oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2019 ( 15 )

2018 ( 15 )

2017 ( 21 )

2016 ( 23 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5339 matches for " Bernard Gutin "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /5339
Display every page Item
A 10-Month Physical Activity Intervention Improves Body Composition in Young Black Boys
Cheryl A. Howe,Ryan A. Harris,Bernard Gutin
Journal of Obesity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/358581
Abstract: Objective. To determine if a 10-month after-school physical activity (PA) intervention could prevent deleterious changes in body composition and cardiovascular (CV) fitness in young black boys. Methods. Following baseline measures, 106 boys (8–12 yrs) were randomized to either a control group or an intervention group, further divided into attenders (ATT) and nonattenders (NATT), participating in ≥60% or <60% of the intervention, respectively. The daily intervention consisted of skills development (25 min), vigorous PA (VPA, 35 min), and strengthening/stretching (20 min) components. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Following the intervention, the ATT exhibited an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA and a significant reduction in BMI, fat mass, and %BF compared to the control group. A significant association among the intervention energy expenditure and changes in body composition and CV fitness was observed only in the ATT group. Conclusion. An after-school PA program of sufficient length and intensity can promote healthy changes in body composition and fitness levels in black boys who attend at least 3 days/week.
Relations of diet and physical activity to bone mass and height in black and white adolescents
Bernard Gutin,Inger Stallmann-Jorgensen,Anh Le,Maribeth Johnson
Pediatric Reports , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/pr.2011.e10
Abstract: Because the development of healthy bodies during the years of growth has life-long health consequences, it is important to understand the early influences of diet and physical activity (PA). One way to generate hypotheses concerning such influences is to conduct cross-sectional studies of how diet and PA are related to different components of body composition. The subjects were 660 black and white adolescents. Total body bone mineral content (BMC) was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; free-living diet and PA were assessed with 4-7 separate 24-h recalls. The main dietary variables investigated were: total energy intake, macronutrient distribution (%), dairy servings, vitamin D, and calcium. The main PA variables were hours of moderate PA (3-6 METs) and vigorous PA (>6 METs). BMC was higher in blacks than in whites (P<0.01) and it increased more in boys than in girls (age by sex interaction) as age increased (P<0.01). After adjustment for age, race and sex, higher levels of BMC were associated with higher levels of energy intake, dairy servings, calcium, vitamin D, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.05). In the multivariable model, significant and independent proportions of the variance in BMC were explained by race, the age by sex interaction, calcium, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.01). When height was used as the outcome variable, similar diet results were obtained; however, there was a sex by vigorous PA interaction, such that vigorous PA was associated with height only in the girls. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the bone mass and height of growing youths are positively influenced by higher dietary intake of energy and dairy foods, along with sufficient amounts of vigorous PA. This hypothesis needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials.
A 10-Month Physical Activity Intervention Improves Body Composition in Young Black Boys
Cheryl A. Howe,Ryan A. Harris,Bernard Gutin
Journal of Obesity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/358581
Abstract: Objective. To determine if a 10-month after-school physical activity (PA) intervention could prevent deleterious changes in body composition and cardiovascular (CV) fitness in young black boys. Methods. Following baseline measures, 106 boys (8–12 yrs) were randomized to either a control group or an intervention group, further divided into attenders (ATT) and nonattenders (NATT), participating in ≥60% or <60% of the intervention, respectively. The daily intervention consisted of skills development (25?min), vigorous PA (VPA, 35?min), and strengthening/stretching (20?min) components. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Following the intervention, the ATT exhibited an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA and a significant reduction in BMI, fat mass, and %BF compared to the control group. A significant association among the intervention energy expenditure and changes in body composition and CV fitness was observed only in the ATT group. Conclusion. An after-school PA program of sufficient length and intensity can promote healthy changes in body composition and fitness levels in black boys who attend at least 3 days/week. 1. Introduction The prevalence of childhood obesity has more than tripled over the past three decades. The latest NHANES data (2003–2006) revealed that approximately 35% of 6–11-year-old children are classified as “overweight” or “obese” [1, 2]. This level