Abstract:
We review the concept of finite-temperature form factor that was introduced recently by the author in the context of the Majorana theory. Finite-temperature form factors can be used to obtain spectral decompositions of finite-temperature correlation functions in a way that mimics the form-factor expansion of the zero temperature case. We develop the concept in the general factorised scattering set-up of integrable quantum field theory, list certain expected properties and present the full construction in the case of the massive Majorana theory, including how it can be applied to the calculation of correlation functions in the quantum Ising model. In particular, we include the ''twisted construction'', which was not developed before and which is essential for the application to the quantum Ising model.

Abstract:
In conformal field theory (CFT) on simply connected domains of the Riemann sphere, the natural conformal symmetries under self-maps are extended, in a certain way, to local symmetries under general conformal maps, and this is at the basis of the powerful techniques of CFT. Conformal maps of simply connected domains naturally have the structure of an infinite-dimensional groupoid, which generalizes the finite-dimensional group of self-maps. We put a topological structure on the space of conformal maps on simply connected domains, which makes it into a topological groupoid. Further, we (almost) extend this to a local manifold structure based on the infinite-dimensional Frechet topological vector space of holomorphic functions on a given domain A. From this, we develop the notion of conformal A-differentiability at the identity. Our main conclusion is that quadratic differentials characterizing cotangent elements on the local manifold enjoy properties similar to those of the holomorphic stress-energy tensor of CFT; these properties underpin the local symmetries of CFT. Applying the general formalism to CFT correlation functions, we show that the stress-energy tensor is exactly such a quadratic differential. This is at the basis of constructing the stress-energy tensor in conformal loop ensembles. It also clarifies the relation between Cardy's boundary conditions for CFT on simply connected domains, and the expression of the stress-energy tensor in terms of metric variations.

Abstract:
A result from Palmer, Beatty and Tracy suggests that the two-point function of certain spinless scaling fields in a free Dirac theory on the Poincare disk can be described in terms of Painleve VI transcendents. We complete and verify this description by fixing the integration constants in the Painleve VI transcendent describing the two-point function, and by calculating directly in a Dirac theory on the Poincare disk the long distance expansion of this two-point function and the relative normalization of its long and short distance asymptotics. The long distance expansion is obtained by developing the curved-space analogue of a form factor expansion, and the relative normalization is obtained by calculating the one-point function of the scaling fields in question. The long distance expansion in fact provides part of the solution to the connection problem associated with the Painleve VI equation involved. Calculations are done using the formalism of angular quantization.

Abstract:
Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb-Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of "nonlinear sound velocities", which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and "generalized sound velocities", which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb-Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.

Abstract:
This is the first part of a work aimed at constructing the stress-energy tensor of conformal field theory as a local "object" in conformal loop ensembles (CLE). This work lies in the wider context of re-constructing quantum field theory from mathematically well-defined ensembles of random objects. The goal of the present paper is two-fold. First, we provide an introduction to CLE, a mathematical theory for random loops in simply connected domains with properties of conformal invariance, developed recently by Sheffield and Werner. It is expected to be related to CFT models with central charges between 0 and 1 (including all minimal models). Second, we further develop the theory by deriving results that will be crucial for the construction of the stress-energy tensor. We introduce the notions of support and continuity of CLE events, about which we prove basic but important theorems. We then propose natural definitions of CLE probability functions on the Riemann sphere and on doubly connected domains. Under some natural assumptions, we prove conformal invariance and other non-trivial theorems related to these constructions. We only use the defining properties of CLE as well as some basic results about the CLE measure. Although this paper is guided by the construction of the stress-energy tensor, we believe that the theorems proved and techniques used are of interest in the wider context of CLE. The actual construction will be presented in the second part of this work.

