Abstract:
We investigate numerically the resistive transition in the two-dimensional XY gauge glass model. The resistively-shunted junction dynamics subject to the fluctuating twist boundary condition is used and the linear resistances in the absence of an external current at various system sizes are computed. Through the use of the standard finite-size scaling method, the finite temperature resistive transition is found at $k_BT_c = 0.22(2)$ (in units of the Josephson coupling strength) with dynamic critical exponent $z = 2.0(1)$ and the static exponent $\nu = 1.2(2)$, in contrast to widely believed expectation of the zero-temperature transition. Comparisons with existing experiments and simulations are also made.

Abstract:
We extend the standard fiber bundle model (FBM) with the local load sharing in such a way that the conservation of the total load is relaxed when an isolated fiber is broken. In this modified FBM in one dimension (1D), it is revealed that the model exhibits a well-defined phase transition at a finite nonzero value of the load, which is in contrast to the standard 1D FBM. The modified FBM defined in the Watts-Strogatz network is also investigated, and found is the existences of two distinct transitions: one discontinuous and the other continuous. The effects of the long-range shortcuts are also discussed.

Abstract:
Current-voltage characteristics and the linear resistance of the two-dimensional XY model with and without external uniform current driving are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. We apply the standard finite-size scaling analysis to get the dynamic critical exponent $z$ at various temperatures. From the comparison with the resistively-shunted junction dynamics, it is concluded that $z$ is universal in the sense that it does not depend on details of dynamics. This comparison also leads to the quantification of the time in the Monte Carlo dynamic simulation.

Abstract:
The performance of the Hopfield neural network model is numerically studied on various complex networks, such as the Watts-Strogatz network, the Barab{\'a}si-Albert network, and the neuronal network of the C. elegans. Through the use of a systematic way of controlling the clustering coefficient, with the degree of each neuron kept unchanged, we find that the networks with the lower clustering exhibit much better performance. The results are discussed in the practical viewpoint of application, and the biological implications are also suggested.

Abstract:
We perform the renormalization-group-like numerical analysis of geographically embedded complex networks on the two-dimensional square lattice. At each step of coarsegraining procedure, the four vertices on each $2 \times 2$ square box are merged to a single vertex, resulting in the coarsegrained system of the smaller sizes. Repetition of the process leads to the observation that the coarsegraining procedure does not alter the qualitative characteristics of the original scale-free network, which opens the possibility of subtracting a smaller network from the original network without destroying the important structural properties. The implication of the result is also suggested in the context of the recent study of the human brain functional network.

Abstract:
It is numerically shown that the discontinuous character of the helicity modulus of the two-dimensional XY model at the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transition can be directly related to a higher order derivative of the free energy without presuming any {\it a priori} knowledge of the nature of the transition. It is also suggested that this higher order derivative is of intrinsic interest in that it gives an additional characteristics of the KT transition which might be associated with a universal number akin to the universal value of the helicity modulus at the critical temperature.

Abstract:
Two-dimensional Josephson junction arrays at zero temperature are investigated numerically within the resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model and the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) model with global conservation of current implemented through the fluctuating twist boundary condition (FTBC). Fractional giant Shapiro steps are found for {\em both} the RSJ and TDGL cases. This implies that the local current conservation, on which the RSJ model is based, can be relaxed to the TDGL dynamics with only global current conservation, without changing the sequence of Shapiro steps. However, when the maximum widths of the steps are compared for the two models some qualitative differences are found at higher frequencies. The critical current is also calculated and comparisons with earlier results are made. It is found that the FTBC is a more adequate boundary condition than the conventional uniform current injection method because it minimizes the influence of the boundary.

Abstract:
We study evolving networks based on the Barabasi-Albert scale-free network model with vertices sensitive to overload breakdown. The load of a vertex is defined as the betweenness centrality of the vertex. Two cases of load limitation are considered, corresponding to that the average number of connections per vertex is increasing with the network's size ("extrinsic communication activity"), or that it is constant ("intrinsic communication activity"). Avalanche-like breakdowns for both load limitations are observed. In order to avoid such avalanches we argue that the capacity of the vertices has to grow with the size of the system. An interesting irregular dynamics of the formation of the giant component (for the intrinsic communication activity case is also studied). Implications on the growth of the Internet is discussed.

Abstract:
The dynamical vortex response of a two-dimensional array of the resistively shunted Josephson junctions in a perpendicular magnetic field is inferred from simulations. It is found that, as the magnetic field is increased at a fixed temperature, the response crosses over from normal to anomalous, and that this crossover can be characterized by a single dimensionless parameter. It is described how this crossover should be reflected in measurements of the complex impedance for Josephson junction arrays and superconducting films.

Abstract:
We investigate numerically the critical current of two-dimensional fully frustrated arrays of resistively shunted Josephson junctions at zero temperature. It is shown that a domino-type mechanism is responsible for the existence of a critical current lower than the one predicted from the translationally invariant flux lattice. This domino mechanism is demonstrated for uniform-current injection as well as for various busbar conditions. It is also found that inhomogeneities close to the contacts makes it harder for the domino propagation to start, which increases the critical current towards the value based on the translational invariance. This domino-type vortex motion can be observed in experiments as voltage pulses propagating from the contacts through the array.