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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 208759 matches for " Berit L. Heitmann "
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The relation between birth weight and hypertension. A study among Danish nurses  [PDF]
Rie Adser Virkus, Berit Heitmann, Erik Obel, Thomas Bergholt, Ellen L?kkegaard
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.54A003
Abstract:

The fetal origin hypothesis suggests that birth weight is related to several adult diseases. One hypothesis is that low birth weight is associated with increased risk of hypertension. ADDIN RW.CITE{{119 Barker,D.J. 2009}}In the present study we analyzed the association between self-reported birth weight and risk of hypertension with detailed confounder control, and the modification on this association by familial obesity and own weight history during childhood and youth. Methods: In 1999 the Danish Nurse Cohort study included 31,642 females aged 44 years or more of whom 76% replied to questions on birth weight, weight history, familial obesity disposition, parents socioeconomic status and presence of hypertension. Results: In total 14% reported birth weights below 3000 g. The univariate hazard ratio of hypertension for those born with birth weight < 3000 g was 1.24 (95% CI (1.13 - 1.36)) compared to those with birth weight > 3000 g. The association remained stable after adjustment for important confounders, as lifestyle, weight history and socioeconomic status during upbringing. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that low birth weight is associated with hypertension in adult life, also after considering several confounding factors and weight history later in life. Furthermore, the previous weight history might have an influence on the association between birth weight and the risk for adult hypertension.

Systematic review of clinical trials on dietary interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy among normal weight, overweight and obese women
Ida Tanentsapf, Berit L Heitmann, Amanda RA Adegboye
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-11-81
Abstract: The PUBMED, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the LILACS databases were searched for relevant articles. All published randomized controlled trials (RCT) and quasi-randomized controlled trials (QCT), with concurrent controls, on dietary interventions during pregnancy were considered. Results were presented using relative risk (RR) for categorical data and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. Data were primarily analyzed with a fixed-effect model and a random-effects model was used in the presence of heterogeneity. No date and language restrictions were applied.In total, 13 studies were included in this review and 10 trials contributed data on total GWG. Dietary intervention significantly reduced total GWG (n = 1434; WMD = -1.92 kg; 95% CI = -3.65/-0.19; p = 0.03), weight retention at six months postpartum (n = 443; WMD = -1.90 kg; 95% CI = -2.69/-1.12; p < 0.0001) and incidence of cesarean section (n = 609; RR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.60/0.94; p = 0.013). However, dietary intervention had no significant effect on weight retention at six weeks postpartum, birth weight, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth.Dietary advice during pregnancy appears effective in decreasing total GWG and long-term postpartum weight retention, but so far there is limited evidence for further benefits on infant and maternal health.One of the most common factors resulting in a shorter life expectancy and several diseases is obesity [1]. Strategies aimed at preventing weight gain and obesity have proven to be easier and less costly than those aimed at treating already obese people [1].Targeting pregnant women has been the focus of dietary and lifestyle interventions [2], as one third of pregnant women tend to gain excessive weight during their pregnancy [3]. Several studies have shown that excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a strong predictor of postpartum weight retention [4] and this may contribute to obesity in women of childbear
Gold Standard Program for Heavy Smokers in a Real-Life Setting
Tim Neumann,Mette Rasmussen,Berit L. Heitmann,Hanne T?nnesen
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10094186
Abstract: Background: High-intensity smoking cessation programs generally lead to more continuous abstinence, however, lower rates of success have been reported among heavy smokers. The aim was to evaluate continuous abstinence among heavy smokers during the intensive 6-week Gold Standard Program (GSP) and to identify modifiable factors associated with continuous abstinence. Methods: In this nationwide clinical study based on 36,550 smokers attending an intensive cessation program in Denmark. Heavy smoking was defined as ≥7 points in the Fagerstr?m Nicotine Dependency Test, smoking ≥20 cigarettes daily or ≥20 pack-years. Results: Overall, 28% had a Fagerstr?m score ≥7 points, 58% smoked ≥20 cigarettes daily and 68% smoked ≥20 pack-years. Continuous abstinence was 33% in responders (6-months response rate: 78%); however, abstinence was approximately 1–6% lower in the heavy smokers than the overall population. Attending GSP with an individual format ( vs. group/other, OR 1.23–1.44); in a hospital setting ( vs. pharmacy/municipality services, OR 1.05–1.11); and being compliant (attending the planned meetings OR 4.36–4.89) were associated with abstinence. Abstinence decreased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing smoking severity. Conclusions: Abstinence after GSP was 1–6% lower in the heavy smokers than in the overall study population. Modifiable factors may be used for small improvements in continued abstinence. However attempts to improve compliance seemed especially promising.
