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VALORACIóN DE MICRONUTRIENTES EN POBLACIóN DE ADULTOS JóVENES DEL ESTADO LARA VENEZUELA
Papale, Jham Frank,Mendoza Norelis,Berné Yelitza,Rodríguez Diolisbeth
Salud, Arte y Cuidado , 2011,
Abstract: The studies about the determination of the micronutrients copper, zinc and iron that carry out important functions in a variation of biological processes like the intermediary metabolism, cellular proliferation, oxygen transportation and storage, and in the oxide-reduction processes in developing countries with high levels of malnutrition are important. The aim of this research was to determine the serum levels of copper, zinc, iron and hemoglobin in a population of health adults. The sample was made up of 112 subjects (M: 55; F: 57) aged 17-42 yr. The micronutrients were determined by atomic-absorption flame photometry and the hemoglobin using a Coulter ACT-8. The values of copper, zinc, iron and hemoglobin obtained were, respectively, 1.04±0,20 ug/mL, 0,99 ± 0,14 ug/mL, 1,05 ±0,33 ug/mL, 14,28±1,36 g/dL. The average concentrations for zinc, iron and hemoglobin were higher for males, while the level of copper was higher for females. It was found statistically significant differences between both male and female for each one of these variables. By aged group, those who were over 30 showed the highest concentration of copper. In relation to zinc and hemoglobin, no significant differences were found among the groups. In order to carry out the monitoring of the serum or plasmatic levels of copper, zinc and iron, it is necessary to carry out studies of greater population scope that allows getting values for these micronutrients in most of the Venezuelan population. Also, include studies about consumption that allow knowing the intake of these micronutrients
Effect of the diuretic furosemide on urinary essential nutrient loss and on body stores in growing rats
Berné,Yelitza; Carías,Diamela; Cioccia,Anna M.; González,Eduardo; Hevia,Patricio;
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición , 2005,
Abstract: studies using a model of non-infectious diarrhea, have shown that increasing fecal mass by using laxatives resulted in greater fecal losses of nutrients and lower intestinal absorption. in the present study we used a diuretic to determine if increasing urine volume could result in greater urinary losses of essential nutrients. this is a relevant question because diuretics are widely and successfully used in the treatment of diseases associated with water retention and hypertension. they are known to increase potassium losses. however, there is less information on the effect of diuretics on the urinary losses of essential nutrients. accordingly, urinary nitrogen, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc and retinol were measured in young rats consuming increasing concentrations of furosemide (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mg/g diet) in the diet over 15 days. the results showed that dietary furosemide caused a dose-dependent polyuria. in addition it reduced food intake and feed efficiency and leaded to poor growth and greater urinary losses of all the measured nutrients and electrolytes. these losses were proportional to urine volume and represented an important fraction of the rats daily intake. the losses were negatively associated with the body and liver content of the same electrolytes and nutrients. in general, this study showed that the diuretic furosemide caused malnutrition in a short period of time by reducing food intake as well as the capacity of retaining macro and micronutrients including the liposoluble vitamin a in a relatively short period of time. this study, together with our previous studies on diarrhea, indicate that proper nutrient utilization requires both an adequate intestinal and renal function.
Perfil de alimentación y nutrición de mujeres en edad fértil de un Municipio del Centroccidente de Venezuela
Montilva,Mariela; Berné,Yelitza; Papale,Jham; García-Casal,María Nieves; Ontiveros,Yudith; Durán,Lourdes;
Anales Venezolanos de Nutrición , 2010,
Abstract: the objective was to study the nutritional status and food habits of women of childbearing age (12 to 45 years) from municipio jimenez, lara state, venezuela. the sample consisted in 243 women, randomly selected from rural and urban conglomerates of the municipio. each woman was requested to fill a questionnaire, with personal and socioeconomic information, between september 2007 and april 2008. weight, height, mid arm circumferences and skinfolds were obtained. the body mass index and composition indicators were calculated. the nutritional status of the group was classified according to national and international standards. dietetic evaluation consisted in one food frequency and two food recall questionnaires. overweight was present in 46.6% of women, being higher in adult women, low weight affected 8.3% being significantly more frequent in adolescents (p=0,000). there were important deficiencies in consumption adequacy of calcium (34.7%), zinc (20.9%), copper (13.3%), folates (41.5%), vitamins b6 (19.8%), c (62.6%), proteins (72.0%) and calories (58.1%). cereals and edible fats were consumed daily by more than 90% of the sample. intake of dairy products (61.7%), meats and eggs (76.5%), grains (17.0%), fruits (40.0%), and vegetables (14.0%), was less frequent. in conclusion, the population studied showed the simultaneous co-existence of excess and deficit of weight as well as inadequate food habits, that justify the implementation of intervention programs to diminish mortality and the risk of non-transmissible chronic diseases.
