Abstract:
We consider parabolic partial differential equations of Lotka-Volterra type, with a non-local nonlinear term. This models, at the population level, the darwinian evolution of a population; the Laplace term represents mutations and the nonlinear birth/death term represents competition leading to selection. Once rescaled with a small diffusion, we prove that the solutions converge to a moving Dirac mass. The velocity and weights cannot be obtained by a simple expression, e.g., an ordinary differential equation. We show that they are given by a constrained Hamilton-Jacobi equation. This extends several earlier results to the parabolic case and to general nonlinearities. Technical new ingredients are a $BV$ estimate in time on the non-local nonlinearity, a characterization of the concentration point (in a monomorphic situation) and, surprisingly, some counter-examples showing that jumps on the Dirac locations are indeed possible.

Abstract:
Selection of a phenotypical trait can be described in mathematical terms by 'stage structured' equations which are usually written under the form of integral equations so as to express competition for resource between individuals whatever is their trait. The solutions exhibit a concentration effect (selection of the fittest); when a small parameter is introduced they converge to a Dirac mass. An additional space variable can be considered in order to take into account local environmental conditions. Here we assume this environment is a single nutrient which diffuses in the domain. In this framework, we prove that the solution converges to a Dirac mass in the physiological trait which depends on time and on the location in space with Lipschitz continuity. The main difficulties come from the lack of compactness in time and trait variables. Strong convergence can be recovered from uniqueness in the limiting constrained equation after Hopf-Cole change of unknown. Our analysis is motivated by a model of tumor growth introduced by Lorz et al. (preprint) in order to explain emergence of resistance to therapy.

Abstract:
We consider the Helmholtz equation with a variable index of refraction $n(x)$, which is not necessarily constant at infinity but can have an angular dependency like $n(x)\to n\_\infty(x/|x |)$ as $|x |\to \infty$. Under some appropriate assumptions on this convergence and on $n\_\infty$ we prove that the Sommerfeld condition at infinity still holds true under the explicit form $$ \int\_{\R^d} | \nabla u -i n\_\infty^{1/2} u \xox |^2 \f{dx}{|x |}<+\infty. $$ It is a very striking and unexpected feature that the index $n\_{\infty}$ appears in this formula and not the gradient of the phase as established by Saito in \cite {S} and broadly used numerically. This apparent contradiction is clarified by the existence of some extra estimates on the energy decay. In particular we prove that $$ \int\_{\R^d} | \nabla\_\omega n\_\infty(\xox)|^2 \f{| u |^2}{|x |} dx < +\infty. $$ In fact our main contribution is to show that this can be interpreted as a concentration of the energy along the critical lines of $n\_\infty$. In other words, the Sommerfeld condition hides the main physical effect arising for a variable $n$ at infinity; energy concentration on lines rather than dispersion in all directions.

Abstract:
Various models of tumor growth are available in the litterature. A first class describes the evolution of the cell number density when considered as a continuous visco-elastic material with growth. A second class, describes the tumor as a set and rules for the free boundary are given related to the classical Hele-Shaw model of fluid dynamics. Following the lines of previous papers where the material is described by a purely elastic material, or when active cell motion is included, we make the link between the two levels of description considering the 'stiff pressure law' limit. Even though viscosity is a regularizing effect, new mathematical difficulties arise in the visco-elastic case because estimates on the pressure field are weaker and do not imply immediately compactness. For instance, traveling wave solutions and numerical simulations show that the pressure may be discontinous in space which is not the case for the elastic case.

Abstract:
Phenotypically structured equations arise in population biology to describe the interaction of species with their environment that brings the nutrients. This interaction usually leads to selection of the fittest individuals. Models used in this area are highly nonlinear, and the question of long term behaviour is usually not solved. However, there is a particular class of models for which convergence to an Evolutionary Stable Distribution is proved, namely when the quasi-static assumption is made. This means that the environment, and thus the nutrient supply, reacts immediately to the population dynamics. One possible proof is based on a Total Variation bound for the appropriate quantity. We extend this proof to several cases where the nutrient is regenerated with delay. A simple example is the chemostat with a rendering factor, then our result does not use any smallness assumption. For a more general setting, we can treat the case with a fast reaction of nutrient supply to the population dynamics.

