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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5502 matches for " Bernard Schaeffer "
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Pairing Effect on the Binding Energy Curve of N = Z Atomic Nuclei  [PDF]
Bernard Schaeffer
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2013.33013

The saw-tooth phenomenon on the binding energy curve of N = Z nuclei is due to the low binding energy between the α-particles. It was suspected by Gamow to be of van der Waals type, found here to be deuteron bonds. The binding energy per nucleon, in absolute value, of an α-particle is larger than any other combination of 4 nucleons. Therefore, the binding energy per nucleon is low for odd-odd N = Z nuclei and maximum for even-even N = Z nuclei. The assumption of N = Z nuclei to be an assembly of α-particles and deuteron bonds predicts the binding energy of the 32 first N = Z nuclei with a rms deviation of 0.25 MeV.

IUPAC Periodic Table Quantum Mechanics Consistent  [PDF]
Bernard Schaeffer
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.53020

Most periodic tables of the chemical elements are between 96% and 100% in accord with quantum mechanics. Three elements only do not fit correctly into the official tables, in disagreement with the spherical harmonics and the Pauli exclusion principle. Helium, belonging to the s-block, should be placed beside hydrogen in the s-block instead of the p-block. Lutetium and lawrencium belonging to the d-block of the transition metals should not be in the f-block of the lanthanides or the actinoids. With these slight modifications, the IUPAC table becomes quantum mechanics consistent.

Electromagnetic Schrödinger Equation of the Deuteron 2H (Heavy Hydrogen)  [PDF]
Bernard Schaeffer
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2014.44029
Abstract: The binding energy of the deuteron is calculated electromagnetically with the Schrödinger equation. In mainstream nuclear physics, the only known Coulomb force is the repulsion between protons, inexistent in the deuteron. It is ignored that a proton attracts a neutron containing electric charges with no net charge and that the magnetic moments of the nucleons interact together significantly. A static equilibrium exists in the deuteron between the electrostatic attraction and the magnetic repulsion. The Heitler equation of the hydrogen atom has been adapted to its nucleus where the centrifugal force is replaced by the magnetic repulsive force, solved graphically, by trial and error, without fit to experiment. As by chance, one obtains, at the lowest horizontal inflection point, with a few percent precision, the experimental value of the deuteron binding energy. This success, never obtained elsewhere, proves the purely static and electromagnetic nature of the nuclear energy.
Anomalous Rutherford Scattering Solved Magnetically  [PDF]
Bernard Schaeffer
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2016.62010
Abstract: After one century of nuclear physics, the anomalous Rutherford scattering remains a puzzle: its underlying fundamental laws are still missing. The only presently recognized electromagnetic interaction in a nucleus is the so-called Coulomb electric force, in 1/r, only positive thus repulsive in official nuclear physics, explaining the Rutherford scattering at low kinetic energy of the impacting alpha particles. At high kinetic energy the Rutherford scattering formula doesn’t work, thus called “anomalous scattering”. I have discovered that, to solve the problem, it needs only to replace, at high kinetic energy, the Coulomb repulsive electric potential in 1/r, by the also repulsive magnetic Poisson potential in 1/r3. In log-log coordinates, one observes two straight lines of slopes, respectively ?2 and ?6. They correspond with the ?1 and ?3 exponents of the only repulsive electric and magnetic interactions, multiplied by 2 due to the cross-sections. Both Rutherford (normal and anomalous) scattering have been calculated electromagnetically. No attractive force needed.
Electromagnetic Theory of the Nuclear Interaction  [PDF]
Bernard Schaeffer
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2016.64021
Abstract: After one century of nuclear physics, its underlying fundamental laws remain a puzzle. Rutherford scattering is well known to be electric at low kinetic energy. Nobody noticed that the Rutherford scattering formula works also at high kinetic energy, needing only to replace the repulsive electric -2 exponent by the also repulsive magnetic -6 exponent. A proton attracts a not so neutral neutron as amber attracts dust. The nucleons have magnetic moments that interact as magnets, equilibrating statically the electric attraction between a proton and a not so neutral neutron. In this paper, the electromagnetic potential energies of the deuteron 2H and the α particle 4He have been calculated statically, using only electromagnetic fundamental laws and constants. Nuclear scattering and binding energy are both electromagnetic.
Ab Initio Calculation of 2H and 4He Binding Energies  [PDF]
B. Schaeffer
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.311210
Abstract: The binding energies of all hydrogen isotopes have been calculated successfully for the first time in a previous paper [J Fusion Energy, 30 (2011) 377], using only the electric and magnetic Coulomb’s laws, without using the hypothetical shell model of the nucleus and its mysterious strong force. In this paper, an elementary calculation gives the order of magnitude of the nuclear interaction. The binding energies of the deuteron and the alpha particle are then calculated by taking into account the proton induced electric dipole in the neutron. The large binding energy per nucleon of 4He, as compared to that of 2H, has been explained by a larger electric attraction combined with a lower magnetic repulsion. The binding energies have been calculated without fitting, using only fundamental laws and constants, proving that the nuclear interaction is only electromagnetic.
The effects of incivility on nursing education  [PDF]
Amy Schaeffer
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.32023

