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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 31814 matches for " Becker Joseph U "
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HIV/AIDS, conflict and security in Africa: rethinking relationships
Becker Joseph U,Theodosis Christian,Kulkarni Rick
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-11-3
Abstract: The effect of conflict on HIV transmission and regional and global security has been the subject of much recent discussion and debate. Many long held assumptions regarding these relationships are being reconsidered. Conflict has long been assumed to contribute significantly to the spread of HIV infection. However, new research is casting doubt on this assumption. Studies from Africa suggest that conflict does not necessarily predispose to HIV transmission and indeed, there is evidence to suggest that recovery in the "post-conflict" state is potentially dangerous from the standpoint of HIV transmission. As well, refugee populations have been previously considered as highly infected vectors of HIV transmission. But in light of new investigation this belief is also being reconsidered. There has additionally been concern that high rates of HIV infection among many of the militaries of sub-Saharan Africa poses a threat to regional security. However, data is lacking on both dramatically elevated prevalence amongst soldiers and a possible negative effect on regional security. Nevertheless, HIV/AIDS remain a serious threat to population health and economic well being in this region. These issues are of vital importance for HIV programming and health sector development in conflict and "post-conflict" societies and will constitute formidable challenges to the international community. Further research is required to better inform the discussion of HIV, conflict, and security in sub-Saharan Africa.
History of on-line Development
  Joseph Becker
Journal of Library and Information Science , 1984,
Abstract: 頁次:22-32
Generalized Ratio-Cum-Product Estimators for Two-Phase Sampling Using Multi-Auxiliary Variables  [PDF]
John Kung’u, Joseph Nderitu
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2016.64052
Abstract: In this paper, we have proposed estimators of finite population mean using generalized Ratio- cum-product estimator for two-Phase sampling using multi-auxiliary variables under full, partial and no information cases and investigated their finite sample properties. An empirical study is given to compare the performance of the proposed estimators with the existing estimators that utilize auxiliary variable(s) for finite population mean. It has been found that the generalized Ra-tio-cum-product estimator in full information case using multiple auxiliary variables is more efficient than mean per unit, ratio and product estimator using one auxiliary variable, ratio and product estimator using multiple auxiliary variable and ratio-cum-product estimators in both partial and no information case in two phase sampling. A generalized Ratio-cum-product estimator in partial information case is more efficient than Generalized Ratio-cum-product estimator in No information case.
Simultaneous development of the Pediatric GERD Caregiver Impact Questionnaire (PGCIQ) in American English and American Spanish
Jennifer Kim, Dorothy L Keininger, Sara Becker, Joseph A Crawley
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-3-5
Abstract: Two focus group discussions were conducted in American English and American Spanish to develop a relevant conceptual model. Focus group participants were the primary caregivers of children with GERD (newborn through 12 years of age). Participant responses were qualitatively analyzed to identify potential differences in caregiver perspectives by the caregiver's language, socio-economic status and demographic profile as well as the child's age and disease severity level. Items in the PGCIQ were generated simultaneously in English and Spanish by reviewing results of qualitative analysis from focus groups in each language. The PGCIQ was finalized in both languages after testing content validity and conducting an in-depth translatability assessment.Analysis of focus group comments resulted in the development of a first draft questionnaire consisting of 58 items in 10 domains. Content validity testing and an in-depth translatability assessment resulted in wording modification of 37 items, deletion of 14 items and the addition of a domain with five items. Feedback from the content validity testing interviews indicated that the instrument is conceptually relevant in both American English and American Spanish, clear, comprehensive and easy to complete within 10 minutes. The final version of the PGCIQ contains 49 items assessing ten domains. An optional module with nine items is available for investigative research purposes and for use only at baseline.The PGCIQ was developed using simultaneous item generation, a process that allows for consideration of concept relevance in all stages of development and in all languages being developed. The PGCIQ is the first questionnaire to document the multidimensional impact of caring for an infant or young child with GERD. Linguistic adaptation of the PGCIQ in multiple languages is ongoing. A validation study of the PGCIQ is needed to examine its psychometric properties, further refine the items and develop an appropriate scoring model.G
Provider Initiated Testing and Counseling (PITC) for HIV in resource-limited clinical settings: important questions unanswered
Joseph Becker,Landry Tsague,Peter Twyman,Ruben Sahabo
Pan African Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Testing is the gateway to HIV care and support services, and efforts to broaden treatment must include a proactive and inclusive approach to testing. Provider Initiated Testing and Counseling (PITC) for HIV utilizes the opportunity afforded by the clinical encounter for the care provider to make a clinical recommendation that the patient have a voluntary HIV test. It is hoped that by broadening testing by such strategies as PITC more patients may be identified and linked to treatment and support. However, there exist multiple challenges and questions regarding the provision of routine HIV testing and counseling in clinical facilities. In order to support further PITC efforts and scale up of current testing programs, a research agenda that addresses the ethical, social and operational components of PITC programming in health facilities, is critically needed to further guide its expansion.
Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics
CV Ramana, U Becker, V Shutthanandan, CM Julien
Geochemical Transactions , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1467-4866-9-8
Abstract: The present work was performed to understand thermal oxidation and metal-insertion processes of molybdenite surfaces. The analysis was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA).Structural studies using SEM and TEM indicate the local-disordering of the structure as a result of charge-transfer process between the inserted lithium and the molybdenite layer. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the large variations in the diffusivity of lithium confirming that the charge-transfer is different along and perpendicular to the layers in molybdenite. Thermal heating of molybenite surface in air at 400°C induces surface oxidation, which is slow during the first hour of heating and then increases significantly. The SEM results indicate that the crystals formed on the molybdenite surface as a result of thermal oxidation exhibit regular thin-elongated shape. The average size and density of the crystals on the surface is dependent on the time of annealing; smaller size and high density during the first one-hour and significant increase in size associated with a decrease in density with further annealing.Sulfide minerals and the associated geological/physical/chemical processes are an active research topic for mineralogists, geochemists, and geotechnical/environmental engineers. Sulfide ores constitute a major source of metals, especially noble metals. In addition, the rich diversity in crystal chemistry, surface reactivity, phase transformations, stability, thermodynamics, and electronic properties makes the sulfide minerals attractive for a wide variety of industrial applications, such as lubricants and catalysts [1,2]. Molybdenite (MoS2) belongs to the family of the transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) minerals with the formula MX2 (where M = Cd, Ti, Mo, Sn and X = I, S, Se). Due to their layered
Implications of Organ Allocation on Waitlist Time for Liver Transplantation in Children and Adolescents – Review on the Past 10 Years in the Eurotransplant Region
E.-D. Pfister,T. Becker,F. Lehner,U. Baumann
Transplantationsmedizin , 2011,
Abstract: Liver transplantation (LTx) has developed into an established therapy also in children and adolescents. In pediatric patients, numbers of transplantations, age distribution of patients as well as underlying diseases for LTx have remained constant since many years and there is also no increase to be expected as to the indications for pediatric LTx. Whereas splitting of livers, an established surgical therapy modality to provide two recipients with a new organ, is not performed in all divisable organs, mortality of children waiting for a liver transplant remains a critical topic. Waitlist time of a maximum of 3 months as required by law is largely exceeded. In the medium term, we cannot abstain from a split liver transplant program in order to provide adequate care for terminally ill pediatric liver patients and to optimally use divisable donor organs. Therefore, models of cooperation between centres with and without split organ programs have to be developed and sufficient time, staff and financial resources have to be dedicated to this project.
Ist die Sekretion der humanen Samenblase durch Stickoxid (NO) reguliert?
Machtens St,Becker A,Jonas U,Kuczyk M
Journal für Urologie und Urogyn?kologie , 2001,
Abstract: Fragestellung: Etwa 60 % des Seminalplasmas wird durch die Samenblasen sezerniert. Kürzlich durchgeführte Untersuchungen weisen auf die Bedeutung von Stickstoffoxid (NO) im Seminalplasma für die Spermienkapazitation und -viskosit t hin. Funktionelle Untersuchungen zeigten eine hohe Konzentration des NO-produzierenden Enzyms Stickstoffoxidsynthase (NOS) in der humanen Samenblase. Aufgabe der hier vorgestellten Untersuchung war es, die lichtmikroskopische und elektronenmikroskopische Verteilung der Isoformen der NOS immunhistochemisch zu untersuchen, um über die morphologische Distribution des Enzyms evtl. Rückschlüsse zur Funktion von NO für dieses Organ ziehen zu k nnen. Material und Methode: Die Samenblasen von 15 Patienten, die sich tumorchirurgischen Operationen (Prostatektomie, Cystektomie) unterzogen, wurden immunhistochemisch durch NADPH-d F rbung und mit monoklonalen Antik rpern gegen die neurogene (nNOS) und endotheliale (eNOS) Isoform untersucht. Ergebnisse: Lichtmikroskopisch zeigte sich eine intensive Reaktion der NADPH-d in den glandul r epithelialen Strukturen der Samenblasen, wogegen die stromalen Organanteile nur gering reagierten. Elektronenmikroskopisch fand sich eine markante membranst ndige Immunreaktion für NADPH-d an endoplasmatischem Retikulum, Mitochondrien und Nucleus. Im Vergleich zu dieser Reaktion war eine wesentlich geringere Immunantwort auf die spezifischen Antik rper gegen nNOS und eNOS nachweisbar. Schlu folgerung: Die elektronenmikroskopische NADPH-d Reaktion unterstützt die Annahme einer NO-regulierten Sekretion der humanen Samenblasen. Weiterhin ist entgegen früherer Annahmen die humane Samenblase der Produktionsort für in der Spermiogenese und Spermienfunktion ben tigtes NO. Die nur teilweise nachzuweisende Co-Lokalisation zwischen NADPH-d und nNOS bzw. eNOS-Reaktion k nnte auf die Existenz einer spezifischen, bisher nicht identifizierten NOS-Isoform hinweisen.
