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DNA Fingerprinting and Assessment of Genetic Diversity among 22 Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] Varieties Grown in Ghana  [PDF]
Benjamin A. Danso, Daniel K. Dzidzienyo, Ruth N. A. Prempeh, Marian D. Quain
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104938
Abstract:
Identification of varieties based on only morphological traits is limited by the influence of environment on such morphological traits. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fingerprinting offers an efficient system of identifying varieties at the DNA level without any environmental interference. This work used 20 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers to characterise twenty-two cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] varieties for the purposes of varietal protection and further assessed for genetic diversity. This study was conducted at the Biotechnology laboratory of Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Crops Research Institute, Ghana (CSIR-CRI). The varieties were made up of 15 cultivars released by CSIR-CRI, Ghana, 5 cultivars released by CSIR-Savannah Agricultural Research Institute, Ghana (SARI), 1 advanced line, 1 landrace and 1 exotic variety. Nineteen out of the 20 SSR markers used in this study were polymorphic. These polymorphic primers generated a range of 1 to 6 alleles per primer with polymorphic information content (PIC) varying from 0.107 (SSR-6608) to 0.656 (SSR-6613). Allele frequency ranged from 0.136 (SSR- 6371) to 0.841 (SSR-6608) with mean of 0.445. With the aid of Darwin software, dissimilarity matrix and a dendrogram were generated from the molecular data to evaluate and group the varieties based on genetic resemblance. Three pairs of varieties (Agyenkwa and Adom; Hewale and Ayiyi; Zamzam and Hewale) recorded the highest genetic distance of 0.652 each. The genetic information gathered for each variety has been made available to the breeding institutions. The genetic diversity detected among the varieties fingerprinted will be helpful to plant breeders in selecting parents for future cowpea improvement programmes.
The Quality and Health Implications of Urban Irrigation Water Used for Vegetable Production in the Accra Metropolis  [PDF]
Mark O. Akrong, Joseph A. Ampofo, Seth K. A. Danso
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.311167
Abstract: The quality of irrigation water from different sources used by urban farmers in the Accra Metropolis was investigated. These were, tap water stored in dugout, surface water (from stream) and wastewater in drains. The samples were analysed for their bacteriological, physical and chemical qualities using standard methods. Analytical Profile Index (API) identification system was used to characterize and identify the bacterial species isolated in the samples. The results showed that heavy metal concentrations in the samples were within the FAO/WHO recommended limits for irrigation. The concentrations of highly toxic Lead and Cadmium were even below detection limit. Total and faecal coliform bacteria loads in all three potential irrigation water sources were above the WHO recommended limit for irrigation. Different bacteria species belonging to seven genera were identified in the three irrigation water sources. These included Citrobacter, Chryseomonas, Enterobacter, Klebseila, Proteus, Providencia, Pseudomonas. Generally, the most dominant bacterial species were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chryseomonas luteola. Some of these bacteria spp. can pose a health threat to farmers especially those who have challenges with their health and immune system. For example, infection with some of the bacteria species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis is known to be deadly over periods of time.
Determination of Flow Structure in a Gold Leaching Tank by CFD Simulation  [PDF]
C. P. K. Dagadu, Z. Stegowski, L. Furman, E. H. K. Akaho, K. A. Danso
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.27059
Abstract:

Experimental residence time distribution (RTD) measurement and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation are the best methods to study the hydrodynamics of process flow systems. However, CFD approach leads to better understanding of the flow structure and extent of mixing in stirred tanks. In the present study, CFD models were used to simulate the flow in an industrial gold leaching tank. The objective of the investigation was to characterize the flowfield generated within the tank after process intensification. The flow was simulated using an Eulerian-Eulerian multi-fluid model where the RANS standard kmixture model and a multiple reference frame approach were used to model turbulence and impeller rotation respectively. The simulated flowfield was found to be in agreement with the flow pattern of pitched blade axial-flow impellers that was used for mixing. The leaching tank exhibited good “off-bottom suspension” which reveals minimum deposition of gold ore particles on the bottom of the leaching tanks. Simulation results were consistent with experimental results obtained from a radioactive tracer investigation. CFD approach gave a better description of the flow structure and extent of mixing in a leaching tank. Hence it could be a preferred approach for flow system analysis where the cost of experimentation is high.