Incivility in the population has become of great interest within the past decade, particularly in the wake of the school massacre in Columbine and the recent movie theatre mass murder in Aurora, Colorado. While citizens struggle to make sense of these violent behaviors, higher education officials are perhaps most vested in exploring the causes, displays, and solutions to uncivil behavior among both faculty and students. The effects of incivility, whether classified as minor disruptions or major violence, may affect the student nurse and impede his or her progress and ability to become an empathic nurse, which is a goal of nursing education. Academic incivility may contribute to bullying in the workplace, which has been identified as a cause of attrition and contributes to the national nursing shortage. This article describes the effects of uncivil behavior on nursing faculty and students and the effect this may have on the nursing workforce.

Electromagnetic Nature of Nuclear Energy: Application to H and He Isotopes  [PDF]
B. Schaeffer
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2013.32A001

The one million times ratio between nuclear and chemical energies is generally attributed to a mysterious strong force, still unknown after one century of nuclear physics. It is now time to reconsider from the beginning the assumptions used, mainly the uncharged neutron and the orbital motion of the nucleons. Except for the long range Coulomb repulsion, the electric and magnetic Coulombs forces between adjoining nucleons are generally assumed to be negligible in the atomic nucleus by the nuclear specialists. The Schrodinger equation with a centrifugal force as in the Bohr model of the atom is unable to predict the binding energy of a nucleus. In contrast, the attractive electric and repulsive magnetic Coulomb forces alone explain quantitatively the binding energies of hydrogen and helium isotopes. For the first time, with analytical formulas, the precision varies between 1 and 30 percent without fitting, adjustment, correction or estimation, proving the electromagnetic nature of the nuclear energy.

Evaluation of Contact Pressure in Bending under Tension Test by a Pressure Sensitive Film  [PDF]
Luis Fernando Folle, Lirio Schaeffer
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2016.64018
Abstract: The contact pressure acting on the sheet/tools interface has been studied because of growing the concern about the wear of tools. Recent studies make use of numerical simulation software to evaluate and correlate this pressure with the friction and wear generated. Since there are many studies that determine the coefficient of friction in sheet metal forming by bending under tension (BUT) test, the contact pressure between the pin and the sheet was measured using a film that has the ability to record the applied pressure. The vertical force applied to pin was also measured. The results indicate that the vertical force is more accurate to set the contact pressure that using equations predetermined. It was also observed that the contact area between the sheet and the pin is always smaller than the area calculated geometrically. The friction coefficient was determined for the BUT test through several equations proposed by various authors in order to check if there is much variation between the results. It was observed that the friction coefficient showed little variation for each equation, and each one can be used. The material used was the commercially pure aluminum, alloy Al1100.
Equiurídeos da Ilha Grande (Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil)
Schaeffer, Yara;
Boletim do Instituto Oceanográfico , 1972, DOI: 10.1590/S0373-55241972000100004
Abstract: the present paper presents observations on the ecology and systematics of the echiurida from una grande, rio de janeiro state, brazil. some hydrographic data like salinity, temperature, oxygen conten t and mean size of the sediment granulometry (?) are correlated with the occurrence of the echiurida. a new species, thalassema liliae is described. lissomyema exilii (f. müller) is recorded for the first time in this area. the zoogeographic distribution of the family echiurida is also given.
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