of obesity in children begets risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic diseases. Approximately 25% of obese children have 2 CVD risk factors [3, 4] and more than 45% of newly diagnosed pediatric diabetes cases are classified as “adult-onset” type 2 diabetes [4–7]. This alarming evidence has pushed the prevention of childhood obesity to the forefront of today’s scientific research. This study also reveals that although childhood obesity knows no gender or racial boundary, the rates of obesity are more prevalent in some minority populations. In the 69,000 children (5–17 years) measured across the United States, a significantly higher prevalence of overweight or obesity was reported in black children compared to White, Hispanic- or other minority children- and boys were reported to have a higher prevalence of obesity compared to girls. Studies have shown that childhood obesity equates over time to as little as a 2% imbalance between daily energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) [8]. This small positive imbalance can be abated with an increase in regular physical activity (PA). Population-based objective measures of children’s PA
Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Young Black Girls: Relations to Body Fatness and Aerobic Fitness, and Effects of a Randomized Physical Activity Trial
Bernard Gutin,Ryan A. Harris,Cheryl A. Howe,Maribeth H. Johnson,Haidong Zhu,Yanbin Dong
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/219268
Abstract: There is little evidence from randomized trials showing that physical activity alone influences biomarker profiles in youths. This study tested two hypotheses: (i) that elevated body fatness and poor fitness would be associated with unfavorable levels of cardiometabolic biomarkers in 8–12-y-old black girls (=242) and (ii) that a 10-mo PA intervention would have favorable effects on the fatness-related cardiometabolic biomarkers. At baseline, all fatness indices (i.e., percent body fat, visceral adipose tissue, BMI, and waist circumference) were significantly (<0.05) associated with unfavorable levels of insulin, glucose, systolic BP, diastolic BP, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen. Aerobic fitness was significantly (<0.05) associated with favorable levels of insulin, CRP, fibrinogen, and HDL2. The PA intervention had significant and favorable effects on fitness, fatness, and two biomarkers—resting heart rate and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to clarify what types of interventions can enhance the cardiometabolic health of youths.
FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth
Gaifen Liu, Haidong Zhu, Vasiliki Lagou, Bernard Gutin, Inger S Stallmann-Jorgensen, Frank A Treiber, Yanbin Dong, Harold Snieder
BMC Medical Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-11-57
Abstract: We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years) had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical activity were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was also measured by accelerometry.FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.01), weight (P = 0.03) and waist circumference (P = 0.04), with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05), or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical activity (P > 0.05). No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical activity were observed (P > 0.05).The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity.Obesity is becoming an increasingly important clinical and public health challenge worldwide and is associated with several comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and certain forms of cancer [1-3]. Obesity results from the combined effects of genes, environment and life style[4]. In this context, an understanding of the effects of life style and genes on obesity and also their interactions is important to provide a basis for determining the role they could have on the development and prevention of obesity.Lifestyle factors, including diet and physical inactivity, are important contributors to weight gain and o
Note on edge-colored graphs and digraphs without properly colored cycles
Gregory Gutin
Computer Science , 2007,
Abstract: We study the following two functions: d(n,c) and $\vec{d}(n,c)$; d(n,c) ($\vec{d}(n,c)$) is the minimum number k such that every c-edge-colored undirected (directed) graph of order n and minimum monochromatic degree (out-degree) at least k has a properly colored cycle. Abouelaoualim et al. (2007) stated a conjecture which implies that d(n,c)=1. Using a recursive construction of c-edge-colored graphs with minimum monochromatic degree p and without properly colored cycles, we show that $d(n,c)\ge {1 \over c}(\log_cn -\log_c\log_cn)$ and, thus, the conjecture does not hold. In particular, this inequality significantly improves a lower bound on $\vec{d}(n,2)$ obtained by Gutin, Sudakov and Yeo in 1998.
Note on Perfect Forests
Gregory Gutin
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: A spanning subgraph $F$ of a graph $G$ is called perfect if $F$ is a forest, the degree $d_F(x)$ of each vertex $x$ in $F$ is odd, and each tree of $F$ is an induced subgraph of $G$. We provide a short proof of the following theorem of A.D. Scott (Graphs & Combin., 2001): a connected graph $G$ contains a perfect forest if and only if $G$ has an even number of vertices.