Abstract:
The voltage-conductance kinetic equation for integrate and fire neurons has been used in neurosciences since a decade and describes the probability density of neurons in a network. It is used when slow conductance receptors are activated and noticeable applications to the visual cortex have been worked-out. In the simplest case, the derivation also uses the assumption of fully excitatory and moderately all-to-all coupled networks; this is the situation we consider here. We study properties of solutions of the kinetic equation for steady states and time evolution and we prove several global a priori bounds both on the probability density and the firing rate of the network. The main difficulties are related to the degeneracy of the diffusion resulting from noise and to the quadratic aspect of the nonlinearity. This result constitutes a paradox; the solutions of the kinetic model, of partially hyperbolic nature, are globally bounded but it has been proved that the fully parabolic integrate and fire equation (some kind of diffusion limit of the former) blows-up in finite time.

Abstract:
We provide a mathematical analysis of appearance of the concentrations (as Dirac masses) of the solution to a Fokker-Planck system with asymmetric potentials. This problem has been proposed as a model to describe motor proteins moving along molecular filaments. The components of the system describe the densities of the different conformations of the proteins. Our results are based on the study of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation arising, at the zero diffusion limit, after an exponential transformation change of the phase function that rises a Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We consider different classes of conformation transitions coefficients (bounded, unbounded and locally vanishing).

Abstract:
We consider a size-structured model for cell division and address the question of determining the division (birth) rate from the measured stable size distribution of the population. We formulate such question as an inverse problem for an integro-differential equation posed on the half line. We develop firstly a regular dependency theory for the solution in terms of the coefficients and, secondly, a novel regularization technique for tackling this inverse problem which takes into account the specific nature of the equation. Our results rely also on generalized relative entropy estimates and related Poincar\'e inequalities.

Abstract:
The evolution of dispersal is a classical question in evolutionary ecology, which has been widely studied with several mathematical models. The main question is to define the fittest dispersal rate for a population in a bounded domain, and, more recently, for traveling waves in the full space. In the present study, we reformulate the problem in the context of adaptive evolution. We consider a population structured by space and a genetic trait acting directly on the dispersal (diffusion) rate under the effect of rare mutations on the genetic trait. We show that, as in simpler models, in the limit of vanishing mutations, the population concentrates on a single trait associated to the lowest dispersal rate. We also explain how to compute the evolution speed towards this evolutionary stable distribution. The mathematical interest stems from the asymptotic analysis which requires a completely different treatment of the different variables. For the space variable, the ellipticity leads to the use the maximum principle and Sobolev-type regularity results. For the trait variable, the concentration to a Dirac mass requires a different treatment. This is based on the WKB method and viscosity solutions leading to an effective Hamiltonian (effective fitness of the population) and a constrained Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

Abstract:
The Keller-Segel system describes the collective motion of cells which are attracted by a chemical substance and are able to emit it. In its simplest form it is a conservative drift-diffusion equation for the cell density coupled to an elliptic equation for the chemo-attractant concentration. It is known that, in two space dimensions, for small initial mass, there is global existence of solutions and for large initial mass blow-up occurs. In this paper we complete this picture and give a detailed proof of the existence of weak solutions below the critical mass, above which any solution blows-up in finite time in the whole Euclidean space. Using hypercontractivity methods, we establish regularity results which allow us to prove an inequality relating the free energy and its time derivative. For a solution with sub-critical mass, this allows us to give for large times an ``intermediate asymptotics'' description of the vanishing. In self-similar coordinates, we actually prove a convergence result to a limiting self-similar solution which is not a simple reflect of the diffusion.