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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5972 matches for " Bernard Durand "
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Le droit des missions aux colonies : une affaire patrimoniale ? Missionary law in the colonies : a patrimonial affair ?
Bernard Durand
Cahiers d'études du Religieux , 2008, DOI: 10.4000/cerri.259
Abstract: Rarement de la compétence du législateur métropolitain, sinon à appliquer les solutions arrêtées sous le régime du concordat, souvent abandonné au législateur local et encore plus souvent laissé à l’état de fait ?, le droit des missions dans les colonies, lorsque s’engage la question des liens entre église et état sous la IIIe République, accuse des traits originaux. Au-delà des interrogations relatives aux autorisations, à la police des cultes, aux immeubles affectés aux cultes, revient de fa on répétée la question du droit de propriété reconnu aux missions. Procès, transactions, arrangements, conflits font se rencontrer le Domaine et les missions devant un juge le plus souvent embarrassé pour dire le droit. Faut-il en conclure que les difficultés d’introduire les lois de 1901, 1904, 1905 se marient avec celles lancinantes de l’introduction d’un régime du droit des biens, tout aussi difficile à dessiner ? C’est l’hypothèse à présenter. Missionary law in the colonies, when seen in the context of the relationships between Church and State under the Third Republic, has many original features : it rarely entered the sphere of action of metropolitan lawyers (who simply applied the solutions adopted under the Concordat regime). Local lawyers were often left to deal with it, when anything happened at all. Beyond issues such as the control of worship (for example, the authorisations that were granted, or the buildings that were especially designated, to conduct worship), the question of the property rights of the mission returned time and again. Through lawsuits, transactions, settlements and conflicts, we witness how the colonial Domain and the ‘missions’ met before a judge who, most of the time, was embarrassed to adjudicate. Can we then conclude that the difficulties encountered in introducing the laws of 1901, 1904 and 1905 are tied to the repeated difficulties to introduce property law—which is just as problematic to define ? This is the hypothesis that we will present.
Thermal Activation of Asymetrical Composites for Vibration Control  [PDF]
Axel Imbert, Gildas L’Hostis, David Rigel Rigel, Fabrice Laurent, Bernard Durand
Modern Mechanical Engineering (MME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/mme.2013.33A001

The CBCM (Controlled Behaviour Composite Material) is a thermal active composite, which has been developed for morphing applications. The thermal activation is made by a source of heating generated within the composite structure. The coupling between the induced thermal field and the thermomechanical properties of the various components of the composite structure leads to the change of the structure shape. The heat source is generated by Joule effect, Carbon yarns inserted in the composite, are connected to a power supply. The application field of CBCM technology is the domain of shape modification and active assembly. The objective of this work is to illustrate the capabilities of CBCM in the domain of vibration control. We will study several reference plates with different constitution. The influences of these different constitutions, of the CBCM effect and the loss of stiffness for the matrix will be highlighted, for two boundary conditions, free/free and embedded/embedded.

Substitutional dynamical systems, Bratteli diagrams and dimension groups
Fabien Durand,Bernard Host,Christian Skau
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: The present paper explores substitution minimal systems and their relation to stationary Bratteli diagrams and stationary dimension groups. The constructions involved are algorithmic and explicit, and render an effective method to compute an invariant of (ordered) $K$-theoretic nature for these systems. This new invariant is independent of spectral invariants which have previously been extensively studied. Before we state the main results we give some background.
