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A critique of black-hole-black-body radiation, black-hole
thermodynamics, entropy bounds, inflation cosmology, and the lack of
gravitational aberration is presented. With the exception of the last topic,
the common thread is the misuse of entropy and, consequently, the second law.
Hawking’s derivation of the entropy loss due to black hole emission rests on
Kirchhoff’s radiation law which equates the rates of absorption and emission of
energy in any given frequency interval. Black-body radiation cannot, therefore,
be used as a mechanism for black-hole evaporation. A derivation of the Planck
factor from an exponential Doppler shift shows why the temperature cannot be
proportional to the acceleration; accelerations do not cause Doppler shifts.
Inflationary cosmology is based on a misconception that the adiabatic condition
of Einstein’s equations hold, and, yet, there can be an enormous increase in
the entropy. The cause for the increase is a negative pressure which
contradicts the thermodynamic definition of positive pressure as the derivative
of the entropy with respect to the volume times the temperature: Increases in
volume cause corresponding increases in the entropy. A first-order phase
transition cannot occur under adiabatic conditions, cannot generate entropy,
and the latent heat cannot be used to reheat the universe. Finally, a negative
pressure is invoked to explain the absence of gravitational aberration,
assuming that gravity propagates at the speed of light.
It is the only physical theory of
universal content which I am convinced will never be overthrown, within the framwork of applicability of its basic concepts.
Albert Einstein on Thermodynamics