Anemia, deficiencias de hierro y de vitamina A y helmintiasis en una población rural del estado Lara
Papale,Jham Frank; Nieves García,Maria; Torres,Mario; Berné,Yelitza; Dellan,Graciela; Rodríguez,Diolisbeth; Mendoza,Norelys;
Anales Venezolanos de Nutrición , 2008,
Abstract: the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of anaemia, iron and vitamin a deficiencies and the level of helminthiasis in the rural community of la escalera, andres eloy blanco municipality, lara state, venezuela. the study subjects were 104 individuals between 1 and 14 years old. hemoglobin was measured with a coulter act 8; ferritin by elisa; plasmatic retinol by hplc and the coproparasitologic study by the cualitative kato method. statistical analyses were performed using spss 11.0 program by means of one way anova, followed by duncan, games-hoewel or kruskal-wallis tests. correlations analyses were done using pearson or spearman tests. the prevalence of anaemia was 14.42%, iron deficiency 59.62%, ferropenic anaemia 11.54% and vitamin a deficiency 84.54%. the prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis was 42.17% and the áscaris lumbricoides was the most frequent helminth. the group under two years old was the most affected in relation to all the parameters measured. the high prevalence of parasitic individuals, ferropenic anaemia and iron and vitamin a deficiencies, show an important problem of nutrition in relation to iron and vitamin a, it could be due to the insufficiency of nutrients and inappropriate life conditions.
Folatos y hierro en mujeres en edad fértil de una comunidad en Venezuela afectada por la incidencia de defectos del tubo neural
Montilva,Mariela; Papale,Jham; García-Casal,María Nieves; Berné,Yelitza; Ontiveros,Yudith; Durán,Lourdes;
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición , 2010,
Abstract: the objective of this transversal study was to determine folate and iron nutritional status of women in fertile age from municipio jiménez, lara state, venezuela. the sampling was probabilistic by conglomerates from the urban and rural areas, selecting 15 conglomerates from which women between 12 and 45 years (269), were studied. after signing informed consent, participating were interviewed for personal data, antecedents related to folate and iron, socioeconomic data (graffar-mendez castellano method and unsatisfied basic needs). in blood sample was determined hemoglobin, and erythrocytic folate (fe). serum was obtained to determine ferritin and serum folate (fs). 53,53% of the sample presented low fs levels, 10.78% were fs deficient. severe fe deficiency was present in 80.7% of the cases, moderate deficiency affected 5,9%. for both tests, median was higher for women in treatment with acido fólico or pregnant (p=0,000), median for fe was higher for adults (p=0.001) and in non poor women (p=0.011). there were no significant differences for coffee, alcohol, anticonceptive consumption, urban or rural resident or socioeconomic strata. the prevalence of anemia was 11,2% being significantly more frequent in adults than in adolescents (p= 0,029) and in urban women (p=0,042). low ferritin were found in 37,3% of the sample, the effect of different variables was not statistically significant. in conclusion, there is a high prevalence of iron and folate deficiencies in women of fertile age from municipio jiménez, which could constitute a conditioning factor for the appearance of neural tube defects.
Estratificación social y antropometría nutricional en menores de 15 a?os. La Escalera, estado Lara, Venezuela 2002
Torres-Villanueva,Mario; Dellán-Rodríguez,Graciela; Papale-Centofanti,Jham; Rodríguez,Dioslibeth; Mendoza,Norelis; Berné,Yelitza;
Investigación Clínica , 2007,
Abstract: malnutrition is a public health problem for underdeveloped countries. from the 852 million of undernourished estimated by fao between 2000 and 2002, 815 million belonged to underdeveloped countries, 28 million to countries in transition and 9 million to developed countries. malnutrition in venezuela had a 6% raise between 2000 and 2002, when it went from 11% to 17%. this work was done with children under 15 years old from la escalera, using classic indicators and their combination, relating them with socioeconomic conditions, through the nbi and graffar méndez castellano methods, as to consider the population nutritional profile. the higher prevalence corresponded to normal nutritional values, which oscillated between 55,7% and 80,7% in the 7-14 years old group and the 2-6 years old group, respectively. malnutrition was found in the under 2 years old group and 7-14 years old group, with values ranging between 12,5 and 41,0% respectively. the least prevalence was found for excess malnutrition. 100% of the families in this study are poor, according to nbi; although the graffar mendez castellano method established that poverty was about 60%, while 40% belonged to a medium-low status. relating nutritional diagnosis with social stratification and the mother?s educational level, three patterns were observed: iii, iv and v, prevailing normal diagnosis, followed by malnutrition by deficit and malnutrition by excess, respectively. the predominating mother?s educational level corresponded to incomplete high school, followed by analphabetism and the least prevalent has complete basic elementary education. it should be noted that the nutrition deficit was inversely related to the socioeconomic stratification and the mother?s educational level.