A Prospective study of the association between weight changes and self-rated health
Mette K Simonsen, Yrsa A Hundrup, Morten Gr?nb?k, Berit L Heitmann
BMC Women's Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-8-13
Abstract: The Danish Nurse Cohort Study is a prospective population study (1993–1999) and comprises 13,684 female nurses aged 44 to 69 years. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between weight changes and changes in SRH.Women who gained weight during the study period had higher odds of reporting poorer self-rated health (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04–1.35). Weight loss among overweight women, did not result in an increase in self-rated health ratings, in fully adjusted analyses (0.96 (95% CI: 0.76–1.23). Poor self-rated health combined with normal weight at first examination was associated with higher odds of later weight gain (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.10–1.51).Weight changes may result in lower SRH. Further, poor self-rated health at baseline seems to predict an increase in weight, among women without any longstanding chronic diseases. Future obesity prevention may focus on normal weight individuals with poor SRH.With more than one billion overweight adults globally, obesity has reached epidemic proportions and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates obesity to be one of our times greatest threat to Public Health [1,2]. Overweight or obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) increases the risk of many diseases: hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, muscular- and skeleton diseases, and respiratory problems, among others [3]. Furthermore, obese experience social stigmatisation, rejection from the labour market, depressions [4,5] and poor self-rated health [6] more often than normal weight individuals. In cross-sectional studies a J-shaped association has been found between weight and self-rated health (SRH), indicating that underweight and overweight, in particular, have negative influences on self-reported health ratings [7,8]. Thus, underlying diseases among underweight individuals may explain this J-shaped association. Studies have found several physiological advantages of weight loss among overweight individuals [9-11
24h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Subsequent Change in Weight, Waist Circumference and Body Composition
Sofus C. Larsen, Lars ?ngquist, Thorkild I. A. S?rensen, Berit L. Heitmann
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069689
Abstract: Background In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity. Objective To investigate the association between 24 h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), body fat (BF) and fat free mass (FFM) among adults. Design A longitudinal population study based on the Danish part of the MONICA project, with examinations in 1987–1988 and 1993–1994. Complete information on 24 h urinary sodium excretion along with repeated measures of obesity, as well as on potential confounders, was obtained from 215 subjects. Linear regression was used to examine the association between sodium excretion, as a measure of salt consumption, and subsequent changes in BW, WC, BF and FFM, and further evaluated by restricted cubic splines. Stepwise adjustments were made for selected covariates. Results Neither the crude nor the adjusted models showed any statistically significant associations between sodium excretion and change in BW or WC. Likewise, we found no significant association between sodium excretion and change in BF and FFM in the unadjusted models. However, after adjusting for potential baseline confounders and the concurrent BW change, we found a significant increase in BF of 0.24 kg (P = 0.015, CI: 0.05 to 0.43) per 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion (equivalent to 6 g of salt), during the 6-year study period. Moreover, during the same period, we found a significant association with FFM of ?0.21 kg (P = 0.041, CI: ?0.40 to ?0.01). Conclusions These results suggest that a diet with a high salt content may have a negative influence on development in body composition by expanding BF and reducing FFM.
