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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 209 matches for " Bernt Schiele "
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Scalable Nonlinear Embeddings for Semantic Category-based Image Retrieval
Gaurav Sharma,Bernt Schiele
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: We propose a novel algorithm for the task of supervised discriminative distance learning by nonlinearly embedding vectors into a low dimensional Euclidean space. We work in the challenging setting where supervision is with constraints on similar and dissimilar pairs while training. The proposed method is derived by an approximate kernelization of a linear Mahalanobis-like distance metric learning algorithm and can also be seen as a kernel neural network. The number of model parameters and test time evaluation complexity of the proposed method are O(dD) where D is the dimensionality of the input features and d is the dimension of the projection space - this is in contrast to the usual kernelization methods as, unlike them, the complexity does not scale linearly with the number of training examples. We propose a stochastic gradient based learning algorithm which makes the method scalable (w.r.t. the number of training examples), while being nonlinear. We train the method with up to half a million training pairs of 4096 dimensional CNN features. We give empirical comparisons with relevant baselines on seven challenging datasets for the task of low dimensional semantic category based image retrieval.
Loss Functions for Top-k Error: Analysis and Insights
Maksim Lapin,Matthias Hein,Bernt Schiele
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: In order to push the performance on realistic computer vision tasks, the number of classes in modern benchmark datasets has significantly increased in recent years. This increase in the number of classes comes along with increased ambiguity between the class labels, raising the question if top-1 error is the right performance measure. In this paper, we provide an extensive comparison and evaluation of established multiclass methods comparing their top-k performance both from a practical as well as from a theoretical perspective. Moreover, we introduce novel top-k loss functions as modifications of the softmax and the multiclass SVM loss and provide efficient optimization schemes for them. In the experiments, we compare on various datasets all of the proposed and established methods for top-k error optimization. An interesting insight of this paper is that the softmax loss yields competitive top-k performance for all k simultaneously. For a specific top-k error, our new top-k losses lead typically to further improvements while being faster to train than the softmax.
A convnet for non-maximum suppression
Jan Hosang,Rodrigo Benenson,Bernt Schiele
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Non-maximum suppression (NMS) is used in virtually all state-of-the-art object detection pipelines. While essential object detection ingredients such as features, classifiers and proposal methods have been extensively researched it it surprising how little work has aimed to systematically address NMS. The de-facto standard for NMS is based on greedy clustering with a fixed distance threshold, which forces to trade-off recall versus precision. We propose a convnet designed to perform NMS of a given set of detections. We report experiments on a synthetic setup, and results on crowded pedestrian detection scenes. Our approach overcomes the intrinsic limitations of greedy NMS, obtaining better recall and precision.
Top-k Multiclass SVM
Maksim Lapin,Matthias Hein,Bernt Schiele
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Class ambiguity is typical in image classification problems with a large number of classes. When classes are difficult to discriminate, it makes sense to allow k guesses and evaluate classifiers based on the top-k error instead of the standard zero-one loss. We propose top-k multiclass SVM as a direct method to optimize for top-k performance. Our generalization of the well-known multiclass SVM is based on a tight convex upper bound of the top-k error. We propose a fast optimization scheme based on an efficient projection onto the top-k simplex, which is of its own interest. Experiments on five datasets show consistent improvements in top-k accuracy compared to various baselines.
Learning Using Privileged Information: SVM+ and Weighted SVM
Maksim Lapin,Matthias Hein,Bernt Schiele
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.neunet.2014.02.002
Abstract: Prior knowledge can be used to improve predictive performance of learning algorithms or reduce the amount of data required for training. The same goal is pursued within the learning using privileged information paradigm which was recently introduced by Vapnik et al. and is aimed at utilizing additional information available only at training time -- a framework implemented by SVM+. We relate the privileged information to importance weighting and show that the prior knowledge expressible with privileged features can also be encoded by weights associated with every training example. We show that a weighted SVM can always replicate an SVM+ solution, while the converse is not true and we construct a counterexample highlighting the limitations of SVM+. Finally, we touch on the problem of choosing weights for weighted SVMs when privileged features are not available.
