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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 305285 matches for " Ben J. Brooker "
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Osteonecrosis: The perils of steroids. A review of the literature and case report  [PDF]
Ben J. Brooker, Prue P. A. Keith
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2012.12008
Abstract: Non-traumatic osteonecrosis is a cause of joint pain and deformity, not uncommonly caused by corticosteroid use. Despite this, corticosteroid induced osteonecrosis is poorly represented in the literature. We performed a detailed review of corticosteroid induced osteonecrosis, including aetiology, prevention, screening, clinical presentation, investigations, staging systems and treatment. We present this in the context of a patient at our institution who developed bilateral hip, shoulder and knee osteonecrosis following high dose corticosteroid therapy for dermatomyositis.
The global limits and population at risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections in 2010
Rachel L Pullan, Simon J Brooker
Parasites & Vectors , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-81
Abstract: A total of 4,840 geo-referenced estimates of infection prevalence were abstracted from the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection and related to a range of environmental factors to delineate the biological limits of transmission. The relationship between STH transmission and urbanisation and economic development was investigated using high resolution population surfaces and country-level socioeconomic indicators, respectively. Based on the identified limits, the global population at risk of STH transmission in 2010 was estimated.High and low land surface temperature and extremely arid environments were found to limit STH transmission, with differential limits identified for each species. There was evidence that the prevalence of A. lumbricoides and of T. trichiura infection was statistically greater in peri-urban areas compared to urban and rural areas, whilst the prevalence of hookworm was highest in rural areas. At national levels, no clear socioeconomic correlates of transmission were identified, with the exception that little or no infection was observed for countries with a per capita gross domestic product greater than US$ 20,000. Globally in 2010, an estimated 5.3 billion people, including 1.0 billion school-aged children, lived in areas stable for transmission of at least one STH species, with 69% of these individuals living in Asia. A further 143 million (31.1 million school-aged children) lived in areas of unstable transmission for at least one STH species.These limits provide the most contemporary, plausible representation of the extent of STH risk globally, and provide an essential basis for estimating the global disease burden due to STH infection.
Multiple Category-Lot Quality Assurance Sampling: A New Classification System with Application to Schistosomiasis Control
Casey Olives,Joseph J. Valadez ,Simon J. Brooker,Marcello Pagano
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001806
Abstract: Background Originally a binary classifier, Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) has proven to be a useful tool for classification of the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni into multiple categories (≤10%, >10 and <50%, ≥50%), and semi-curtailed sampling has been shown to effectively reduce the number of observations needed to reach a decision. To date the statistical underpinnings for Multiple Category-LQAS (MC-LQAS) have not received full treatment. We explore the analytical properties of MC-LQAS, and validate its use for the classification of S. mansoni prevalence in multiple settings in East Africa. Methodology We outline MC-LQAS design principles and formulae for operating characteristic curves. In addition, we derive the average sample number for MC-LQAS when utilizing semi-curtailed sampling and introduce curtailed sampling in this setting. We also assess the performance of MC-LQAS designs with maximum sample sizes of n = 15 and n = 25 via a weighted kappa-statistic using S. mansoni data collected in 388 schools from four studies in East Africa. Principle Findings Overall performance of MC-LQAS classification was high (kappa-statistic of 0.87). In three of the studies, the kappa-statistic for a design with n = 15 was greater than 0.75. In the fourth study, where these designs performed poorly (kappa-statistic less than 0.50), the majority of observations fell in regions where potential error is known to be high. Employment of semi-curtailed and curtailed sampling further reduced the sample size by as many as 0.5 and 3.5 observations per school, respectively, without increasing classification error. Conclusion/Significance This work provides the needed analytics to understand the properties of MC-LQAS for assessing the prevalance of S. mansoni and shows that in most settings a sample size of 15 children provides a reliable classification of schools.
