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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 798 matches for " Benson; Gibb "
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Translating evidence into policy in low-income countries: lessons from co-trimoxazole preventive therapy
Hutchinson,Eleanor; Droti,Benson; Gibb,Diana; Chishinga,Nathaniel; Hoskins,Susan; Phiri,Sam; Parkhurst,Justin;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862011000400015
Abstract: in the april 2010 issue of this journal, date et al. expressed concern over the slow scale-up in low-income settings of two therapies for the prevention of opportunistic infections in people living with the human immunodeficiency virus: co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and isoniazid preventive therapy. this short paper discusses the important ways in which policy analysis can be of use in understanding and explaining how and why certain evidence makes its way into policy and practice and what local factors influence this process. key lessons about policy development are drawn from the research evidence on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, as such lessons may prove helpful to those who seek to influence the development of national policy on isoniazid preventive therapy and other treatments. researchers are encouraged to disseminate their findings in a manner that is clear, but they must also pay attention to how structural, institutional and political factors shape policy development and implementation. doing so will help them to understand and address the concerns raised by date et al. and other experts. mainstreaming policy analysis approaches that explain how local factors shape the uptake of research evidence can provide an additional tool for researchers who feel frustrated because their research findings have not made their way into policy and practice.
The unexamined faiths and the public place of religion: Emerging insights from the law
IT Benson
Acta Theologica , 2011,
Abstract: The article examines certain key terms, such as “beliefs” and “faith” and how these are understood in relation to the public sphere. It examines some writings of recent popularist authors such as Richard Dawkins and Christopher Hitchens, and is critical of the authors’ claims that they do not have faith or beliefs. Drawing on legal decisions in Canada and South Africa the article suggests that this sort of terminological looseness has legal and political implications when it comes to whether or not beliefs of all sorts (religious and non-religious) are treated fairly in the public sphere. Arguing for a more diverse public sphere, the article cautions that law should give greater attention to principles of modus vivendi rather than “convergence” in which the attempt is to eradicate legally allowable positions from the public sphere and place those who hold them, and their communities, at a disadvantage. The law must not, by inflating its own role, put added pressures on the liberty that accommodation and subsidiarity require.
Exploring the synergistic potential in entrepreneurial university development: towards the building of a strategic framework
Allan Gibb
Annals of Innovation & Entrepreneurship , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/aie.v3i0.16742
Abstract: This article aims to provide a framework for exploration of a strategic approach to entrepreneurial university development. It draws on earlier reviews by the author of the entrepreneurial concept and of the now considerable global literature on the theme of the entrepreneurial university, although there is a strong focus in this article on the UK. It also draws lessons from practice in exploring with several universities the potential for creating strategic synergy between existing activities in the institution not all of which would be labelled entrepreneurial in the conventional sense. Each of these key activities are briefly reviewed in turn and presented as a basis for action in drawing together a strategy for the university
Controlled Batch Leaching Conditions for Optimal Upgrading of Agricultural Biomass  [PDF]
Prabahar Ravichandran, Duncan Gibb, Kenneth Corscadden
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.33026

Agricultural biomass presents a promising feedstock, which may contribute to a transition to low carbon fuels. A significant amount of research has identified a number of challenges when combusting agricultural feedstock, related primarily to energy value, ash, emissions, corrosion and combustion characteristics. The mitigation of such challenges can be addressed more cost effectively when dealing with large or utility scale combustion. The costs associated with harvesting, conversion, transportation and ultimately, market development all create additional roadblocks for the creation of an agricultural biomass industry. Nova Scotia, an Eastern Canadian province, has significant land resources, however it is prone to wet spring and as yet does not have a supply chain established for such an industry. The main components of supply, processing and conversion and demand simply do not yet exist. This research addresses one aspect of this supply chain by attempting to develop a fuel suitable for a) existing markets (local residential wood and wood pellet stoves and b) a scale that will support industry engagement. The outcomes of this research have determined that such a venture is possible and presents empirical preprocessing conditions to achieve a competitive agricultural fuel.

A Bioeconomic Model for Sustainable Grazing of Old World Bluestem under Uncertainty  [PDF]
Aaron Benson, Cody Zilverberg
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.44044

\"WW B. Dahl\", a perennial old world bluestem (OWB) grass, has been promoted as a forage suitable for dryland grazing. Dryland grazing of OWB is however inherently risky economically and ecologically, and may not be sustainable while remaining profitable. In this paper we develop a biological and economic single-season model of dryland grazing given production and price uncertainty, and identify a stocking rate that maximizes expected net revenue, subject to a sustainability constraint. We then simulate the distribution of net revenues, and find that probability of loss is greater than 35%, and median profit is roughly $30/ha.

Student Experience and Ubiquitous Learning in Higher Education: Impact of Wireless and Cloud Applications  [PDF]
Vladlena Benson, Stephanie Morgan
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.48A001

Mobile learning apps for smartphones and tablet computer devices have entered Higher Education (HE) market. While universities are investing in new technologies, they also look into cost reduction strategies, including cloud computing. We draw upon a case study of a successful migration to mobile virtual environment and effective use of cloud computing at a UK university. Success factors and challenges of these emerging technologies in HE are discussed. The paper concludes with the consideration of student experience implications and research questions which need addressing in the area of ubiquitous learning.

