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Genetic structuring and migration patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839)
Elena G Gonzalez, Peter Beerli, Rafael Zardoya
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-252
Abstract: We examined allele size variation of nine microsatellite loci in 380 individuals from the Gulf of Guinea, Canary, Azores, Canada, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. To investigate temporal stability of genetic structure, three Atlantic Ocean sites were re-sampled a second year. Hierarchical AMOVA tests, RST pairwise comparisons, isolation by distance (Mantel) tests, Bayesian clustering analyses, and coalescence-based migration rate inferences supported unrestricted gene flow within the Atlantic Ocean at the nuclear level, and therefore interbreeding between individuals belonging to both mitochondrial clades. Moreover, departures from HWE in several loci were inferred for the samples of Guinea, and attributed to a Wahlund effect supporting the role of this region as a spawning and nursery area. Our microsatellite data supported a single worldwide panmictic unit for bigeye tunas. Despite the strong Agulhas Current, immigration rates seem to be higher from the Atlantic Ocean into the Indo-Pacific Ocean, but the actual number of individuals moving per generation is relatively low compared to the large population sizes inhabiting each ocean basin.Lack of congruence between mt and nuclear evidences, which is also found in other species, most likely reflects past events of isolation and secondary contact. Given the inferred relatively low number of immigrants per generation around the Cape of Good Hope, the proportions of the mitochondrial clades in the different oceans may keep stable, and it seems plausible that the presence of individuals belonging to the mt Clade I in the Atlantic Ocean may be due to extensive migrations that predated the last glaciation.Marine pelagic fishes show broad geographic distribution, large population sizes, and highly migratory movements that are thought to ultimately result in little genetic structuring (e.g. [1-4]). The above-mentioned biological peculiarities result in complex phylogeographic patterns (e.g. [5,6]), which do not often meet t
Evaluating multi-loop Feynman diagrams with infrared and threshold singularities numerically
Anastasiou, Charalampos;Beerli, Stefan;Daleo, Alejandro
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1088/1126-6708/2007/05/071
Abstract: We present a method to evaluate numerically Feynman diagrams directly from their Feynman parameters representation. We first disentangle overlapping singularities using sector decomposition. Threshold singularities are treated with an appropriate contour deformation. We have validated our technique comparing with recent analytic results for the gg->h two-loop amplitudes with heavy quarks and scalar quarks.
El proceso de adopción de la conducta de reciclado: modelos explicativos y variables moderadoras
G. Díaz Meneses,A. Beerli Palacio
Cuadernos de Economía y Dirección de la Empresa , 2006,
Abstract: Los resultadios de esta investigación empírica ponen de manifiesto que la conducta de reciclado de los consumidores no solo puede ser representada mejor a través de un modelo de hábito o rutina de baja involucración conocer-hacer-sentir que a través de la jerarquía clásica conocer-sentir-hacer sino que puede ser representada a través de otros modelos como el hedónico sentir-hacer-conocer y el de aprendizaje inverso hacer-sentirconocer . Además, la edad y la zona de residencia, y en menor medida el género, nivel de estudios y renta afectan a la manera en la que los consumidores reciclan. Igualmente, las condiciones domésticas y la existencia de estímulos económicos y jurídicos favorecen una respuesta de reciclaje ligeramente distinta. Teniendo en cuenta esta multiplicidad de modelos, cabe proponer claves para promocionar específicamente el reciclado teniendo en cuenta el patrón diferencial de cada uno de estos modelos sociodemográficos y de situación.
Silagem ácida de resíduos de truta (Oncorhynchus mykiss), com a utiliza??o de ácido muriático
Beerli, Eduardo Lopes;Beerli, Karla Michalsky Carvalho;Logato, Priscila Vieira Rosa;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542004000100026
Abstract: the destiny of aquaculture wastes was always a problem to the producers. besides pollute, they are wastes with high nutritive value. the objective of this research was to produce acid silage using aquaculture wastes. the silage using meiotic acid was elaborated in 16 silos, 4 treatments and 4 replications with 2.000 g of grinded fish/silo and respectively 150, 200, 300 and 350 ml acid/treatment, during 3 weeks. the ph was diary accompanied. total count of microorganisms and total coliforms analysis was realized after 1 and 3 weeks and coliforms at 45oc after 3 weeks. these analysis determinate low bacteria concentration and absence of coliforms at 45oc, changing the product adequate to animal feed.
