Abstract:
In the Chern-Simons formulation of Einstein gravity in 2+1 dimensions the phase space of gravity is the moduli space of flat G-connections, where G is a typically non-compact Lie group which depends on the signature of space-time and the cosmological constant. For Euclidean signature and vanishing cosmological constant, G is the three-dimensional Euclidean group. For this case the Poisson structure of the moduli space is given explicitly in terms of a classical r-matrix. It is shown that the quantum R-matrix of the quantum double D(SU(2)) provides a quantisation of that Poisson structure.

Abstract:
These notes summarise a talk surveying the combinatorial or Hamiltonian quantisation of three dimensional gravity in the Chern-Simons formulation, with an emphasis on the role of quantum groups and on the way the various physical constants (c,G,\Lambda,\hbar) enter as deformation parameters. The classical situation is summarised, where solutions can be characterised in terms of model spacetimes (which depend on c and \Lambda), together with global identifications via elements of the corresponding isometry groups. The quantum theory may be viewed as a deformation of this picture, with quantum groups replacing the local isometry groups, and non-commutative spacetimes replacing the classical model spacetimes. This point of view is explained, and open issues are sketched.

Abstract:
We define and discuss classical and quantum gravity in 2+1 dimensions in the Galilean limit. Although there are no Newtonian forces between massive objects in (2+1)-dimensional gravity, the Galilean limit is not trivial. Depending on the topology of spacetime there are typically finitely many topological degrees of freedom as well as topological interactions of Aharonov-Bohm type between massive objects. In order to capture these topological aspects we consider a two-fold central extension of the Galilei group whose Lie algebra possesses an invariant and non-degenerate inner product. Using this inner product we define Galilean gravity as a Chern-Simons theory of the doubly-extended Galilei group. The particular extension of the Galilei group we consider is the classical double of a much studied group, the extended homogeneous Galilei group, which is also often called Nappi-Witten group. We exhibit the Poisson-Lie structure of the doubly extended Galilei group, and quantise the Chern-Simons theory using a Hamiltonian approach. Many aspects of the quantum theory are determined by the quantum double of the extended homogenous Galilei group, or Galilei double for short. We study the representation theory of the Galilei double, explain how associated braid group representations account for the topological interactions in the theory, and briefly comment on an associated non-commutative Galilean spacetime.

Abstract:
We consider the deformation of the Poincar\'e group in 2+1 dimensions into the quantum double of the Lorentz group and construct Lorentz-covariant momentum-space formulations of the irreducible representations describing massive particles with spin 0, 1/2 and 1 in the deformed theory. We discuss ways of obtaining non-commutative versions of relativistic wave equations like the Klein-Gordon, Dirac and Proca equations in 2+1 dimensions by applying a suitably defined Fourier transform, and point out the relation between non-commutative Dirac equations and the exponentiated Dirac operator considered by Atiyah and Moore.

Abstract:
We study classical and quantum dynamics on the Euclidean Taub-NUT geometry coupled to an abelian gauge field with self-dual curvature and show that, even though Taub-NUT has neither bounded orbits nor quantum bound states, the magnetic binding via the gauge field produces both. The conserved Runge-Lenz vector of Taub-NUT dynamics survives, in a modified form, in the gauged model and allows for an essentially algebraic computation of classical trajectories and energies of quantum bound states. We also compute scattering cross sections and find a surprising electric-magnetic duality. Finally, we exhibit the dynamical symmetry behind the conserved Runge-Lenz and angular momentum vectors in terms of a twistorial formulation of phase space.

Abstract:
We revisit the moduli space approximation to the quantum mechanics of monopoles in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with maximal symmetry breaking. Starting with the observation that the set of fermionic zero-modes in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills-Higgs theory can be viewed as two copies of the set of fermionic zero-modes in the N=2 version, we build a model to describe the quantum mechanics of N=4 supersymmetric monopoles, based on our previous paper [1] on the N=2 case, in which this doubling of fermionic zero-modes is manifest throughout. Our final picture extends the familiar result that quantum states are described by differential forms on the moduli space and that the Hamiltonian operator is the Laplacian acting on forms. In particular, we derive a general expression for the total angular momentum operator on the moduli space which differs from the naive candidate by the adjoint action of the complex structures. We also express all the supercharges in terms of (twisted) Dolbeault operators and illustrate our results by discussing, in some detail, the N=4 supersymmetric quantum dynamics of monopoles in a theory with gauge group SU(3) broken to U(1) x U(1).

Abstract:
We use factorisations of the local isometry groups arising in 3d gravity for Lorentzian and Euclidean signatures and any value of the cosmological constant to construct associated bicrossproduct quantum groups via semidualisation. In this way we obtain quantum doubles of the Lorentz and rotation groups in 3d, as well as kappa-Poincare algebras whose associated r-matrices have spacelike, timelike and lightlike deformation parameters. We confirm and elaborate the interpretation of semiduality proposed in [13] as the exchange of the cosmological length scale and the Planck mass in the context of 3d quantum gravity. In particular, semiduality gives a simple understanding of why the quantum double of the Lorentz group and the kappa-Poincare algebra with spacelike deformation parameter are both associated to 3d gravity with vanishing cosmological constant, while the kappa-Poincare algebra with a timelike deformation parameter can only be associated to 3d gravity if one takes the Planck mass to be imaginary.

Abstract:
We present a systematic approach to the linearised Yang-Mills-Higgs equations in the background of a 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole and use it to unify and extend previous studies of their spectral properties. We show that a quaternionic formulation allows for a compact and efficient treatment of the linearised equations in the BPS limit of vanishing Higgs self-coupling, and use it to study both scattering and bound states. We focus on the sector of vanishing generalised angular momentum and analyse it numerically, putting zero-energy bound states, Coulomb bound states and infinitely many Feshbach resonances into a coherent picture. We also consider the linearised Yang-Mills-Higgs equations with non-vanishing Higgs self-coupling and confirm the occurrence of Feshbach resonances in this situation.

Abstract:
We study the interplay between double cross sum decompositions of a given Lie algebra and classical r-matrices for its semidual. For a class of Lie algebras which can be obtained by a process of generalised complexification we derive an expression for classical r-matrices of the semidual Lie bialgebra in terms of the data which determines the decomposition of the original Lie algebra. Applied to the local isometry Lie algebras arising in three-dimensional gravity, decomposition and semidualisation yields the main class of non-trivial r-matrices for the Euclidean and Poincare group in three dimensions. In addition, the construction links the r-matrices with the Bianchi classification of three dimensional real Lie algebras.

Abstract:
Inspired by soliton models, we propose a description of static particles in terms of Riemannian 4-manifolds with self-dual Weyl tensor. For electrically charged particles, the 4-manifolds are non-compact and asymptotically fibred by circles over physical 3-space. This is akin to the Kaluza-Klein description of electromagnetism, except that we exchange the roles of magnetic and electric fields, and only assume the bundle structure asymptotically, away from the core of the particle in question. We identify the Chern class of the circle bundle at infinity with minus the electric charge and the signature of the 4-manifold with the baryon number. Electrically neutral particles are described by compact 4-manifolds. We illustrate our approach by studying the Taub-NUT manifold as a model for the electron, the Atiyah-Hitchin manifold as a model for the proton, CP^2 with the Fubini-Study metric as a model for the neutron, and S^4 with its standard metric as a model for the neutrino.