Television viewing, food preferences, and food habits among children: A prospective epidemiological study
Helle Hare-Bruun, Birgit M Nielsen, Peter L Kristensen, Niels C M?ller, Per Togo, Berit L Heitmann
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-311
Abstract: Data are from the Danish part of European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) I and II, a prospective cohort study conducted among 8-10-year-old and 14-16-year-old Danes in 1997-98. Six years later 2003-04 the 8-10-year-olds were followed up at age 14-16 years, and a new group of 8-10-year olds were included. Data were analysed using mixed linear regression analysis. Cross-sectional analyses included 697 8-10-year-olds and 495 14-16-year-olds. Prospective analyses included 232 pupils with complete data at baseline and follow-up. Associations between TV viewing habits and the sum of healthy food preferences (ΣHFP), and the sum of healthy food habits (ΣHFH), respectively, were examined.Inverse cross-sectional associations between TV viewing (h/day) and both ΣHFP and ΣHFH were present for both the 8-10-year-old and the 14-16-year-old boys and girls. The frequency of meals in front of the TV (times/week) was also inversely associated with ΣHFP among 8-10-year-old boys, and with ΣHFH in all sex- and age groups. Among girls, baseline TV viewing (h/day) was directly associated with adverse development in the ΣHFP during follow-up. The concomitant 6-year changes in ΣHFH and TV viewing (h/day) were inversely associated in boys.Long time spent on TV viewing, and possibly to a lesser degree, frequent consumption of meals during TV viewing, seem to be associated with generally having unhealthy food preferences and food habits among school-aged children. These associations, however, were not generally persistent after 6 years of follow-up.The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically since the early 1980s [1-3], and despite numerous attempts, effective strategies to counter this worldwide epidemic are still lacking.From birth we are genetically predisposed to a preference for the sweet and salty tastes, and an aversion against sour and bitter tastes. Food neophobia is also a genetic predisposition, but preference for novel foods can be learned and modified by repeated experience [4]
Child Behavioural Problems and Body Size among 2-6 Year Old Children Predisposed to Overweight. Results From the “Healthy Start” Study
Nanna J. Olsen, Jeanett Pedersen, Mina N. H?ndel, Maria Stougaard, Erik L. Mortensen, Berit L. Heitmann
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078974
Abstract: Objective Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop overweight. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using baseline data from the “Healthy Start” intervention study. A total of 3058 children were invited to participate, and data from 583 children who were all predisposed for obesity was analyzed. The Danish version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess child stress by the SDQ Total Difficulties (SDQ-TD) score and the Prosocial Behavior (PSB) score. Height and weight were measured, and BMI z-scores were calculated. Results A direct, but non-significant linear trend was found between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score (β = 0.021, p = 0.11). Having an SDQ-TD score above the 90th percentile was associated with BMI z-score (β = 0.36, p = 0.05). PSB score was not associated with BMI z-score. Analyses were adjusted for parental socioeconomic status, parental BMI, family structure, dietary factors, physical activity, and family stress level. Conclusion The results suggested a threshold effect between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score, where BMI z-score was associated with childhood behavioural problems only for those with the highest scores of SDQ-TD. No significant association between PSB score and BMI z-score was found.
Intake of Dairy Products in Relation to Periodontitis in Older Danish Adults
Amanda R. A. Adegboye,Lisa B. Christensen,Poul Holm-Pedersen,Kirsten Avlund,Barbara J. Boucher,Berit L. Heitmann
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4091219
Abstract: This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss ≥3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium from milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003), milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028) and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029) were associated with reduced risk of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.
Weight at Birth and Subsequent Fecundability: A Prospective Cohort Study
Cathrine Wildenschild, Anders H. Riis, Vera Ehrenstein, Berit L. Heitmann, Elizabeth E. Hatch, Lauren A. Wise, Kenneth J. Rothman, Henrik T. S?rensen, Ellen M. Mikkelsen
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095257
Abstract: Objective To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. Method In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study “Snart-Gravid”, conducted during 2007–2012. Participants were 18–40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500–2,999 grams, 3,000–3,999 grams, and ≥4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a proportional probabilities regression model. Results Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000–3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12), and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24) for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500–2,999 grams, and ≥4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight. Conclusion Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability.
Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP) for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women
Mette Rasmussen,Berit Lilienthal Heitmann,Hanne T?nnesen
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10083653
Abstract: Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group), older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women.
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