Filtered Channel Features for Pedestrian Detection
Shanshan Zhang,Rodrigo Benenson,Bernt Schiele
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: This paper starts from the observation that multiple top performing pedestrian detectors can be modelled by using an intermediate layer filtering low-level features in combination with a boosted decision forest. Based on this observation we propose a unifying framework and experimentally explore different filter families. We report extensive results enabling a systematic analysis. Using filtered channel features we obtain top performance on the challenging Caltech and KITTI datasets, while using only HOG+LUV as low-level features. When adding optical flow features we further improve detection quality and report the best known results on the Caltech dataset, reaching 93% recall at 1 FPPI.
Fine-grained Activity Recognition with Holistic and Pose based Features
Leonid Pishchulin,Mykhaylo Andriluka,Bernt Schiele
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Holistic methods based on dense trajectories are currently the de facto standard for recognition of human activities in video. Whether holistic representations will sustain or will be superseded by higher level video encoding in terms of body pose and motion is the subject of an ongoing debate. In this paper we aim to clarify the underlying factors responsible for good performance of holistic and pose-based representations. To that end we build on our recent dataset leveraging the existing taxonomy of human activities. This dataset includes 24,920 video snippets covering 410 human activities in total. Our analysis reveals that holistic and pose-based methods are highly complementary, and their performance varies significantly depending on the activity. We find that holistic methods are mostly affected by the number and speed of trajectories, whereas pose-based methods are mostly influenced by viewpoint of the person. We observe striking performance differences across activities: for certain activities results with pose-based features are more than twice as accurate compared to holistic features, and vice versa. The best performing approach in our comparison is based on the combination of holistic and pose-based approaches, which again underlines their complementarity.
The Long-Short Story of Movie Description
Anna Rohrbach,Marcus Rohrbach,Bernt Schiele
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Generating descriptions for videos has many applications including assisting blind people and human-robot interaction. The recent advances in image captioning as well as the release of large-scale movie description datasets such as MPII Movie Description allow to study this task in more depth. Many of the proposed methods for image captioning rely on pre-trained object classifier CNNs and Long-Short Term Memory recurrent networks (LSTMs) for generating descriptions. While image description focuses on objects, we argue that it is important to distinguish verbs, objects, and places in the challenging setting of movie description. In this work we show how to learn robust visual classifiers from the weak annotations of the sentence descriptions. Based on these visual classifiers we learn how to generate a description using an LSTM. We explore different design choices to build and train the LSTM and achieve the best performance to date on the challenging MPII-MD dataset. We compare and analyze our approach and prior work along various dimensions to better understand the key challenges of the movie description task.
How good are detection proposals, really?
Jan Hosang,Rodrigo Benenson,Bernt Schiele
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Current top performing Pascal VOC object detectors employ detection proposals to guide the search for objects thereby avoiding exhaustive sliding window search across images. Despite the popularity of detection proposals, it is unclear which trade-offs are made when using them during object detection. We provide an in depth analysis of ten object proposal methods along with four baselines regarding ground truth annotation recall (on Pascal VOC 2007 and ImageNet 2013), repeatability, and impact on DPM detector performance. Our findings show common weaknesses of existing methods, and provide insights to choose the most adequate method for different settings.
Multi-View Priors for Learning Detectors from Sparse Viewpoint Data
Bojan Pepik,Michael Stark,Peter Gehler,Bernt Schiele
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: While the majority of today's object class models provide only 2D bounding boxes, far richer output hypotheses are desirable including viewpoint, fine-grained category, and 3D geometry estimate. However, models trained to provide richer output require larger amounts of training data, preferably well covering the relevant aspects such as viewpoint and fine-grained categories. In this paper, we address this issue from the perspective of transfer learning, and design an object class model that explicitly leverages correlations between visual features. Specifically, our model represents prior distributions over permissible multi-view detectors in a parametric way -- the priors are learned once from training data of a source object class, and can later be used to facilitate the learning of a detector for a target class. As we show in our experiments, this transfer is not only beneficial for detectors based on basic-level category representations, but also enables the robust learning of detectors that represent classes at finer levels of granularity, where training data is typically even scarcer and more unbalanced. As a result, we report largely improved performance in simultaneous 2D object localization and viewpoint estimation on a recent dataset of challenging street scenes.
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