Global Migration Dynamics Underlie Evolution and Persistence of Human Influenza A (H3N2)
Trevor Bedford ,Sarah Cobey,Peter Beerli,Mercedes Pascual
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000918
Abstract: The global migration patterns of influenza viruses have profound implications for the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of the disease. We developed a novel approach to reconstruct the genetic history of human influenza A (H3N2) collected worldwide over 1998 to 2009 and used it to infer the global network of influenza transmission. Consistent with previous models, we find that China and Southeast Asia lie at the center of this global network. However, we also find that strains of influenza circulate outside of Asia for multiple seasons, persisting through dynamic migration between northern and southern regions. The USA acts as the primary hub of temperate transmission and, together with China and Southeast Asia, forms the trunk of influenza's evolutionary tree. These findings suggest that antiviral use outside of China and Southeast Asia may lead to the evolution of long-term local and potentially global antiviral resistance. Our results might also aid the design of surveillance efforts and of vaccines better tailored to different geographic regions.
The effectiveness of banner ads on blogs
Asunción Beerli Palacio,Josefa D. Martín Santana
Cuadernos de Gestión , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to measure the advertising effectiveness of two formats of on-line advertisements, namely, large-button advertisements and contextual advertisements, and to determine the factors which, on the basis of the reviewed literature, influence advertising effectiveness. The context of application is blog type web pages, which, despite the significant increase in their use, have not received attention in the field of the advertising research. The results reflect that there are differences in the advertising effectiveness of the two formats and that the factors that influence are attitude to the blog, involvement with the product advertised and the length of the visit to the blog.
Alimenta??o e comportamento de larvas de pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887)
Beerli, Eduardo Lopes;Logato, Priscila Vieira Rosa;Freitas, Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542004000100020
Abstract: the objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of natural and artificial diets on the development and behavior of pacu (piaractus mesopotamicus) larvae, between the 2nd and 10th day post hatch. the larvaes were kept in 30l - plastic boxes (n = 30 boxes), in constant flow-through. the larvae density was 10 post-larvae/l (300 larvae/box). six diets with 4 sampling days (4, 6, 8 and 10 days post-hatch, n = 30 larvae) using 5 repetitions were tested. the diets were: t1- commercial feed, t2- plancton, t3- artemia, t4- plancton + feed, t5- artemia + feed and t6- artemia + plancton. larvaes were fed 6 times a day: 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hours. the water temperature was kept constant at 27oc, dissolved oxigen was kept between 6.16 ± 0.34 and ph between 7,16 ± 0,22. at the end of the experiment (10th day post-hatch), the larvaes that received diet containing artemia + plancton (t6) were longer (8.35 mm) and heavier (3518 μg body weight), compared to the larvae fed with the other tested diets. the larvae should be in the laboratory for 6 days after hatch, being feed from the 3rd day after hatch. before the 6th day, the larvae have the gas bladder completely full and swim continuously.
Influência de sanificantes nas características microbiológicas, físicas e físico-químicas de cebola (Allium cepa L.) minimamente processada
Beerli, Karla Michalsky Carvalho;Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros;Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542004000100014
Abstract: the goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (h2o2) and sodium dichloroisocianurate (nadcc) sanitizers on the shelf-life of fresh-cut onion, based on the microbial development and physical and physical-chemical characteristics. the onions were washed, peeled and sliced. the following treatments were tested using three randomized blocks: h2o2 (2%), h2o2 (4%), h2o2 (6%), nadcc (50ppm) and nadcc (100ppm). the slices were packed and stored at 4oc for 7 days, after sanitation. one package for treatment was used daily and the following variables were evaluated: standard counting of mesophile aerobic microorganisms, total counting of psychrotrophs aerobic microorganisms, moulds and yeasts, total coliforms at 35oc and 45oc, total soluble solids (tss), ph, titratable acidity (ta), firmness and mass loss. lower counting of mesophile aerobic were found in slices treated with h2o2; all treatments, but control, were effective in decreasing psychrotroph aerobic and total coliforms at 35oc; coliforms 45oc were not found in slices of any treatment; only h2o2 (4%) and h2o2 (6%) treatments decreased the values of moulds and yeasts; the treatments did not affect the tss and mass loss; nadcc treatments promoted higher ph; lower ta were found in slices treated with h2o2 (4%), h2o2 (6%) and nadcc (50ppm) and higher firmness were obtained in slices treated with h2o2 (4%) and h2o2 (6%). from the results it is concluded that h2o2 (4 and 6%) was more effective sanitizer for fresh-cut onions than nadcc; according the analyzed parameters, the fresh-cut onion was held in proper edible conditions for 7 days after processing, including the control (without sanitizer).