The Global Atlas of Helminth Infection: Mapping the Way Forward in Neglected Tropical Disease Control
Simon Brooker ,Peter J. Hotez,Donald A. P. Bundy
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000779
Hookworm-Related Anaemia among Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review
Simon Brooker ,Peter J. Hotez,Donald A. P. Bundy
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000291
Abstract: Background and Objectives Hookworm infection is among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but its importance in causing maternal anaemia is poorly understood, and this has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages. We sought to review existing evidence on the role of hookworm as a risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women. We also estimate the number of hookworm infections in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods Structured searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as manual searches of reference lists were conducted, and unpublished data were obtained by contacting authors. Papers were independently reviewed by two authors, and relevant data were extracted. We compared haemoglobin concentration (Hb) according to intensity of hookworm infection and calculated standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. To estimate the number of pregnant women, we used population surfaces and a spatial model of hookworm prevalence. Findings One hundred and five reports were screened and 19 were eligible for inclusion: 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 randomised controlled trials, 2 non-randomised treatment trials and 2 observational studies. Comparing uninfected women and women lightly (1–1,999 eggs/gram [epg]) infected with hookworm, the standardised mean difference (SMD) was ?0.24 (95% CI: ?0.36 to ?0.13). The SMD between women heavily (4000+ epg) infected and those lightly infected was ?0.57 (95% CI: ?0.87 to ?0.26). All identified intervention studies showed a benefit of deworming for maternal or child health, but since a variety of outcomes measures were employed, quantitative evaluation was not possible. We estimate that 37.7 million women of reproductive age in SSA are infected with hookworm in 2005 and that approximately 6.9 million pregnant women are infected. Conclusions Evidence indicates that increasing hookworm infection intensity is associated with lower haemoglobin levels in pregnant women in poor countries. There are insufficient data to quantify the benefits of deworming, and further studies are warranted. Given that between a quarter and a third of pregnant women in SSA are infected with hookworm and at risk of preventable hookworm-related anaemia, efforts should be made to increase the coverage of anthelmintic treatment among pregnant women.
A New Hammer to Crack an Old Nut: Interspecific Competitive Resource Capture by Plants Is Regulated by Nutrient Supply, Not Climate
Clare J. Trinder, Rob W. Brooker, Hazel Davidson, David Robinson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029413
Abstract: Although rarely acknowledged, our understanding of how competition is modulated by environmental drivers is severely hampered by our dependence on indirect measurements of outcomes, rather than the process of competition. To overcome this, we made direct measurements of plant competition for soil nitrogen (N). Using isotope pool-dilution, we examined the interactive effects of soil resource limitation and climatic severity between two common grassland species. Pool-dilution estimates the uptake of total N over a defined time period, rather than simply the uptake of 15N label, as used in most other tracer experiments. Competitive uptake of N was determined by its available form (NO3? or NH4+). Soil N availability had a greater effect than the climatic conditions (location) under which plants grew. The results did not entirely support either of the main current theories relating the role of competition to environmental conditions. We found no evidence for Tilman's theory that competition for soil nutrients is stronger at low, compared with high nutrient levels and partial support for Grime's theory that competition for soil nutrients is greater under potentially more productive conditions. These results provide novel insights by demonstrating the dynamic nature of plant resource competition.
Hookworm: "The Great Infection of Mankind"
Hotez Peter J,Bethony Jeff,Bottazzi Maria Elena,Brooker Simon
PLOS Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020067.20050521
The archaeology of the mountain Zebra National Park
Mary Brooker
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1977, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v20i1.932
Abstract: Thirty archaeological sites were located during a survey of the Mountain Zebra National Park. These include three-small rock shelters and 27 open station sites. The artefact samples collected from two of the latter are discussed in detail.
Book Review: Towards Creative Learning Spaces
Stephanie Brooker
Journal of Learning Spaces , 2011,
Abstract: Book review of Boys, J. (2011). Towards creative learning spaces: re-thinking the architecture of post-compulsory education. Abingdon Oxon; New York: Routledge.
The Use of Bivariate Spatial Modeling of Questionnaire and Parasitology Data to Predict the Distribution of Schistosoma haematobium in Coastal Kenya
Hugh J. W. Sturrock ,Rachel L. Pullan,Jimmy H. Kihara,Charles Mwandawiro,Simon J. Brooker
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002016
Abstract: Background Questionnaires of reported blood in urine (BIU) distributed through the existing school system provide a rapid and reliable method to classify schools according to the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, thereby helping in the targeting of schistosomiasis control. However, not all schools return questionnaires and it is unclear whether treatment is warranted in such schools. This study investigates the use of bivariate spatial modelling of available and multiple data sources to predict the prevalence of S. haematobium at every school along the Kenyan coast. Methodology Data from a questionnaire survey conducted by the Kenya Ministry of Education in Coast Province in 2009 were combined with available parasitological and environmental data in a Bayesian bivariate spatial model. This modeled the relationship between BIU data and environmental covariates, as well as the relationship between BIU and S. haematobium infection prevalence, to predict S. haematobium infection prevalence at all schools in the study region. Validation procedures were implemented to assess the predictive accuracy of endemicity classification. Principal Findings The prevalence of BIU was negatively correlated with distance to nearest river and there was considerable residual spatial correlation at small (~15 km) spatial scales. There was a predictable relationship between the prevalence of reported BIU and S. haematobium infection. The final model exhibited excellent sensitivity (0.94) but moderate specificity (0.69) in identifying low (<10%) prevalence schools, and had poor performance in differentiating between moderate and high prevalence schools (sensitivity 0.5, specificity 1). Conclusions Schistosomiasis is highly focal and there is a need to target treatment on a school-by-school basis. The use of bivariate spatial modelling can supplement questionnaire data to identify schools requiring mass treatment, but is unable to distinguish between moderate and high prevalence schools.
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