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Intestinal parasite infections in immigrant children in the city of Rome, related risk factors and possible impact on nutritional status
Manganelli Laura,Berrilli Federica,Di Cave David,Ercoli Lucia
Parasites & Vectors , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-265
Abstract: Background Parasitic diseases can represent a social and economic problem among disadvantaged people - even in developed countries. Due to the limited data available concerning Europe, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the presence of parasites in immigrant children and the risk factors favouring the spread of parasites. Subsequently, the possible correlation between nutritional status and parasitic infections was also investigated. Findings A convenience sample of two hundred and forty seven immigrant children (aged 0–15) attending the Poliambulatorio della Medicina Solidale in Rome was examined. Data were collected using structured questionnaires, and parasitological and anthropometric tests were applied. Chi-squared test and binary logistic multiple-regression models were used for statistical analysis. Thirty-seven children (15%) tested positive to parasites of the following species: Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Giardia duodenalis, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis. A monospecific infection was detected in 30 (81%) out of 37 parasitized children, while the others (19%) presented a polyparasitism. The major risk factors were housing, i.e. living in shacks, and cohabitation with other families (p<0.01). Children classified in the lower height Z-scores had a significantly greater prevalence of parasites (30.9%) than the others (p<0.01). Conclusions This study shows that parasite infection in children is still quite common, even in a developed country and that children’s growth and parasitism may be related. Extensive improvements in the living, social and economic conditions of immigrants are urgently needed in order to overcome these problems.
Giardia duodenalis assemblages and Entamoeba species infecting non-human primates in an Italian zoological garden: zoonotic potential and management traits
Federica Berrilli, Cristina Prisco, Klaus G Friedrich, Pilar Di Cerbo, David Di Cave, Claudio De Liberato
Parasites & Vectors , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-199
Abstract: G. duodenalis was found only in Lemur catta (47.0%). Entamoeba spp. were detected in all species studied, with the exception of Eulemur macaco and Varecia rubra. The number of positive pools ranged from 5.9% in L. catta to 81.2% in Mandrillus sphinx; in Pan troglodytes the observed prevalence was 53.6%. A mixed Entamoeba-Giardia infection was recorded only in one sample of L. catta. All G. duodenalis isolates belonged to the zoonotic assemblage B, sub assemblage BIV. Three Entamoeba species were identified: E. hartmanni, E. coli and E. dispar.Our results highlight the importance of regularly testing animals kept in zoos for the diagnosis of zoonotic parasites, in order to evaluate their pathogenic role in the housed animals and the zoonotic risk linked to their presence. A quick detection of the arrival of pathogens into the enclosures could also be a prerequisite to limit their spread into the structure via the introduction of specific control strategies. The need for molecular identification of some parasite species/genotype in order to better define the zoonotic risk is also highlighted.Protozoa are the most common parasites in captive non-human primates (NHP). Amongst others, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. are frequently reported [1-3]; the simplicity of their monoxenous life cycle, the low infective dose and the short prepatent period facilitate their dispersal among captive animals once they have entered the enclosures (cages, pens, etc.) [4,5].The relevance of Giardia and Entamoeba infections in zoo animals goes beyond their clinical effects. From a public health point of view, these protozoa have high zoonotic potential, being among the most common intestinal human parasites worldwide [6-8]. Infected NHP in zoos constitute a risk for animal caretakers [9,10] and possibly people visiting the zoological gardens. On the other hand, infected people could be the source of infection for the captive NHP via water and/or food contamination. Hence, the epidemi
Effectiveness and Efficiency of Educational Measures: Evaluation Practices, Indicators and Rhetoric  [PDF]
Federica Cornali
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.23034
Abstract: In recent years, evaluating the performance of educational organizations has sparked increasing interest and debate. Many expectations ride on the smooth operation of school systems. It is widely believed that countries’ social and economic well-being will depend to an ever greater extent on the quality of their citizens’ education: the emergence of the so-called “knowledge society”, the transformation of information and the media, and increasing specialization on the part of organizations all call for high skill profiles and levels of knowledge. Today’s education systems are required to be both effective and efficient, or in other words, to reach the goals set for them while making the best use of available resources. This paper, by presenting and discussing a case study, will analyze several dimensions of schools’ effectiveness and efficiency, highlighting the importance of selecting evaluation procedures that can provide representations that reflect the actual situation to the greatest possible extent.
UMIS: A Service for User Model Interoperability  [PDF]
Federica Cena, Roberto Furnari
Advances in Internet of Things (AIT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ait.2012.24012
Abstract: In this paper we describe UMIS, a service architecture that enables user adaptive applications to exchange User Model data on the Web. UMIS provides a set of facilities that allow applications to interoperate with minimum changes in their internal logics and knowledge representation. The goal is to support the process of interoperability in three ways: providing an efficient centralized discovery service; offering a service for simple interaction for the exchange of UM value in a p2p way; and offering a negotiation mechanism to be used in case of communication hurdles (i.e. semantic ambiguities and missing response). We developed a proof-of-concept prototype of UMIS and we tested it with an existing user-adaptive application. According to our test results, our approach improves the communication with respect to standard solutions for interoperability regarding the quality of exchange, with a negligible impact on the communication costs and traffic generation.
