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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 761 matches for " Benson Ndegwa Macharia "
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Desmoid Tumour of the Brachial Plexus
Orege Juliette,Koech Florentius,Ndiangui Francis,Benson Ndegwa Macharia,Mbaruku Neema
Case Reports in Surgery , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/575982
Abstract: Desmoid tumours of the brachial plexus are rare and may occur in extra-abdominal sites. The tumours are of fibroblastic origin and, although benign, are locally aggressive. Their relationship to critical neurovascular structures in their anatomic locations presents a challenge to the operating surgeons trying to adhere to the principles of surgery. Surprisingly little neurosurgical literature exists which was devoted to this topic despite the challenge these lesions present in surgery both at surgery and in choosing adjuvant therapies. We report a case of a large brachial plexus tumour in a patient which was diagnosed radiologically and histopathologically and the patient underwent surgical excision with good outcome. Desmoid tumours histologically are benign and are usually composed of proliferating, benign fibroblasts in an abundant matrix of collagen. They do not transform into malignant tumours or metastasize. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment; however, adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy remain controversial. 1. Introduction Many terms have been used to refer to desmoids tumours over the years, including fibromatosis, desmoid tumors, and aggressive fibromatosis. However, “Desmoid-type fibromatosis” has emerged as the designation of choice by the World Health Organization [1]. A review of the literature identified three case series reporting the treatment of desmoids tumours involving the brachial plexus. The first series, reported by Binder et al. [2] in June 2004, served to ascertain the rarity of these tumours. Twenty-four patients were treated at the University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA, who had primary brachial plexus tumours and only one (4%) had a desmoid tumour. The second case series reported by Seinfeld et al. [3] in 2006 included four cases of desmoid-type fibromatosis involving the brachial plexus. This series additionally assessed these lesions for mutations in the c-KIT oncogene in hopes of establishing a basis for predicting which of these lesions would respond to the chemotherapy agent imatinib mesylate. In the third case series, Dafford et al. [4] in June 2007 undertook a retrospective study of 15 desmoid tumors in 11 women and four men (ranging in age from 32 to 67 years; median 48 years) treated at their institution. In this study, the results were that there were 13 patients (86%) with brachial plexus lesions. In this review, we document the clinical presentation, neuroimaging, surgical, and pathological findings in a patient with a desmoid tumour arising from the brachial plexus. 1.1. Age and Gender Incidences of
Africa’s Prospects in the Obama Presidency
Macharia Munene
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa , 2010,
Abstract: There is a lot of curiosity on the direction that the relationship between Africa and the United States, which has, at times, been hostile and disappointing, amusing and inspirational, will take because of Obama's unusual background. He is a product, and a beneficiary, of the success of anti-colonial and civil rights struggles in Africa and the United States although he has little first hand knowledge of those struggles either as a victim or a victimizer. With an African father and an American mother, he is the first African-American to become president. Essentially a child of two worlds, he prefers the world of America as opposed to that of Africa.
Multiple colonialism in Western Sahara
Macharia Munene
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa , 2010,
Abstract: The Sahrawi are a hybrid people found in parts of northwest Africa, mostly Western Sahara and they are victims of multiple colonialism. The decision by European powers to include parts of their land in various colonies subjected many Sahrawi to different French and Spanish colonial policies and experiences in Morocco, Algeria, Mauretania and Western Sahara. The Spaniards took control of Western Sahara and when they decided to leave, Morocco, with its irredentist dreams stepped in. Morocco became the new colonial power as it claimed Western Sahara territory as a province. It behaves in the same way as the French did when they claimed that Algeria was a province of France. Morocco exploited the prevailing international climate to advance its colonialistic proclivities at a time when territorial colonialism had become anathema internationally. That climate made the big powers, whether communistic or capitalistic, appear to support Morocco. This way their perceived interests seemed to dictate that they be in good books with Morocco and they thus condoned Morocco's annexationist designs. The fact that Morocco itself used to be colonized by the French and the Spaniards tends to hide the fact that it is a colonial power imposing itself on the Sahrawi.
