Abstract:
We study the morphology of magnetic domain growth in disordered three dimensional magnets. The disordered magnetic material is described within the random-field Ising model with a Gaussian distribution of local fields with width $\Delta$. Growth is driven by a uniform applied magnetic field, whose value is kept equal to the critical value $H_c(\Delta)$ for the onset of steady motion. Two growth regimes are clearly identified. For low $\Delta$ the growing domain is compact, with a self-affine external interface. For large $\Delta$ a self-similar percolation-like morphology is obtained. A multi-critical point at $(\Delta_c$, $H_c(\Delta_c))$ separates the two types of growth. We extract the critical exponents near $\Delta_c$ using finite-size scaling of different morphological attributes of the external domain interface. We conjecture that the critical disorder width also corresponds to a maximum in $H_c(\Delta)$.

Abstract:
Adiabatic transport of information is a widely invoked resource in connection with quantum information processing and distribution. The study of adiabatic transport via spin-half chains or clusters is standard in the literature, while in practice the true realisation of a completely isolated two-level quantum system is not achievable. We explore here, theoretically, the extension of spin-half chain models to higher spins. Considering arrangements of three spin-one particles, we show that adiabatic transport, specifically a generalisation of the Dark State Adiabatic Passage procedure, is applicable to spin-one systems. We thus demonstrate a qutrit state transfer protocol. We discuss possible ways to physically implement this protocol, considering quantum dot and nitrogen-vacancy implementations.

Abstract:
We investigate theoretically donor-based charge qubit operation driven by external electric fields. The basic physics of the problem is presented by considering a single electron bound to a shallow-donor pair in GaAs: This system is closely related to the homopolar molecular ion H_2^+. In the case of Si, heteropolar configurations such as PSb^+ pairs are also considered. For both homopolar and heteropolar pairs, the multivalley conduction band structure of Si leads to short-period oscillations of the tunnel-coupling strength as a function of the inter-donor relative position. However, for any fixed donor configuration, the response of the bound electron to a uniform electric field in Si is qualitatively very similar to the GaAs case, with no valley quantum interference-related effects, leading to the conclusion that electric field driven coherent manipulation of donor-based charge qubits is feasible in semiconductors.

Abstract:
Interface states in a silicon/barrier junction break the silicon valley degeneracy near the interface, a desirable feature for some Si quantum electronics applications. Within a minimal multivalley tight-binding model in one dimension, we inspect here the spatial extent of these states into the Si and the barrier materials, as well as favorable conditions for its spontaneous formation. Our approach---based on Green's-function renormalization-decimation techniques---is asymptotically exact for the infinite chain and shows the formation of these states regardless of whether or not a confining electric field is applied. The renormalization language naturally leads to the central role played by the chemical bond of the atoms immediately across the interface. In the adopted decimation procedure, the convergence rate to a fixed point directly relates the valley splitting and the spread of the wave function, consequently connecting the splitting to geometrical experimental parameters such as the capacitance of a two-dimensional electron gas---explicitly calculated here. This should serve as a probe to identify such states as a mechanism for enhanced valley splitting.

Abstract:
We investigate pairwise correlation properties of the ground state (GS) of finite antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin chains described by the Heisenberg model. The exchange coupling is restricted to nearest neighbor spins, and is constant $J_0$ except for a pair of neighboring sites, where the coupling $J_1$ may vary. We identify a rich variety of possible behaviors for different measures of pairwise (quantum and classical) correlations and entanglement in the GS of such spin chain. Varying a single coupling affects the degree of correlation between all spin pairs, indicating possible control over such correlations by tuning $J_1$. We also show that a class of two spin states constitutes exact spin realizations of Werner states (WS). Apart from the basic and theoretical aspects, this opens concrete alternatives for experimentally probing non-classical correlations in condensed matter systems, as well as for experimental realizations of a WS via a single tunable exchange coupling in a AFM chain.