Injury Outcomes in Elderly Patients Admitted at an Urban African Hospital  [PDF]
Hassan Saidi, Benson Mutiso
Surgical Science (SS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2013.46057

Background: Elderly patients have worse outcomes for similar severity when compared to younger trauma patients. Elderly patients form smaller proportions of the trauma population in the developing world in comparison to high income countries. Due to limited data capabilities, elderly trauma has been infrequently studied. Objective: To describe the common injuries that afflict elderly trauma patients associated resource utilization and the determinants of outcome in Kenyan urban hospital. Methods: Seventy two patients aged 60 years and older admitted for trauma from diverse mechanisms, were recruited over a period of one year (November 2009-December 2010). Data on the specific mechanism and type of injury, age, sex, intensive care unit (ICU) use, hospital length of stay, and cost were recorded. Survivors and those who died during admission were compared to determine associated factors. Elderly patients were also compared to younger trauma patients to determine significant group peculiarities using X2 analysis or Fisher’s exact test as appropriate. Results: Elderly trauma cases (mean age 70.5 + 9.1 years) formed 4.5% of all trauma admissions during the study period. The intent was accidental in 84.7% of cases. The predominant mechanisms of injury were traffic (44.4%) and falls (41.7%). Females comprised 41.7% of all patients and lower limb fractures predominated (54.9%). The average injury severity score was 7.82 + 4.4. (median 9.0). The proportion admitted to the ICU was 6%. The median length of hospital stay was 24 days, cost of treatment Kshs. 27,153 Kenya shillings and overall hospital mortality rate was 13.9% (25% for ISS > 15). Only gender and head injury were predictors of mortality. Conclusions: Traffic and falls are the predominant mechanisms in geriatric trauma in Kenya. Unique features of geriatric trauma are higher female involvement, prolonged length of hospital stay and fewer predictors of mortality compared to younger patients.

Factors That Affect Staff Morale in Tertiary Hospitals in Malawi: A Case Study of Kamuzu Central Hospital  [PDF]
John Benson Chipeta
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2014.24024
Abstract: Staff morale is low among medical and nursing staff in Malawi’s health facilities. This leads to voluntary attrition or unfavorable survival strategies among members of staff. This study sought to determine critical factors that affected staff morale at Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH). This was a case study research design. Quantitative data were collected through structured questionnaires filled in by doctors, registered nurses and clinical officers. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions with the same cadres. An in-depth interview was done with one human resource officer. Key factors that affected staff morale at KCH were: inadequate resources for work, poor compensation, heavy workload, inadequate performance management, lack of career development and lack of training opportunities. Nurses further complained of inadequate management support. Thirty-one percent of the respondents were very dissatisfied with their jobs and 57% were intending to leave within 12 months. Job satisfaction was associated with management responsiveness (p-value 0.009).
Forestry Alters Foraging Efficiency and Crop Contents of Aphid-Tending Red Wood Ants, Formica aquilonia
Therese Johansson, Heloise Gibb
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032817
Abstract: Forest management alters species behaviours, distributions and interactions. To evaluate forestry effects on ant foraging performance, we compared the quality and quantity of honeydew harvested by ants among clear-cuts, middle-aged and mature spruce-dominated stands in boreal forests in Sweden. Honeydew quality was examined using honeydew collected by squeezing the gasters of laden Formica aquilonia workers. We used fifteen laden individuals at each study site (four replicates of each stand age) and analysed honeydew chemical composition with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. To compare the quantity of honeydew collected by individual ants, we collected and weighed five ants moving up and five ants moving down each of ten trees at the twelve sites (totally 1200 ants). The concentration of trehalose in honeydew was lower in clear-cuts compared with middle aged and mature stands, and similar trends were shown for sucrose, raffinose and melezitose, indicating poorer honeydew quality on clear cuts. Concentrations of the amino acid serine were higher on clear-cuts. The same trend occurred for glutamine, suggesting that increased N-uptake by the trees after clear cutting is reflected in the honeydew of aphids. Ants in mature stands had larger heads and carried proportionally more honeydew and may therefore be more efficient foragers. Human alternation of habitats through clear-cutting thus affects food quality and worker condition in F. aquilonia. This is the first study to show that honeydew quality is affected by anthropogenic disturbances, likely contributing to the reduction in size and abundance of F. aquilonia workers and mounds after clear cutting.
How Do Disasters Shape Food Sovereignty in the Philippines? Exploring the Reciprocal Relationships between Food and Disaster
Christine Gibb,Justin Veuthey
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 2011,
Abstract: Some disaster-food connections are obvious: floodwaters devastate roads, thereby interrupting the flow of food from producers to consumers; typhoon winds prevent fisherfolk from going out in their boats; and international food aid inundates local markets after major disasters. We believe that other food-disaster linkages are subtler, deeper, and perhaps more significant. This paper is a preliminary investigation into the critical roles that natural hazards can play in affecting the food security of a community, region, or state. We argue that, in a part of the world that experiences frequent and intense natural hazards such as the Philippines (Bankoff 2007), food and disasters are necessarily connected. Moreover, we contend that the food sovereignty concept, with certain caveats, is the most appropriate theoretical frame for analyzing this connection. This paper aims to synthesize relevant literature in the matters discussed above. Our objectives are (1) to contextualize the assertion that food sovereignty is a better concept than food security for dealing with the food-disaster connection, using specific examples in the Philippines; and (2) to demonstrate that two key principles of food sovereignty—emphasis on the local and self-sufficiency—need to be rethought and even temporarily suspended in preparation for, during, and after a disaster. The paper is based primarily on secondary data published in academic and grey literature. Given our linguistic limitations, our assertions and analyses are necessarily biased toward written accounts published in English.
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