Mirroring the Subtext: Postmodernism in Ngugi wa Thiongo's Wizard of the Crow:
OM Macharia
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa , 2007,
Abstract: This reading of Ngugi wa Thiong'o's Wizard of the Crow attempts to place the text in the postmodern writing tradition. We point out how surrealistic features are utilized to enhance the themes, style, and the author's conundrums. Ngugi has been accused of focusing on ideologies at the expense of creativity. Wizard of the Crow is, however, a purely artistic text where Ngugi's creativity is plausibly developed, without hindering his ideological expression. The fact that the text was originally written in Gikuyu helps the writer draw from the resource of traditional discourse, and arguably enable not only Gikuyu culture, but also their worldview and history negotiate for a global position in line with emerging postmodern imperatives. Journal of Language, Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 1 (1) 2007 pp. 67-74
état présent de la condition des intellectuelles congolaises : comment briser le cercle vicieux ?
Bodia Macharia
Voix Plurielles , 2010,
Abstract: Les mouvements d’indépendance au Congo Belge avaient favorisé l’épanouissement d’une pléthore d’écrivains et poètes ainsi que l’émergence d’une écriture féminine, que la décadence socio-économique due aux trente-deux ans de dictature Mobutienne est venue démanteler. Tout en énumérant une liste succincte des écrivaines congolaises locales et expatriées, cet article fait un survol des conditions de productions littéraires que ces femmes rencontrent en République Démocratique du Congo et à l’extérieur.
The unexamined faiths and the public place of religion: Emerging insights from the law
IT Benson
Acta Theologica , 2011,
Abstract: The article examines certain key terms, such as “beliefs” and “faith” and how these are understood in relation to the public sphere. It examines some writings of recent popularist authors such as Richard Dawkins and Christopher Hitchens, and is critical of the authors’ claims that they do not have faith or beliefs. Drawing on legal decisions in Canada and South Africa the article suggests that this sort of terminological looseness has legal and political implications when it comes to whether or not beliefs of all sorts (religious and non-religious) are treated fairly in the public sphere. Arguing for a more diverse public sphere, the article cautions that law should give greater attention to principles of modus vivendi rather than “convergence” in which the attempt is to eradicate legally allowable positions from the public sphere and place those who hold them, and their communities, at a disadvantage. The law must not, by inflating its own role, put added pressures on the liberty that accommodation and subsidiarity require.
Consistent Condom Use among HIV Positive Women Attending Comprehensive Care Centre of Thika Level 5 Hospital, Kenya  [PDF]
Anne G. Macharia, Yeri Kombe, Peter Mwaniki
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2015.53017
Abstract: Background: Condoms offer protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission when used correctly and consistently. Many HIV infected people do not use condom regularly, thus leading to new HIV infections and reinfections. In Kenya, condom use is considered to be low and HIV prevalence is high among women aged 15 - 49 years where utilization of condoms among HIV positive women has not been studied. Objectives: The study aimed at determining the prevalence of consistent condom use among HIV positive women aged 18 - 49 years and to investigate the variables associated with it. Methods: A mixed method of study design (qualitative and quantitative approaches) was employed. A total of 422 participants were selected randomly and interviewed using a pretested structured questionnaire. Three (3) focus group discussions with 8 participants in each group were conducted. Chi-square test (p < 0.05) and odds ratio with corresponding 95% confidence interval were computed to establish the association between consistent condom use and independent variables. Binary logistic regression model was used to identify variables independently associated with consistent condom use. Qualitative data were transcribed and coded and then analysed thematically. Results: Consistent condom use among sexually active HIV positive women was found to be 57.4% (95%CI: 52.7% - 62.1%). The stepwise logistic regression revealed that attending tertiary education [aOR = 2.54; 95%CI = 1.30 - 4.95; P = 0.006], disclosing HIV status [aOR = 2.27; 95%CI = 1.27 - 4.06; P = 0.005], having an HIV negative partner [aOR = 4.23; 95%CI = 1.99 - 8.98; P < 0.001], not taking alcohol [aOR = 1.72; 95%CI = 1.10 - 2.69; P = 0.017], never encountered resistance to use condom by partners [aOR = 1.87; 95%CI = 1.15 - 3.03; P = 0.011] and perceived risk of contracting STIs [aOR = 2.11; 95%CI = 1.12 - 3.97; P = 0.021] as factors independently associated with consistent condom use. Conclusion: This study shows that there is still low prevalence of consistent condom use among HIV positive women. More education, campaigning and sensitization should be tailored among HIV positive women during counseling so as to avoid re-infection and transmission of infections.
