Abstract:
We consider the product of two independent randomly rotated projectors. The square of its radial part turns out to be distributed as a Jacobi ensemble. We study its global and local properties in the large dimension scaling relevant to free probability theory. We establish asymptotics for one point and two point correlation functions, as well as properties of largest and smallest eigenvalues.

Abstract:
In this paper we define a general setting for Martin boundary theory associated to quantum random walks, and prove a general representation theorem. We show that in the dual of a simply connected Lie subgroup of U(n), the extremal Martin boundary is homeomorphic to a sphere. Then, we investigate restriction of quantum random walks to Abelian subalgebras of group algebras, and establish a Ney-Spitzer theorem for an elementary random walk on the fusion algebra of SU(n), generalizing a previous result of Biane. We also consider the restriction of a quantum random walk on $SU_q(n)$ introduced by Izumi to two natural Abelian subalgebras, and relate the underlying Markov chains by classical probabilistic processes. This result generalizes a result of Biane.

Abstract:
We consider integrals on unitary groups $U_d$ of the form $$\int_{U_d}U_{i_1j_1}... U_{i_qj_q}U^*_{j'_{1}i'_{1}} ... U^*_{j'_{q'}i'_{q'}}dU$$ We give an explicit formula in terms of characters of symmetric groups and Schur functions, which allows us to rederive an asymptotic expansion as $d\to\infty$. Using this we rederive and strenghthen a result of asymptotic freeness due to Voiculescu. We then study large $d$ asymptotics of matrix model integrals and of the logarithm of Itzykson-Zuber integrals and show that they converge towards a limit when considered as power series. In particular we give an explicit formula for $$\lim_{d\to\infty}\frac{\partial^n}{\partial z^n}d^{-2} \log\int_{U_d} e^{zd Tr (XUYU^*)}dU|_{z=0}$$ assuming that the normalized traces $d^{-1} Tr(X^k)$ and $d^{-1} Tr (Y^k)$ converge in the large $d$ limit. We consider as well a different scaling and relate its asymptotics to Voiculescu's R-transform.

Abstract:
We revisit the work of the first named author and using simpler algebraic arguments we calculate integrals of polynomial functions with respect to the Haar measure on the unitary group U(d). The previous result provided exact formulas only for 2d bigger than the degree of the integrated polynomial and we show that these formulas remain valid for all values of d. Also, we consider the integrals of polynomial functions on the orthogonal group O(d) and the symplectic group Sp(d). We obtain an exact character expansion and the asymptotic behavior for large d. Thus we can show the asymptotic freeness of Haar-distributed orthogonal and symplectic random matrices, as well as the convergence of integrals of the Itzykson-Zuber type.

Abstract:
We find a combinatorial formula for the Haar functional of the orthogonal and unitary quantum groups. As an application, we consider diagonal coefficients of the fundamental representation, and we investigate their spectral measures.

Abstract:
We show that Connes' embedding problem for II_1-factors is equivalent to a statement about distributions of sums of self-adjoint operators with matrix coefficients. This is an application of a linearization result for finite von Neumann algebras, which is proved using asymptotic second order freeness of Gaussian random matrices.

Abstract:
We consider the analogues of the Horn inequalities in finite von Neumann algebras, which concern the possible spectral distributions of sums $a+b$ of self--adjoint elements $a$ and $b$ in a finite von Neumann algebra. It is an open question whether all of these Horn inequalities must hold in all finite von Neumann algebras, and this is related to Connes' embedding problem. For each choice of integers $1\le r\le n$, there is a set $T^n_r$ of Horn triples, and the Horn inequalities are in one-to-one correspondence with $\cup_{1\le r\le n}T^n_r$. We consider a property P$_n$, analogous to one introduced by Therianos and Thompson in the case of matrices, amounting to the existence of projections having certain properties relative to arbitrary flags, which guarantees that a given Horn inequality holds in all finite von Neumann algebras. It is an open question whether all Horn triples in $T^n_r$ have property P$_n$. Certain triples in $T^n_r$ can be reduced to triples in $T^{n-1}_r$ by an operation we call {\em TT--reduction}. We show that property P$_n$ holds for the original triple if property P$_{n-1}$ holds for the reduced one. We then characterize the TT--irreducible Horn triples in $T^n_3$, for arbitrary $n$, and for those LR--minimal ones (namely, those having Littlewood--Richardson coefficient equal to 1), we perform a construction of projections with respect to flags in arbitrary von Neumann algebras in order to prove property P$_n$ for them. This shows that all LR--minimal triples in $\cup_{n\ge3}T^n_3$ have property P$_n$, and so that the corresponding Horn inequalities hold in all finite von Neumann algebras.

Abstract:
We study the liberation process for projections: $(p,q)\mapsto (p_t,q)= (u_tpu_t^\ast,q)$ where $u_t$ is a free unitary Brownian motion freely independent from $\{p,q\}$. Its action on the operator-valued angle $qp_tq$ between the projections induces a flow on the corresponding spectral measures $\mu_t$; we prove that the Cauchy transform of the measure satisfies a holomorphic PDE. We develop a theory of subordination for the boundary values of this PDE, and use it to show that the spectral measure $\mu_t$ possesses a piecewise analytic density for any $t>0$ and any initial projections of trace $\frac12$. We us this to prove the Unification Conjecture for free entropy and information in this trace $\frac12$ setting.

Abstract:
The purpose of this review article is to present some of the latest developments using random techniques, and in particular, random matrix techniques in quantum information theory. Our review is a blend of a rather exhaustive review, combined with more detailed examples -- coming from research projects in which the authors were involved. We focus on two main topics, random quantum states and random quantum channels. We present results related to entropic quantities, entanglement of typical states, entanglement thresholds, the output set of quantum channels, and violations of the minimum output entropy of random channels.