Evaluation of Quality of Some Rehabilitated Mined Soils within the AngloGold-Ashanti Concession in Ghana  [PDF]
Witmann H. K. Dorgbetor, Gabriel N. N. Dowuona, Seth K. A. Danso, Julius K. Amatekpor, Ayoade O. Ogunkunle, Enoch Boateng
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2012.31007
Abstract: Land degradation caused by surface mining of gold has been extensive in Ghana. In recent years rehabilitation of some degraded lands by re-vegetation has been undertaken. This study provides quantitative data on the quality of some rehabilitated and un-rehabilitated mined soils within the AngloGold-Ashanti gold concession in parts of the semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana. Soil properties determined included texture, bulk density and aggregate stability, pH, organic carbon, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable bases, exchange acidity, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. Aggregate stability as a physical quality indicator revealed that aggregates of the rehabilitated mined soil had become more stable and similar to the control unmined soil due to litter and carbon additions from planted trees. The nutrient levels were very low because of the presence of low activity clays inherent in the native soil. Organic carbon content in the rehabilitated soil had increased above that of the unrehabilitated soil. Variability in soil properties, especially organic carbon and aggregate stability, was minimal in the unmined and rehabilitated soils implying that soils at the two sites were most robust and resistant to crushing and rupture. Quality index of the unmined control soil was 36.5% indicating that the quality of the soil was 63.5% relative to the optimum quality because of inherent poor soil properties. The mined rehabilitated and unrehabilitated soil had index values of 32.5% and 24.4 %, respectively. The marginal difference of 4% in soil quality between the control and rehabilitated soil shows that it is possible to maintain the health of soils with inherent physical and biochemical deficiencies if reclamation regulations are adhered to. In this way, the socio-economic dilemma of exploiting natural resources for the benefit of societies is ameliorated while maintaining an ecosystem balance.
Genomic heterogeneity within cowpea bradyrhizobia isolated from Ghanaian soils
JO Fening, A Sessitsch, SK Offei, SKA Danso
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2004,
Abstract:
Incidence of Orofacial Clefts in Kumasi, Ghana
P. Agbenorku,M. Yore,K. A. Danso,C. Turpin
ISRN Plastic Surgery , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/280903
Abstract: Background. Cleft lip and cleft palate are among the most common orofacial congenital anomalies. This study is to establish Orofacial Clefts Database for Kumasi, Ghana, with a view to extend it to other cities in future to obtain a national orofacial anomaly database. Methods. A descriptive prospective survey was carried out at eleven selected health facilities in Kumasi. Results. The total number of live births recorded was 27,449. Orofacial anomalies recorded were 36, giving an incidence of 1.31/1000 live births or 1 in 763 live births. The mean maternal age of cleft lip/palate babies was 29.85 years (range 18–40 years). The male?:?female ratio for the orofacial anomalies babies was 1.3?:?1; the male?:?female ratio was 0.5?:?1 in the cleft lip group, 1.3?:?1 in the cleft lip and palate group, and 4?:?1 in the cleft palate group. The majority of clefts were unilateral (69.4%, ), with females ( ) outnumbering males ( ). A family history of cleft was recorded with five babies (13.9%). Associated congenital anomalies were recorded in seven (19.4%) cleft lips and/or palates. Conclusion. The incidence of 1 in 763 live births found in this study indicates that cleft lip/palate is a common congenital anomaly in Kumasi. 1. Introduction Orofacial clefts (OCs) are among the most common congenital facial anomalies. They result from a failed fusion of the medial, lateral, and maxillary processes, which normally occurs between the 6th and 10th weeks of intrauterine life. OCs can appear as an isolated anomaly or as a part of a multiple congenital anomaly accompanied by other noncleft malformations. OCs can appear as an isolated anomaly or as a part of multiple congenital noncleft malformations. Both genetic and environmental factors are known to contribute to these congenital malformations [1]. Cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), or both (CLP) are the most common orofacial congenital malformations found among live births [2]. They account for 65% of all head and neck anomalies [3]. It is estimated that OCs occur in ~1/700 to ~1/1000 live births in different populations around the world and that there is substantial variability related to geographic origin, ethnicity, and socioeconomic conditions [4, 5]. Although some of these variations can be attributed to differences in the classification of OCs, populations of Asian or Native American origin tend to show the highest prevalence, with Caucasian populations showing the intermediate and African populations the lowest prevalence [6, 7]. Most studies of African populations have reported isolated cleft lip as the most