Abstract:
The silicon-based quantum computer proposal has been one of the intensely pursued ideas during the past three years. Here we calculate the donor electron exchange in silicon and germanium, and demonstrate an atomic-scale challenge for quantum computing in Si (and Ge), as the six (four) conduction band minima in Si (Ge) lead to inter-valley electronic interferences, generating strong oscillations in the exchange splitting of two-donor two-electron states. Donor positioning with atomic scale precision within the unit cell thus becomes a decisive factor in determining the strength of the exchange coupling--a fundamental ingredient for two-qubit operations in a silicon-based quantum computer.

Abstract:
Proposed Silicon-based quantum computer architectures have attracted attention because of their promise for scalability and their potential for synergetically utilizing the available resources associated with the existing infrastructure of the powerful Si technology. Quantitative understanding of and precise physical control over donor (e.g. Phosphorus) exchange are crucial elements in the physics underlying the proposed Si-based quantum computer hardware. An important potential problem in this context is that inter-valley interference originating from the degeneracy in the Si conduction band edge causes fast oscillations in donor exchange coupling, which imposes significant constraints on the Si quantum computer architecture. In this paper we consider the effect of external strain on Si donor exchange in the context of quantum computer hardware. We study donor electron exchange in uniaxially strained Si, since strain partially lifts the valley degeneracy in the bulk. In particular, we focus on the effects of donor displacements among lattice sites on the exchange coupling, investigating whether inter-valley interference poses less of a problem to exchange coupling of donors in strained Si. We show, using the Kohn-Luttinger envelope function approach, that fast oscillations in exchange coupling indeed disappear for donor pairs that satisfy certain conditions for their relative positions, while in other situations the donor exchange coupling remains oscillatory, with periods close to interatomic spacing. We also comment on the possible role of controlled external strain in the design and fabrication of Si quantum computer architecture.

Abstract:
Interface disorder and its effect on the valley degeneracy of the conduction band edge remains among the greatest theoretical challenges for understanding the operation of spin qubits in silicon. Here, we investigate a counterintuitive effect occurring at Si/SiO2 interfaces. By applying tight binding methods, we show that intrinsic interface states can hybridize with conventional valley states, leading to a large ground state energy gap. The effects of hybridization have not previously been explored in details for valley splitting. We find that valley splitting is enhanced in the presence of disordered chemical bonds, in agreement with recent experiments.

Abstract:
We consider charge qubits based on shallow donor electron states in silicon and coupled quantum dots in GaAs. Specifically, we study the feasibility of P$_2^+$ charge qubits in Si, focusing on single qubit properties in terms of tunnel coupling between the two phosphorus donors and qubit decoherence caused by electron-phonon interaction. By taking into consideration the multi-valley structure of the Si conduction band, we show that inter-valley quantum interference has important consequences for single-qubit operations of P$_2^+$ charge qubits. In particular, the valley interference leads to a tunnel-coupling strength distribution centered around zero. On the other hand, we find that the Si bandstructure does not dramatically affect the electron-phonon coupling and consequently, qubit coherence. We also critically compare charge qubit properties for Si:P$_2^+$ and GaAs double quantum dot quantum computer architectures.

Abstract:
adopting a real-space tight-binding supercell approach, we investigate interface roughness effects in semiconductor heterostructures. alas/gaas/alas (001) qws of average width w are considered, in which one of the interfaces is planar and the other has a shape defined by periodic steps with amplitude a and wavelength l. the oscillator strength f of the fundamental transition in the well describes the optical nature of the heterostructures. by investigating the wavefunctions as a function of the interface parameter a, we conclude that the f behavior with a is an optical signature of the quantum well to quantum wire crossover in the heterostructures. recently, photoluminescence experiments showed that hydrostatic pressure produces an increase in the optical eficiency of heterostructures in which the interfaces present a high degree of roughness. in order to investigate this optical behavior, we discuss hydrostatic pressure effects on rough-interface heterostructures.