Zinc sérico en menores de 15 a?os de una comunidad rural del estado Lara
Berné Pe?a,Yelitza; Papale,Jham Frank; Torres,Mario; Mendoza,Norelys; Dellan Rodríguez,Graciela; Rodríguez,Diolisbeth; Brice?o,Zuly; Moreno,José Miguel;
Anales Venezolanos de Nutrición , 2008,
Abstract: the aim of this research was to determine the levels of serum zinc in a rural population under 15 years old, in lara state, venezuela, in order to know the deficiencies of this oligoelement and start the nutritional intervention by the involved organizations. the sample was made up of 310 subjects (m: 163; f: 147) under 15 years old, with an average age of 86.39 months. the serum zinc was measured by atomic absortion spectrophotometry. the serum zinc level was 0.83 ± 0.18 μg/ml. deficiency of zinc (values = 0.72 μg/ml) was presented in 19.7% of the subjects; the most affected were those under two years old. likewise, the highest percentage of zinc deficiency was observed in subjects with nutritional deficit followed by those that had a normal nutritional condition. by splitting the group of subjects with zinc deficiencies by age and nutritional condition, it was observed that 55.6% of those under two years old had a normal nutritional condition and the remaining 44.4% showed nutritional deficiency. meanwhile, more than 70% of the subjects with zinc deficiency belonging to the groups aged 2-6 and 7-14 showed a normal nutritional condition. all the subjects with nutritional deficit belonged to families living in extreme poverty. due to the negative consecuences that imply the lack of zinc, it is necessary to make a more accurate diagnosis of its deficiency through indirect methods like the zinc tolerance test or oral supplementation of zinc, in order to identify population with risk of zinc deficiencies. likewise, to start intervention programs with this oligoelement, especially in the vulnerable child population like the one studied.
Calidad de los servicios privados de salud
Silva,Yelitza;
Revista de Ciencias Sociales , 2005,
Abstract: health services have developed along with the social sciences and technology, evolving from something magical, to the rejection of sick persons, to the naturalization of illness, and to the introduction of economic theories which perpetuate health services and convert them into sources of wealth. the economic crisis makes the topics of cost, efficiency and quality in the production of health services extremely interesting, and in this vein professionals in the areas of medicine, economics and related areas have initiated a joint search for the potential benefits to be had, recognizing their importance in decision-making at all levels. this article gathers results of research the objective of which was to determine the quality of the services rendered in the private health sector in maracaibo municipality, zulia state. survey techniques were utilized in the compilation of information including the application of a questionaire and direct observation of 385 health service users in four medical centers. the results demonstrated that clients choose a medical center in their search for a solution of their health problem based on a series of expectations in relation to additional services, which are taken into consideration in the measurement of quality, however the effect of its cost also influences client fidelity.
El oficio de ser mujer. Vivencias del género femenino en la Caracas del siglo XVIII
Rivas C,Yelitza C.;
Revista Venezolana de Economía y Ciencias Sociales , 2006,
Abstract: abstract the author considers sexual difference a social construct that generates different social representations related to an individual?s status in society and his/her appropriate social roles. in late 18th century venezuela, the highly-stratified nature of society facilitates the identification of mechanisms of male domination (main labor force, public life) and the subordinate status of women (in the intimity of family life dedicated to the role of mother, wife, daughter, sister, etc.). this article examines the social mechanisms prevalent in colonial caracas to legitimate the predominance of one gender over the other
Perturbative Quantum Gravity and its Relation to Gauge Theory
Bern Zvi
Living Reviews in Relativity , 2002,
Abstract: In this review we describe a non-trivial relationship between perturbative gauge theory and gravity scattering amplitudes. At the semi-classical or tree-level, the scattering amplitudes of gravity theories in flat space can be expressed as a sum of products of well defined pieces of gauge theory amplitudes. These relationships were first discovered by Kawai, Lewellen, and Tye in the context of string theory, but hold more generally. In particular, they hold for standard Einstein gravity. A method based on $D$-dimensional unitarity can then be used to systematically construct all quantum loop corrections order-by-order in perturbation theory using as input thegravity tree amplitudes expressed in terms of gauge theory ones. More generally, the unitarity method provides a means for perturbatively quantizing massless gravity theories without the usual formal apparatus associated with the quantization of constrained systems. As one application, this method was used to demonstrate that maximally supersymmetric gravity is less divergent in the ultraviolet than previously thought.
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