Hat das humane Wachtumshormon (hGH) eine Relevanz in der Kontrolle der penilen Erektion?
ückert St,Becker A,Brabant EG,Jonas U
Journal für Urologie und Urogyn?kologie , 2003,
Abstract: Allgemeines: Schon seit langem wird die Frage einer Beteiligung des Hypophysenhormons Human Growth Hormone (Wachstumshormon, hGH, GH) an der Kontrolle der sexuellen Maturation und der Reproduktionsfunktion des Menschen diskutiert. Die Symptome eines GH-Defizits beim Mann sind u. a. allgemeine Antriebslosigkeit, Oligo- oder Azoospermie, eine Verminderung der Libido sowie eine Beeintr chtigung der normalen Erektionsf higkeit. Es wird vermutet, da die biologischen Effekte des GH eine durch das Somatomedin Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) vermittelte Stimulation der Produktion von Stickoxid (NO) durch die endotheliale und neuronale Form des Enzyms NO-Synthase einschlie en. So konnte gezeigt werden, da physiologische Konzentrationen von GH den adrenergen Tonus isolierter Streifenpr parate humaner Schwellk rpermuskulatur antagonisieren und den Gewebegehalt des Second Messengers cGMP erh hen. Im Rahmen dieser Studie haben wir in einem Kollektiv gesunder M nner und in einer Gruppe von Patienten mit erektiler Dysfunktion (ED) die systemischen und cavern sen Serumkonzentrationen von GH w hrend verschiedener peniler Funktionszust nde, d. h. verschiedener Stadien der sexuellen Erregung, untersucht. Methoden: 35 gesunden m nnlichen Probanden und 45 Patienten mit einer ED organogener oder psychogener Genese wurden w hrend der penilen Flakzidit t, Tumeszenz, Rigidit t - dieses Stadium wurde nur von den Gesunden erreicht - und Detumeszenz zeitgleich Blutproben aus einer Cubitalvene und dem Corpus cavernosum penis entnommen. Tumeszenz und Rigidit t wurden durch visuelle und taktile Stimulation ausgel st. Die Quantifizierung von GH in Aliquots der Serumfraktionen erfolgte mit immunradiometrischen Methoden (IRMA). Ergebnisse: In der Gruppe der gesunden M nner stieg die mittlere systemische und cavern se Serumkonzentration von GH w hrend der Tumeszenz an, w hrend in den Phasen der Rigidit t und Detumeszenz eine Abnahme registriert wurde. Eine Unterteilung des Patientenkollektivs nach einer psychogenen und organogenen Genese der ED ergab, da die mittleren GH-Konzentrationen im Blut der psychogenen Patienten in den Stadien der Flakzidit t, Tumeszenz und Detumeszenz sich nicht wesentlich von denen im Serum der gesunden M nner unterschieden. Die GH-Spiegel im systemischen und cavern sen Blut der organogenen Patienten waren nicht nur deutlich erniedrigt, auch eine Erh hung der mittleren GH-Serumkonzentration w hrend der penilen Tumeszenz wurde nur in geringem Ma e registriert. Schlu folgerung: Unsere Resultate lassen vermuten, da dem GH wahrscheinlich eine zentrale Roll
Controlling Sleeping Sickness—“When Will They Ever Learn?”
David Molyneux ,Joseph Ndung'u,Ian Maudlin
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000609
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