Thermaly Active Structures for Shape Morphing Applications
Gildas L'Hostis,Karine Buet-Gautier,Bernard Durand
Smart Materials Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/530217
Abstract: For shape morphing application, thermal activation coupling to a bimetallic strip effect can be a substitute for classical actuators, piezoelectrical or shape memory alloys. The controlled behaviour of composite material (CBCM) is a thermaly activated composite material. The thermal activation is made thanks to carbon yarns which are connected to a power supply. If the anisotropy of the structure is well organized, the desired deformation is reached when the temperature within the composite is rising. To obtain a CBCM morphing composite structure, it is necessary to design a specific structure. The aim of this work is to show that it is possible to adapt the CBCM principle in order to transform any kind of classical composite structure to an active structure. The first part of this work consists in presenting the experimental results for two examples of composite beams. The second part is about the active structure FEM modeling and the development of adapted tools for this particular design. 1. Introduction Because of their capacity of actuation, morphing structures are used to simplify mechanisms by reducing the number of moving parts. Three main actuation technologies are commonly used: piezoelectricity, shape memory alloys, or thermal effect. In the case of a structure with bistable effect, these technologies are used to activate the shape changing by piezoactuation [1–3], SMA actuation [4–6], and thermal actuation [7–9]. The field of applications for bistable structures is limited because they have only two positions of stability witch are not adjustable and link to the structure geometry. In the case of standard not bistable composite structures, the main problem is the link between the composite and the actuator. Many works can be found with SMA [10, 11] actuators or piezoactuators like macro-fiber composite (MFC) [12, 13], but the interface strength between the actuator and the composite plays a crucial role in the time life of the structure that is a limit especially when the rigidity of the composite structure is high. To overcome problems of bonding between the actuator and the structure, the bimetallic strip effect coupled to an internal thermal actuation can be a solution. Indeed the whole structure can be considered as an actuator, and the problems of interface decohesion are not concentrated at the interface actuator/structure but distributed all along the interfaces of the laminate composite. Controlled behaviour composite material (CBCM) [14–18] is a thermal actuator developed ten years ago. There are two different ways to use the CBCM
BaTiO3 thick lms obtained by tape casting from powders prepared by the oxalate route
Adelina Ianculescu,Sophie Guillemet-Fritsch,Bernard Durand
Processing and Application of Ceramics , 2009,
Abstract: BaTiO3 powders were prepared by co-precipitation via oxalate route. The size, morphology and particle size distribution of the oxalate powders have been optimized by the control of different synthesis parameters during the precipitation reaction (nature of salts, concentration of different solutions, aging time). The single phase BaTiO3 oxide particles were obtained after a thermal decomposition of the as-synthesized powders at 850°C for 4 hours under air atmosphere. Oxide powders with a suitable speci c surface area were selected in order to obtain thick lms by the tape casting technique. The microstructure and dielectric properties of the thick lms varied obviously depending on the deposition-calcination-sintering cycle used. A double depositioncalcination cycle followed by sintering, as well as a two step deposition-calcination-sintering procedure was used in order to improve the compactness and therefore, the dielectric behaviour. A higher dielectric constant value (~ 750) and lower dielectric losses (~ 2 %) were achieved at room temperature and at 1 kHz frequency for the dense, double-deposited lm obtained after two deposition-calcination-sintering cycles. For this lm, a superior value of the dielectric constant (~ 1100), almost frequency independent in the frequency range of 100 Hz – 10 kHz was gained also at the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperature of 130°C.
Thermally Activated Composite with Two-Way and Multi-Shape Memory Effects
Abdul Basit,Gildas L'Hostis,Marie José Pac,Bernard Durand
Materials , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ma6094031
Abstract: The use of shape memory polymer composites is growing rapidly in smart structure applications. In this work, an active asymmetric composite called “controlled behavior composite material (CBCM)” is used as shape memory polymer composite. The programming and the corresponding initial fixity of the composite structure is obtained during a bending test, by heating CBCM above thermal glass transition temperature of the used Epoxy polymer. The shape memory properties of these composites are investigated by a bending test. Three types of recoveries are conducted,?two classical recovery tests: unconstrained recovery and constrained recovery, and a new test of partial recovery under load. During recovery, high recovery displacement and force are produced that enables the composite to perform strong two-way actuations along with multi-shape memory effect. The recovery force confirms full recovery with two-way actuation even under a high load. This unique property of CBCM is characterized by the recovered mechanical work.
Continuous and measurable eigenfunctions of linearly recurrent dynamical Cantor systems
Maria Isabel Cortez,Fabien Durand,Bernard Host,Alejandro Maass
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: The class of linearly recurrent Cantor systems contains the substitution subshifts and some odometers. For substitution subshifts and odometers measure--theoretical and continuous eigenvalues are the same. It is natural to ask whether this rigidity property remains true for the class of linearly recurrent Cantor systems. We give partial answers to this question.
System adjustment for targeted performance combining symbolic regression and set inversion
Abdelouahab Kenoufi,Jean-Fran?ois Osselin,Bernard Durand
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: One presents methodology and algorithms to prepare a causal system in order to achieve desired performances if only input-output data are known and when no other informations are available. This can be done with mean of evolutionnary programming and set inversion methods, such as PSI-algorithm or SIvIA.