Obesity related methylation changes in DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes
Xiaoling Wang, Haidong Zhu, Harold Snieder, Shaoyong Su, David Munn, Gregory Harshfield, Bernard L Maria, Yanbin Dong, Frank Treiber, Bernard Gutin, Huidong Shi
BMC Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-8-87
Abstract: We conducted a genome wide methylation analysis on seven obese cases and seven lean controls aged 14 to 18 years from extreme ends of the obesity distribution and performed further validation of six CpG sites from six genes in 46 obese cases and 46 lean controls aged 14 to 30 years.In comparison with the lean controls, we observed one CpG site in the UBASH3A gene showing higher methylation levels and one CpG site in the TRIM3 gene showing lower methylation levels in the obese cases in both the genome wide step (P = 5 × 10-6 and P = 2 × 10-5 for the UBASH3A and the TRIM3 gene respectively) and the validation step (P = 0.008 and P = 0.001 for the UBASH3A and the TRIM3 gene respectively).Our results provide evidence that obesity is associated with methylation changes in blood leukocyte DNA. Further studies are warranted to determine the causal direction of this relationship as well as whether such methylation changes can lead to immune dysfunction.See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/8/88/abstract webciteObesity is the epidemic of our time, with sharply and steadily rising rates [1,2]. The major adverse consequences of obesity including type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis and essential hypertension, when added together, account for a large number of disease related deaths [3,4]. If the obesity-related cancer cases are added to this number, obesity-related mortality by far exceeds that of other common diseases [5]. The latter indicates the urgent need to develop novel efficient therapeutic modalities for this condition.The common denominator in the pathogenesis of the co-morbidities of obesity is the presence of an active, low-grade inflammatory process [6]. Despite evidence linking obesity to alterations in inflammatory response, little is known about the specific effects of obesity on the immune system. Recently, there has been a greater appreciation of the role of epigenetics, meiotically and mitotically heritable changes in gene expression that are no
Hypercontractive Inequality for Pseudo-Boolean Functions of Bounded Fourier Width
Gregory Gutin,Anders Yeo
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: A function $f:\ \{-1,1\}^n\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is called pseudo-Boolean. It is well-known that each pseudo-Boolean function $f$ can be written as $f(x)=\sum_{I\in {\cal F}}\hat{f}(I)\chi_I(x),$ where ${\cal F}\subseteq \{I:\ I\subseteq [n]\}$, $[n]=\{1,2,...,n\}$, and $\chi_I(x)=\prod_{i\in I}x_i$ and $\hat{f}(I)$ are non-zero reals. The degree of $f$ is $\max \{|I|:\ I\in {\cal F}\}$ and the width of $f$ is the minimum integer $\rho$ such that every $i\in [n]$ appears in at most $\rho$ sets in $\cal F$. For $i\in [n]$, let $\mathbf{x}_i$ be a random variable taking values 1 or -1 uniformly and independently from all other variables $\mathbf{x}_j$, $j\neq i.$ Let $\mathbf{x}=(\mathbf{x}_1,...,\mathbf{x}_n)$. The $p$-norm of $f$ is $||f||_p=(\mathbb E[|f(\mathbf{x})|^p])^{1/p}$ for any $p\ge 1$. It is well-known that $||f||_q\ge ||f||_p$ whenever $q> p\ge 1$. However, the higher norm can be bounded by the lower norm times a coefficient not directly depending on $f$: if $f$ is of degree $d$ and $q> p>1$ then $ ||f||_q\le (\frac{q-1}{p-1})^{d/2}||f||_p.$ This inequality is called the Hypercontractive Inequality. We show that one can replace $d$ by $\rho$ in the Hypercontractive Inequality for each $q> p\ge 2$ as follows: $ ||f||_q\le ((2r)!\rho^{r-1})^{1/(2r)}||f||_p,$ where $r=\lceil q/2\rceil$. For the case $q=4$ and $p=2$, which is important in many applications, we prove a stronger inequality: $ ||f||_4\le (2\rho+1)^{1/4}||f||_2.$
A Memetic Algorithm for the Multidimensional Assignment Problem
Gregory Gutin,Daniel Karapetyan
Computer Science , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-03751-1_12
Abstract: The Multidimensional Assignment Problem (MAP or s-AP in the case of s dimensions) is an extension of the well-known assignment problem. The most studied case of MAP is 3-AP, though the problems with larger values of s have also a number of applications. In this paper we propose a memetic algorithm for MAP that is a combination of a genetic algorithm with a local search procedure. The main contribution of the paper is an idea of dynamically adjusted generation size, that yields an outstanding flexibility of the algorithm to perform well for both small and large fixed running times. The results of computational experiments for several instance families show that the proposed algorithm produces solutions of very high quality in a reasonable time and outperforms the state-of-the art 3-AP memetic algorithm.
Page 1 /5339
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.