- Construction Workers’ Satisfaction with Work Provision Requirement Dimensions in Ghana’s Construction Industry
Humphrey Danso
International Journal of Engineering and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: This paper, sought to empirically assess and analyze workers’ satisfaction with different dimensions of work provision requirement of the construction industry in Ghana. It involved a cross-sectional survey that used a self-administered structured questionnaire administered to five hundred respondents of building construction workers. The findings indicate that though workers are satisfied with some work provision requirement dimension items significantly, most of the workers are very dissatisfied with working environment and work benefit of the work provision requirement in Ghana. The management of construction firms in Ghana and policy makers are called upon to focus and redirect attention and effort to ensuring that work provision requirement that workers are dissatisfied with are improved significantly to meet workers expectations. The paper contributes to the general body of knowledge in the area of workers’ satisfaction in developing countries particularly in Ghana’s construction industry. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
Numerical Modeling of the Spatial Scheme of Monolithic Multi-Storey Building
Danso Humphrey
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: The use of monolithic construction in building high-rise residential buildings in most cities have gained wide spread acceptance by scholars and practitioners in the building construction industry. The complexity of calculation of high-rise building requires search for better methodological approaches to construct such long lasting high-rise buildings. For this reason, technological advancement has made it possible to use Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software package to design and undertake structural calculations. The purpose of this research is to make computer modeling study of elastic and firm base multi-storey buildings and conduct feasibility studies of applying their computational schemes. The research design was exploratory and made use of Complex Program (CP) Lira to design and calculate 18-storey residential buildings with basement. The results indicate that displacement for the model with elastic base foundation exceeded the model with rigid base foundation; the compressive stress for model with elastic base foundation also exceeded the model with rigid base foundation while the tensile stress for model with elastic base foundation was less than the model with rigid base foundation. It could therefore be concluded that the design model with elastic foundation could affect the deformation state of multi-storey buildings.
Non-Destructive Evaluation of Concrete using Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity
I. Lawson,K.A. Danso,H.C. Odoi,C.A. Adjei
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Ultrasonic pulse velocity is one of the most popular non-destructive techniques used in the assessment of concrete properties. This article investigates the relationship between Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) and the compressive strength of concrete. The specimens used in the studies were made of concrete with a paste content of 18% and the constituents of the specimens varied in different water-cement ratios (w/c). The UPV measurement and compressive strength tests were carried out at the concrete age of 2, 7, 15 and 28 days. The UPV and the compressive strength of concrete increase with age, but the growth rate varies with mixture proportion. A relationship curve is drawn between UPV and compressive strength for concrete having different w/c from 0.35 to 0.7.
Validating the California Puff (CALPUFF) Modelling System Using an Industrial Area in Accra, Ghana as a Case Study  [PDF]
H. A. Affum, E. H. K. Akaho, J. J. Niemela, V. Armenio, K. A. Danso
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2016.51003
Abstract: The performance of the California Puff (CALPUFF) modelling system has been evaluated using a case study in Ghana. The performance evaluation consisted of a quantitative comparison of dispersion simulation results of SO2 and NO2 with measurements at the Tema Oil Refinery, and meteorological simulation results with observations from the Tema Meteorological Station, both in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Four statistical indicators—Index of Agreement (IOA), Fractional Bias (FB), Normalized Mean Square Error (NMSE) and the Pearson correlation coefficient(R) employed in the assessment indicate sufficient reliability of both CALPUFF and its meteorological simulator, CALMET. IOA values of 0.73 and 0.67 and FB values of 1.65 and 1.42 were obtained for SO2 and NO2 respectively. IOA between measured and modelled emissions were 0.72 and 0.69 for SO2 and NO2 respectively. The correlations between the simulated and observed emission were 0.66 and 0.08 for SO2 and NO2 respectively. An IOA value of 0.66 was obtained for both wind speed and wind direction with correlations of 0.29 and 0.58 in comparison with observations from the meteorological station.
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