Gene flow and population structure in the Mexican blind cavefish complex (Astyanax mexicanus)
Martina Bradic, Peter Beerli, Francisco J García-de León, Sarai Esquivel-Bobadilla, Richard L Borowsky
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-12-9
Abstract: To assess the genetic structure within populations and the relationships among them we genotyped individuals at 26 microsatellite loci. We found that surface populations are similar to one another, despite their relatively large geographic separation, whereas the cave populations are better differentiated. The cave populations we studied span the full range of the cave forms in three separate geographic regions and have at least five separate evolutionary origins. Cave populations had lower genetic diversity than surface populations, correlated with their smaller effective population sizes, probably the result of food and space limitations. Some of the cave populations receive migrants from the surface and exchange migrants with one another, especially when geographically close. This admixture results in significant heterozygote deficiencies at numerous loci due to Wahlund effects. Cave populations receiving migrants from the surface contain small numbers of individuals that are intermediate in both phenotype and genotype, affirming at least limited gene flow from the surface.Cave populations of this species are derived from two different surface stocks denoted "old" and "new." The old stock colonized caves at least three times independently while the new stock colonized caves at least twice independently. Thus, the similar cave phenotypes found in these caves are the result of repeated convergences. These phenotypic convergences have occurred in spite of gene flow from surface populations suggesting either strong natural or sexual selection for alleles responsible for the cave phenotype in the cave environment.The mechanisms underlying the evolution of convergent phenotypes in independent natural populations pose long-standing questions in evolutionary biology. The extent to which convergent or parallel changes draw on preexisting genetic variation in ancestral populations versus new mutations is still debated [1,2]. The molecular and genetic changes that underly m
Prophylactic and therapeutic activity of fully human monoclonal antibodies directed against Influenza A M2 protein
Roger R Beerli, Monika Bauer, Nicole Schmitz, Regula B Buser, Myriam Gwerder, Simone Muntwiler, Wolfgang A Renner, Philippe Saudan, Martin F Bachmann
Virology Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-6-224
Abstract: Influenza A virus still is a major cause of disease in humans, accounting for three to five million cases of severe illness and 250,000 - 500,000 deaths each year [1]. Efficient influenza A vaccines are available, which induce antibodies predominantly against the two major components of the virus membrane, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuramidase (NA). Protection is mediated primarily by neutralizing antibodies against HA [2,3]. Since HA undergoes continuous change due to mutations (antigenic drift), new antigenic variants of influenza A arise every year requiring constant update of the vaccines. Effective vaccination is further complicated by the occasional reassortment of the segmented viral genome leading to the replacement of HA or NA from one subtype by another subtype, a processs called antigenic shift [4]. Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting HA is very efficient [5-7], however, suffers the same disadvantages as the current vaccines due to antigenic shift and drift.An ideal target for active and passive immunization strategies would therefore be a conserved viral protein. The matrix protein 2 (M2) fits the bill and has received considerable attention as a potential target against influenza infection over the past decades [8-23]. M2 is a tetrameric ion channel [24-26] which is involved in virus uncoating in the endosome and in virus maturation in the trans-Golgi network [27-29]. Its 23 amino acid extracellular domain has remained remarkably conserved in human influenza A virus isolates over the last hundred years [30], at least in part due to the fact that the M2 protein is co-transcribed with the matrix protein 1 (M1) [31,32]. Whereas M2 is abundantly expressed on infected cells, only very few M2 molecules are present in Influenza A virus membranes [23,26]. In accordance with this, current seasonal influenza vaccines do not induce a significant humoral resonse against M2, and M2 specific antibodies (administered intravenously or induced
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