The Impact of Acoustics and Energy Efficiency Protocols on Comfort in the Building Industry  [PDF]
Marco Caniato, Federica Bettarello
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2013.32A005

Comfort in buildings is one of the most requested value to reach. Today, designers have to deal with so many technical features including outer appearance, air-conditioning, structural layouts, acoustic insulation and inner treatments, materials bio-compatibility, material recycling and reuse, water wasting and so on. In the same time, costumers want to buy buildings which won’t cost a lot in terms of heating and cooling as in the past. Besides, every single apartment, loft, office etc., even if there are many of them in a single building, has to be very quiet. Voluntary or compulsory standards, protocols and state laws lead the designers throughout the project and in some cases to the final in field tests too. Nevertheless, different sort of calculations, leading philosophy, expected results, parameters and tags are included in order to achieve the final aims. In this paper, energy efficiency and acoustic performances of buildings are discussed, proposing and comparing designing solutions for a specific case study.

Paul de Saint Robert: Sciences and Interdisciplinary Culture in the 19th Century  [PDF]
Federica Maffioli, Gianfranco Medici
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2014.34019
Abstract: The Count Paul Ballada de Saint Robert (1815-1888) was an Italian scientist and important promoter of scientific culture, he succeeded in combining pure and applied science, art and social interests into one of the most elevated synthesis. Based on previous works published at the SISFA 2012 (Maffioli & Medici, 2013: pp. 313-319; Medici & Maffioli, 2013: pp. 329-336) in this paper we propose two of his many writings as demonstration of interdisciplinary of his studies: the first part is about the conclusions of Saint Robert concerning the retreat of glaciers, while the second part is about the Saint Robert scientific approach and explanation of the true meaning of the verses 22.24 of the I chant of Dante’s Purgatory.
The spectrum of kink-like oscillations of solar photospheric magnetic elements
M. Stangalini,F. Berrilli,G. Consolini
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322163
Abstract: Recently, the availability of new high-spatial and -temporal resolution observations of the solar photosphere has allowed the study of the oscillations in small magnetic elements. Small magnetic elements have been found to host a rich variety of oscillations detectable as intensity, longitudinal or transverse velocity fluctuations which have been interpreted as MHD waves. Small magnetic elements, at or below the current spatial resolution achieved by modern solar telescopes, are though to play a relevant role in the energy budget of the upper layers of the Sun's atmosphere, as they are found to cover a significant fraction of the solar photosphere. Unfortunately, the limited temporal length and/or cadence of the data sets, or the presence of seeing-induced effects have prevented, so far, the estimation of the power spectra of kink-like oscillations in small magnetic elements with good accuracy. Motivated by this, we studied kink-like oscillations in small magnetic elements, by exploiting very long duration and high-cadence data acquired with the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. In this work we present the results of this analysis, by studying the power spectral density of kink-like oscillations on a statistical basis. We found that small magnetic elements exhibit a large number of spectral features in the range 1-12 mHz. More interestingly, most of these spectral features are not shared among magnetic elements but represent a unique signature of each magnetic element itself.
Magnetic pattern at supergranulation scale: the Void Size Distribution
Francesco Berrilli,Stefano Scardigli,Dario Del Moro
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201424026
Abstract: The large-scale magnetic pattern of the quiet sun is dominated by the magnetic network. This network, created by photospheric magnetic fields swept into convective downflows, delineates the boundaries of large scale cells of overturning plasma and exhibits voids in magnetic organization. Such voids include internetwork fields, a mixed-polarity sparse field that populate the inner part of network cells. To single out voids and to quantify their intrinsic pattern a fast circle packing based algorithm is applied to 511 SOHO/MDI high resolution magnetograms acquired during the outstanding solar activity minimum between 23 and 24 cycles. The computed Void Distribution Function shows a quasi-exponential decay behavior in the range 10-60 Mm. The lack of distinct flow scales in such a range corroborates the hypothesis of multi-scale motion flows at the solar surface. In addition to the quasi-exponential decay we have found that the voids reveal departure from a simple exponential decay around 35 Mm.
Multiscale magnetic underdense regions on the solar surface: Granular and Mesogranular scales
F. Berrilli,S. Scardigli,S. Giordano
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11207-012-0179-2
Abstract: The Sun is a non-equilibrium dissipative system subjected to an energy flow which originates in its core. Convective overshooting motions create temperature and velocity structures which show a temporal and spatial evolution. As a result, photospheric structures are generally considered to be the direct manifestation of convective plasma motions. The plasma flows on the photosphere govern the motion of single magnetic elements. These elements are arranged in typical patterns which are observed as a variety of multiscale magnetic patterns. High resolution magnetograms of quiet solar surface revealed the presence of magnetic underdense regions in the solar photosphere, commonly called voids, which may be considered a signature of the underlying convective structure. The analysis of such patterns paves the way for the investigation of all turbulent convective scales from granular to global. In order to address the question of magnetic structures driven by turbulent convection at granular and mesogranular scales we used a "voids" detection method. The computed voids distribution shows an exponential behavior at scales between 2 and 10 Mm and the absence of features at 5-10 Mm mesogranular scales. The absence of preferred scales of organization in the 2-10 Mm range supports the multiscale nature of flows on the solar surface and the absence of a mesogranular convective scale.
La subjetividad antropofágica: aportes para una concepción devorativa de la vida
Estudios de filosof?-a pr??ctica e historia de las ideas , 2010,
Abstract: this paper arises from the research of the anthropofagic movement, originated in brazil in the twenties. the "anthropofagic subjectivity" is analyzed, since it is considered to have a significant potentiality, because it implies not only an analysis and a criticism of the prevailing subjectivity, but also a rebuilding and a proposal of another kind of subjectivity, which considers the current complexity and specially the challenge of the otherness. the answer here does not strengthen the individual identities, which are entrenched in the tolerance of multiculturalism, but this subjectivity opens to the interpellation of the other, and only from there the sense could be built.
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