Abstract:
Recently, it was understood that extended concepts of locality played important roles in the study of extended quantum systems out of equilibrium, in particular in so-called generalized Gibbs ensembles. In this paper, we rigorously study pseudolocal charges and their involvement in time evolutions and in the thermalization process of arbitrary states with strong enough clustering properties. We show that the densities of pseudolocal charges form a Hilbert space, with inner product determined by response functions. Using this, we define the family of pseudolocal states: clustering states connected to the infinite-temperature state by paths whose tangents are actions of pseudolocal charges. This family includes thermal Gibbs states, as well as (a precise definition of) generalized Gibbs ensembles. We prove that the family of pseudolocal states is preserved by finite time evolution, and that, under certain conditions, the stationary state emerging at infinite time is a generalized Gibbs ensemble with respect to the evolution dynamics. If the evolution dynamics does not admit any conserved pseudolocal charges other than the evolution Hamiltonian, we show that this amounts to standard thermalization. The framework is that of translation-invariant states on hypercubic quantum lattices of any dimensionality (including quantum chains) and finite-range Hamiltonians, and does not involve integrability.

Abstract:
In these notes I explain how to describe one-dimensional quantum systems that are simultaneously near to, but not exactly at, a critical point, and in a far-from-equilibrium steady state. This description uses a density matrix on scattering states (of the type of Hershfield's density matrix), or equivalently a Gibbs-like ensemble of scattering states. The steady state I am considering is one where there is a steady flow of energy along the chain, coming from the steady draining / filling of two far-away reservoirs put at different temperatures. The context I am using is that of massive relativistic quantum field theory, which is the framework for describing the region near quantum critical points in any universality class with translation invariance and with dynamical exponent z equal to 1. I show, in this completely general setup, that a particular steady-state density matrix occurs naturally from the physically motivated Keldysh formulation of the steady state. In this formulation the steady state occurs as a result of a large-time evolution from an initial state where two halves of the system are separately thermalized. I also show how this suggests a particular dependence (a "factorization") of the average current on the left and right temperatures. The idea of this density matrix was proposed already in a recent publication with my collaborator Denis Bernard, where we studied it in the context of conformal field theory.

Abstract:
We develop a new perturbative method for studying any steady states of quantum impurities, in or out of equilibrium. We show that steady-state averages are completely fixed by basic properties of the steady-state (Hershfield's) density matrix along with dynamical "impurity conditions". This gives the full perturbative expansion without Feynman diagrams (matrix products instead are used), and "re-sums" into an equilibrium average that may lend itself to numerical procedures. We calculate the universal current in the interacting resonant level model (IRLM) at finite bias V to first order in Coulomb repulsion U for all V and temperatures. We find that the bias, like the temperature, cuts off low-energy processes. In the IRLM, this implies a power-law decay of the current at large V (also recently observed by Boulat and Saleur at some finite value of U).

Abstract:
We develop a calculus of variations for functionals on certain spaces of conformal maps. Such a space \Omega\ is composed of all maps that are conformal on domains containing a fix compact annular set of the Riemann sphere, and that are "sense-preserving". The calculus of variations is based on describing infinitesimal variations of such maps using vector fields. We show that derivatives of all orders with respect to such conformal maps, upon conjugation by an appropriate functional, give rise to the structure of the Virasoro vertex operator algebra. Our construction proceeds in three steps. We first put a natural topology on \Omega\ and define smooth paths and an operation of differentiation to all orders ("conformal derivatives"). We then study certain second-order variational equations and their solutions. We finally show that such solutions give rise to representations of the Virasoro algebra in terms of conformal derivatives, from which follows constructions for the Virasoro vertex operator algebra. It turns out that series expansions of multiple covariant conformal derivatives are equal to products of multiple vertex operators. This paper extends a recent work by the author, where first-order conformal derivatives were associated with the stress-energy tensor of conformal field theory.

Abstract:
Let $U$ be a multiply connected domain of the Riemann sphere $\hat{C}$ whose complement $\hat{C}\setminus U$ has $N<\infty$ components. We show that every conformal map on $U$ can be written as a composition of $N$ maps conformal on simply connected domains. This improves on a recent result of D.E. Marshall, but our proof uses different ideas, and involves the uniformisation theorem for Riemann surfaces.