons were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified. Coprological examinations showed prevalence of 99.5% strongyles, 53% Parascaris equorum, 9.8% Fasciola species, 5.7% Gastrodiscus aegypticus and 2.8% Anoplocephala species. Significantly (p<0.05) higher mean prevalence and overall epg count was observed for strongyles and Parascaris equorum in young donkeys than in both adults and old donkeys. Furthermore, ovaculture revealed 100% prevalence of strongyles, cyathostomins and Trichostrongylus axei, 73.8% Strongylus vulgaris, 42.8% Strongyloides westeri and 42.8% Dictyocaulus arnfieldi. Postmortem examination revealed the presence of ten different species of parasites. The overall worm counts ranged from 266-14112 with a mean of 1597 worms per donkey. All the postmortem examined donkeys were positive for one or more species of endoparasites. The results of the current study demonstrate that a wide range of parasites with high prevalence affect donkeys in Ethiopia.
Molecular Detection of Acinetobacter Species in Lice and Keds of Domestic Animals in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
Bersissa Kumsa, Cristina Socolovschi, Philippe Parola, Jean-Marc Rolain, Didier Raoult
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052377
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the presence of Acinetobacter and Rickettsia species DNA in lice and Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) of animals from Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. From September through November 2011, a total of 207 cattle, 85 sheep, 47 dogs and 16 cats were examined for ectoparasites. Results of morphological identification revealed several species of ectoparasites: Linognathus vituli (L. vituli), Bovicola bovis (B. bovis) and Solenopotes capillatus (S. capillatus) on cattle; B. ovis and Melophagus ovinus (M. ovinus) on sheep; and Heterodoxus spiniger (H. spiniger) on dogs. There was a significantly (p≤0.0001) higher prevalence of L. vituli observed in cattle than both S. capillatus and B. bovis. Molecular identification of lice using an 18S rRNA gene analysis confirms the identified lice species by morphological methods. We detected different Acinetobacter species among lice (11.1%) and keds (86.4%) including A. soli in L. vituli of cattle, A. lowffii in M. ovinus of sheep, A. pittii in H. spiniger of dogs, 1 new Acinetobacter spp. in M. ovinus and 2 new Acinetobacter spp. in H. spiniger of dogs using partial rpoB gene sequence analysis. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. in keds than in lice (p≤0.00001). Higher percentage of Acinetobacter spp. DNA was detected in H. spiniger than in both B. ovis and L. vituli (p≤0.00001). Carbapenemase resistance encoding genes for blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-51 were not found in any lice and keds. These findings suggest that synanthropic animals and their ectoparasites might increase the risk of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens and could be a source for Acinetobacter spp. infections in humans. However, additional epidemiological data are required to determine whether ectoparasites of animals can act as environmental reservoirs and play a role in spreading these bacteria to both animal and human hosts.
Lungworms of Small Ruminants Slaughtered in Restaurants of Ambo, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
T Garomssa, K Bersissa, A Dinka, Z Endrias
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2012,
Abstract: The present study was conducted in Ambo town from November 2010 through April 2011 with the objectives to determine the prevalence, identifying the species of lungworms involved and assess possible risk factors of lungworms in small ruminants. For this purpose, lungs and fecal samples from a total of 502 small ruminants were examined for the presence of lungworms. The overall prevalence of lungworms in the study area was 27.1% in goats and 91.7% in sheep. Animal species, sex, body condition, age and months of the study period were identified as risk factors for the occurrence of lungworms. Statistically significant (P<0.05) difference was noticed in the prevalence of lungworms between species of animals, among different age groups, months of the year and between sexes of animal in sheep. However, statistically significant difference in the prevalence of lungworms was not observed among different body condition and between sexes of animals in goats. Dictyocaulus filaria (23.1%), Muellerius capillaris (15.15) and mixed infection were identified during this study. The monthly overall prevalence of lungworm infection was significantly (P<0.05) higher in April (60.5%) in goats and in November and February (100%) in sheep. Significantly higher prevalence of Dictyocaulus filaria (47.1%), Muellerius capillaris(58.8%) and mixed infection (29.4%) in goats was observed in animals above three years of age. The findings of the current study suggested that lungworm infection in and around Ambo is an important constraint that requires strong attention.
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