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Agricultural biomass presents a promising feedstock,
which may contribute to a transition to low carbon fuels. A significant
amount of research has identified a number of challenges when combusting
agricultural feedstock, related primarily to energy value, ash, emissions,
corrosion and combustion characteristics. The mitigation of such challenges can
be addressed more cost effectively when dealing with large or utility scale
combustion. The costs associated with harvesting,
conversion, transportation and ultimately, market development all create
additional roadblocks for the creation of an agricultural biomass industry.
Nova Scotia, an Eastern Canadian province, has significant land resources,
however it is prone to wet spring and as yet does not have a supply chain established
for such an industry. The main components of supply, processing and conversion
and demand simply do not yet exist. This research addresses one aspect of this
supply chain by attempting to develop a fuel suitable for a) existing markets
(local residential wood and wood pellet stoves and b) a scale
that will support industry engagement. The outcomes of this research have
determined that such a venture is possible and presents empirical preprocessing
conditions to achieve a competitive agricultural fuel.
\"WW B. Dahl\", a perennial old world bluestem (OWB) grass, has been promoted as a forage suitable for dryland grazing. Dryland grazing of OWB is however inherently risky economically and ecologically, and may not be sustainable while remaining profitable. In this paper we develop a biological and economic single-season model of dryland grazing given production and price uncertainty, and identify a stocking rate that maximizes expected net revenue, subject to a sustainability constraint. We then simulate the distribution of net revenues, and find that probability of loss is greater than 35%, and median profit is roughly $30/ha.
Mobile learning apps for smartphones and tablet computer devices have entered Higher Education (HE) market. While universities are investing in new technologies, they also look into cost reduction strategies, including cloud computing. We draw upon a case study of a successful migration to mobile virtual environment and effective use of cloud computing at a UK university. Success factors and challenges of these emerging technologies in HE are discussed. The paper concludes with the consideration of student experience implications and research questions which need addressing in the area of ubiquitous learning.
Background: Elderly patients have worse outcomes for similar severity when compared to younger trauma patients. Elderly patients form smaller proportions of the trauma population in the developing world in comparison to high income countries. Due to limited data capabilities, elderly trauma has been infrequently studied. Objective: To describe the common injuries that afflict elderly trauma patients associated resource utilization and the determinants of outcome in Kenyan urban hospital. Methods: Seventy two patients aged 60 years and older admitted for trauma from diverse mechanisms, were recruited over a period of one year (November 2009-December 2010). Data on the specific mechanism and type of injury, age, sex, intensive care unit (ICU) use, hospital length of stay, and cost were recorded. Survivors and those who died during admission were compared to determine associated factors. Elderly patients were also compared to younger trauma patients to determine significant group peculiarities using X2 analysis or Fisher’s exact test as appropriate. Results: Elderly trauma cases (mean age 70.5 + 9.1 years) formed 4.5% of all trauma admissions during the study period. The intent was accidental in 84.7% of cases. The predominant mechanisms of injury were traffic (44.4%) and falls (41.7%). Females comprised 41.7% of all patients and lower limb fractures predominated (54.9%). The average injury severity score was 7.82 + 4.4. (median 9.0). The proportion admitted to the ICU was 6%. The median length of hospital stay was 24 days, cost of treatment Kshs. 27,153 Kenya shillings and overall hospital mortality rate was 13.9% (25% for ISS > 15). Only gender and head injury were predictors of mortality. Conclusions: Traffic and falls are the predominant mechanisms in geriatric trauma in Kenya. Unique features of geriatric trauma are higher female involvement, prolonged length of hospital stay and fewer predictors of mortality compared to younger patients.