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The saw-tooth phenomenon on the binding energy curve of N = Z nuclei is due to the low binding energy between the α-particles. It was suspected by Gamow to be of van der Waals type, found here to be deuteron bonds. The binding energy per nucleon, in absolute value, of an α-particle is larger than any other combination of 4 nucleons. Therefore, the binding energy per nucleon is low for odd-odd N = Z nuclei and maximum for even-even N = Z nuclei. The assumption of N = Z nuclei to be an assembly of α-particles and deuteron bonds predicts the binding energy of the 32 first N = Z nuclei with a rms deviation of 0.25 MeV.
Most periodic tables of the chemical elements are
between 96% and 100% in accord with quantum mechanics. Three elements only do
not fit correctly into the official tables, in disagreement with the spherical
harmonics and the Pauli exclusion principle. Helium, belonging to the s-block,
should be placed beside hydrogen in the s-block instead of the p-block.
Lutetium and lawrencium belonging to the d-block of the
transition metals should not be in the f-block of the
lanthanides or the actinoids. With these slight modifications, the IUPAC table
becomes quantum mechanics consistent.
in the population has become of great interest within the past decade,
particularly in the wake of the school massacre in Columbine and the recent movie theatre mass murder in Aurora, Colorado. While citizens struggle to make sense
of these violent behaviors, higher
education officials are perhaps most vested in exploring the causes,
displays, and solutions to uncivil behavior among both faculty and students.
The effects of incivility, whether classified as minor disruptions or major
violence, may affect the student nurse and impede his or her progress and
ability to become an empathic nurse, which is a goal of nursing education. Academic incivility may contribute to bullying in the workplace, which has been identified as a cause of attrition and contributes to the national nursing shortage. This article describes the effects of uncivil behavior on
nursing faculty and students and the effect this may have on the nursing
The one million times ratio between nuclear and chemical energies is generally attributed to a mysterious strong force, still unknown after one century of nuclear physics. It is now time to reconsider from the beginning the assumptions used, mainly the uncharged neutron and the orbital motion of the nucleons. Except for the long range Coulomb repulsion, the electric and magnetic Coulomb’s forces between adjoining nucleons are generally assumed to be negligible in the atomic nucleus by the nuclear specialists. The Schrodinger equation with a centrifugal force as in the Bohr model of the atom is unable to predict the binding energy of a nucleus. In contrast, the attractive electric and repulsive magnetic Coulomb forces alone explain quantitatively the binding energies of hydrogen and helium isotopes. For the first time, with analytical formulas, the precision varies between 1 and 30 percent without fitting, adjustment, correction or estimation, proving the electromagnetic nature of the nuclear energy.