Systematic Review of Prevalence of Endometriosis among Indigenous Africans  [PDF]
Gichuhi J. Wanyoike, Rafique Parkar, Ndegwa S. Wanjiru
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.78084
Abstract:
Introduction: Although the prevalence of endometriosis is to a certain extent documented in women living in high resource countries, its prevalence in black Africa is unknown. Since the current view is that endometriosis hardly affects indigenous Africans, we aim to provide a systematic review of prevalence of endometriosis among the indigenous Africans. Objective: To determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of endometriosis in the indigenous African women. Methodology: A systematic literature search was carried out for relevant articles on all citations on PubMed, based on the key words “Endometriosis” and “Africa”. An additional search was done on African journal Online. Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of endometriosis among indigenous Africans. Results: Out of 58 identified paper’s, only 4 were eligible for the systematic review. The prevalence of endometriosis was 4.3% (Osefo et al. [1] and 8.2% (Ekwempu et al. [2]) in the laparotomy and hysterectomy specimen respectively. In the paper by Fawole et al. [3], where endometriosis was diagnosed on the basis of laparoscopic visualization alone without histological confirmation, the prevalence was 48.1%. Somigliana et al. [4] estimated endometriosis to be 0.2% based on clinical history, clinical examination and imaging, without surgical procedure to confirm this estimation. Due to differences in study populations, methodology and diagnostic criteria, it was not possible to have pooled prevalence of endometriosis. Conclusion: Although existing evidence suggests that the prevalence of endometriosis in indigenous Africans is 0.2% - 48.1%, the study analyzed had limitations. Prospective multi-centered studies with laparoscopic diagnosis and histological confirmation of endometriosis are required to establish the prevalence of endometriosis among the general population in the indigenous Africans. Endometriosis in Africa needs to receive more research attention. This paper is expected to stimulate and sensitize the clinicians and researchers in Africa about this condition.
Gender differences in internet usage intentions for learning in higher education: An empirical study
Jimmy Macharia, Emmanuel Nyakwende
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa , 2011,
Abstract: The processes of globalization present opportunities and challenges for higher education learners. This process increasingly depends upon information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as the internet. Despite the fact that there have been frequently observed male/female differences in ICT usage, this has not received adequate explanations especially in higher education internet usage. Consequently this paper presents the findings of an empirical study that adds insight and understanding into the causes of this difference. The study proposes a Technology acceptance model (TAM) to investigate the effect of gender differences in internet usage intentions in higher education. Four exogenous constructs namely, perceived relevance, perceived enjoyment, computer self-efficacy, computer anxiety, voluntariness, and two belief factors namely perceived ease of using the Internet, and perceived usefulness were modeled to influence behavioral intention in the TAM. A questionnaire survey (N=1092) was administered and data were collected from university students in a selected sample of public and private universities in Kenya. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the model. There exist significant gender differences in the influence of perceived ease of use and computer anxiety, influence on internet usage intentions for males and females. The influences of perceived ease of use, relevance to studies, and perceived enjoyment had significant influence on intentions for both males and females had a higher anxiety than males in using the internet. However, they had greater usage of the internet for their studies. Having a greater understanding of how males and females view internet usage for learning in their universities will contribute to deploying gender specific interventions in the usage of internet as a learning tool in and outside the classroom.
Vice-Chancellors Influence on Academic Staff Intentions to Use Learning Management Systems (LMS) For Teaching and Learning
Jimmy Macharia, Emmanuel Nyakwende
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa , 2010,
Abstract: Universities world over are increasingly deploying learning management systems to enhance the quality of teaching and learning as well as to increase access to higher education. However, since technology rejection is common, the future of universities depends on their instructor's capacity to adopt and diffuse such technologies to meet the intricate needs of the academic masses. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that inhibit or accelerate the adoption and diffusion of Learning Management System (LMS) by academic staff for teaching and learning activities. The paper is based on a questionnaire survey completed by 82 lecturers from a selected sample of public and private universities in Kenya. The results of analysis indicate that Vice Chancellors/Chief Executive Officer (CEO) characteristics, namely:- keenness on modern information communication and technologies (ICTs), Influence on ICTs development, and, visionary ICT leadership are important determinants of LMS adoption and diffusion by instructors in higher education. Further, organizational variables of Subjective norm (SN), availability of ICTs (AICT), Organizational support (OS), Organizational readiness (OR), and top management support (TMS) were related to behavioural intentions to use (BIU) LMS by academic staff for teaching and learning. In addition, in this paper, the technology acceptance model (TAM) was also extended to include VCs/CEO characteristics, and organizational readiness. Results from the research also determined the factor that was dominant in predicting the acceptance of LMS which was top management support. This paper further validated the use of TAM, as a supportive framework for investigating the academic staff intentions to use Learning Management Systems for teaching and learning.
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