Challenges Associated with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy for Metastatic Thyroid Cancer
Maria E. Cabanillas,Mimi I. Hu,Jean-Bernard Durand,Naifa L. Busaidy
Journal of Thyroid Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/985780
Abstract: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) which target angiogenesis are promising treatments for patients with metastatic medullary and differentiated thyroid cancers. Sorafenib, sunitinib, and pazopanib are commercially available drugs which have been studied in these diseases. Vandetanib is the first drug approved in the United States for treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. These TKIs are used as chronic therapies, and therefore it is imperative to understand the adverse event profile in order to avoid excessive toxicity and maintain patients on therapy as long as it proves beneficial. Here we review common toxicities, management of these, and other challenging situations that arise when using TKIs in patients with thyroid cancer. 1. Introduction Thyroid cancer is now the 5th most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and 9th in overall incidence in the United States; however, fewer than 2000 people die per year of their disease and mortality rates have remained fairly stable for the past several decades [1]. The most common form of thyroid cancer, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), is derived from the follicular cells of the thyroid, and it includes papillary and follicular thyroid cancers. While most patients are cured or have indolent disease, a small percentage develop metastases that no longer respond to treatment with radioactive iodine or TSH suppressive therapy. Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts for only about 2-3% of thyroid cancers and is derived from the neuroendocrine “C” cells of the thyroid gland. The only treatment with curative intent for medullary thyroid carcinoma is complete surgical resection. Therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has only recently been studied in thyroid cancer. The discovery that BRAF (in papillary and anaplastic thyroid cancers) and RET (in MTC) mutations, as well as angiogenesis, play a significant role in tumorigenesis in DTC and MTC led to several clinical trials over the past decade with multikinase inhibitors. For purposes of this paper, TKIs refer to small molecule drugs, which target multiple pathways, including, but are not limited to, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). Sorafenib, sunitinib, and pazopanib are three commercially available TKIs which have shown favorable results in phase II trials in DTC [2–4]. Although these small trials have reported favorable responses, at this time, there are no published results of large phase III trials in DTC. Favorable results of a phase III, randomization study of vandetanib versus placebo in MTC have been reported [5]; however, it is
Impact of Cardiac Computed Tomographic Angiography Findings on Planning of Cancer Therapy in Patients with Concomitant Structural Heart Disease
Iyad N. Daher,Jose Banchs,Syed Wamique Yusuf,Elie Mouhayar,Jean-Bernard Durand,Gregory Gladish
Cardiology Research and Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/268058
Abstract: Background. Exclusion of underlying coronary artery disease (CAD) is essential in the diagnosis of chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. Presence and severity of CAD can also impact the choice of therapy in cancer patients. The value of cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in this setting has not been reported. Methods. We collected data on the clinical presentation and indications for CCTA performed from January to December 2008 at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC). All examinations were performed using a 64-detector scanner. CCTA results and subsequent treatment decisions were examined. Results. A total of 80 patients underwent CCTA during the study period for the following indications (not mutually exclusive): cardiomyopathy of unknown etiology in 33 pts (41.3%), chest pain in 32 (40.0%), abnormal stress test in 16 (20.0%), abnormal cardiac markers in 8 (10.0%), suspected cardiac mass or thrombus in 7 (8.8%). Chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy was diagnosed in 18 pts (22.5%). Severe CAD was detected in 22 pts (27.5%); due to concomitant advanced cancer or patient refusal, only 12 underwent coronary angiogram. Of these, 4?pts (5% of total) underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. A total of 41 pts (51.3%) had their cancer management altered based on CCTA findings. Conclusion. CCTA is useful in evaluating cancer pts with structural heart disease and can have an impact on the management of cancer and cardiac disease. 1. Introduction Suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with a concurrent malignancy greatly impacts prognosis and treatment decisions. Faced with both diseases, appropriate prioritization of care is needed, as some cancer treatments may be cardiotoxic [1] or lead to blood dyscrasias that could discourage the use of commonly prescribed cardiac medications, such as aspirin or heparin products. On the other hand, planning of cardiac invasive testing requires clinicians to take into account cancer status and possible delays in care. Noninvasive coronary anatomical imaging could therefore help with accurate treatment planning prior to using invasive strategies. Exclusion of significant obstructive CAD in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and a prior history of exposure to cardiotoxic chemotherapy agents are both needed for the diagnosis of chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy (CIC) [2]. In addition, some cancer patients presenting with other findings suggestive of structural heart disease may need an accurate anatomical coronary evaluation. While invasive coronary angiography (ICA)
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