oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2019 ( 594 )

2018 ( 820 )

2017 ( 753 )

2016 ( 1112 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 464293 matches for " Bernardo A. Huberman "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /464293
Display every page Item
Bootstrapping the Long Tail in Peer to Peer Systems
Bernardo A. Huberman,Fang Wu
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: We describe an efficient incentive mechanism for P2P systems that generates a wide diversity of content offerings while responding adaptively to customer demand. Files are served and paid for through a parimutuel market similar to that commonly used for betting in horse races. An analysis of the performance of such a system shows that there exists an equilibrium with a long tail in the distribution of content offerings, which guarantees the real time provision of any content regardless of its popularity.
Controlling Smart Matter
Tad Hogg,Bernardo A. Huberman
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: Smart matter consists of many sensors, computers and actuators embedded within materials. These microelectromechanical systems allow properties of the materials to be adjusted under program control. In this context, we study the behavior of several organizations for distributed control of unstable physical systems and show how a hierarchical organization is a reasonable compromise between rapid local responses with simple communication and the use of global knowledge. Using the properties of random matrices, we show that this holds not only in ideal situations but also when imperfections and delays are present in the system. We also introduce a new control organization, the multihierarchy, and show it is better than a hierarchy in achieving stability. The multihierarchy also has a position invariant response that can control disturbances at the appropriate scale and location.
Communities of Practice: Performance and Evolution
Bernardo A. Huberman,Tad Hogg
Physics , 1994,
Abstract: We present a detailed model of collaboration in communities of practice and we examine its dynamical consequences for the group as a whole. We establish the existence of a novel mechanism that allows the community to naturally adapt to growth, specialization, or changes in the environment without the need for central controls. This mechanism relies on the appearance of a dynamical instability that initates an exploration of novel interactions, eventually leading to higher performance for the community as a whole.
Optimizing Traffic Flow
Bernardo A. Huberman,Dirk Helbing
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: We present an economics-based method for deciding the optimal rates at which vehicles are allowed to enter a highway. The method exploits the naturally occuring fluctuations of traffic flow and is flexible enough to adapt in real time to the transient flow characteristics of road traffic. Simulations based on realistic parameter values show that this strategy is feasible for naturally occuring traffic, and that even far from optimality, injection policies can improve traffic flow. Our results also allow a better understanding of the high flows observed in ``synchronized'' congested traffic close to ramps.
Social Structure and Opinion Formation
Fang Wu,Bernardo A. Huberman
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: We present a dynamical theory of opinion formation that takes explicitly into account the structure of the social network in which in- dividuals are embedded. The theory predicts the evolution of a set of opinions through the social network and establishes the existence of a martingale property, i.e. that the expected weighted fraction of the population that holds a given opinion is constant in time. Most importantly, this weighted fraction is not either zero or one, but corresponds to a non-trivial distribution of opinions in the long time limit. This co-existence of opinions within a social network is in agreement with the often observed locality effect, in which an opinion or a fad is localized to given groups without infecting the whole society. We verified these predictions, as well as those concerning the fragility of opinions and the importance of highly connected individuals in opinion formation, by performing computer experiments on a number of social networks.
Coherent Moving States in Highway Traffic (Originally: Moving Like a Solid Block)
Dirk Helbing,Bernardo A. Huberman
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1038/25499
Abstract: Recent advances in multiagent simulations have made possible the study of realistic traffic patterns and allow to test theories based on driver behaviour. Such simulations also display various empirical features of traffic flows, and are used to design traffic controls that maximise the throughput of vehicles in heavily transited highways. In addition to its intrinsic economic value, vehicular traffic is of interest because it may throw light on some social phenomena where diverse individuals competitively try to maximise their own utilities under certain constraints. In this paper, we present simulation results that point to the existence of cooperative, coherent states arising from competitive interactions that lead to a new phenomenon in heterogeneous highway traffic. As the density of vehicles increases, their interactions cause a transition into a highly correlated state in which all vehicles practically move with the same speed, analogous to the motion of a solid block. This state is associated with a reduced lane changing rate and a safe, high and stable flow. It disappears as the vehicle density exceeds a critical value. The effect is observed in recent evaluations of Dutch traffic data.
Economics-Based Optimization of Unstable Flows
Bernardo A. Huberman,Dirk Helbing
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1209/epl/i1999-00372-y
Abstract: As an example for the optimization of unstable flows, we present an economics-based method for deciding the optimal rates at which vehicles are allowed to enter a highway. It exploits the naturally occuring fluctuations of traffic flow and is flexible enough to adapt in real time to the transient flow characteristics of road traffic. Simulations based on realistic parameter values show that this strategy is feasible for naturally occurring traffic, and that even far from optimality, injection policies can improve traffic flow. Moreover, the same method can be applied to the optimization of flows of gases and granular media.
Finding Communities of Related Genes
Dennis Wilkinson,Bernardo A. Huberman
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: We present an automated method of identifying communities of functionally related genes from the biomedical literature. These communities encapsulate human gene and protein interactions and identify groups of genes that are complementary in their function. We use graphs to represent the network of gene cooccurrences in articles mentioning particular keywords, and find that these graphs consist of one giant connected component and many small ones. In addition, the vertex degree distribution of the graphs follows a power law, whose exponent we determine. We then use an algorithm based on betweenness centrality to identify community structures within the giant component. The different structures are then aggregated into a final list of communities, whose members are weighted according to how strongly they belong to them. Our method is efficient enough to be applicable to the entire Medline database, and yet the information it extracts is significantly detailed, applicable to a particular problem, and interesting in and of itself. We illustrate the method in the case of colon cancer and demonstrate important features of the resulting communities.
Quantum Solution of Coordination Problems
Bernardo A. Huberman,Tad Hogg
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: We present a quantum solution to coordination problems that can be implemented with present technologies. It provides an alternative to existing approaches, which rely on explicit communication, prior commitment or trusted third parties. This quantum mechanism applies to a variety of scenarios for which existing approaches are not feasible.
Long Trend Dynamics in Social Media
Chunyan Wang,Bernardo A. Huberman
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: A main characteristic of social media is that its diverse content, copiously generated by both standard outlets and general users, constantly competes for the scarce attention of large audiences. Out of this flood of information some topics manage to get enough attention to become the most popular ones and thus to be prominently displayed as trends. Equally important, some of these trends persist long enough so as to shape part of the social agenda. How this happens is the focus of this paper. By introducing a stochastic dynamical model that takes into account the user's repeated involvement with given topics, we can predict the distribution of trend durations as well as the thresholds in popularity that lead to their emergence within social media. Detailed measurements of datasets from Twitter confirm the validity of the model and its predictions.
Page 1 /464293
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.