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Effect of Maternal Employment on Infant Feeding Practices in Southwestern Nigeria  [PDF]
Beatrice Olubukola Ogunba
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.67063
Abstract: The study investigated the effect of maternal employment on breastfeeding and child care practices of mothers in Southwestern Nigeria. Information was collected on maternal socio economic characteristics, care and feeding practices of 450 mothers selected by multi stage random sampling procedure from both urban and rural communities. Results revealed that 46.9% mothers spent more than 8 hours at work, 62.7% worked outside their homes and 73.1% spent about 17 - 24 hours with their children per day. Children received prelacteal feeds such as water (61.1%), concoction (34%), glucose (32%) and infant formula (54.7%). Mean number of breastfeeding per day was 9.7 ± 3.9; only 24% were exclusively breastfed, 37.3% introduced complementary foods at 6 months and 68.6% terminated breastfeeding between 13 - 18 months. Mothers that were engaged in work outside their home in offices and factories practiced exclusive breastfeeding. Mothers below 30 years of age used prelacteal feeds, did not practice exclusive breastfeeding (58.3%), terminated breastfeeding earlier and combined the use of feeding bottles, plates and cups for feeding (50.3%) when compared with mothers between 40 - 50 years. Mothers in the rural areas used water as prelacteal feeds (85.3%) mothers in urban communities used infant formula (65.4%). A significant association was found between maternal places of employment. It is strongly associated with the timing of introduction of complementary foods (p < 0.02) and the number of snack consumed/day (p < 0.03). Conclusively, maternal place of work positively influences the adoption of appropriate infant feeding practice. Working mothers should receive more support in the work place for them to practice appropriate feeding practices.
Adoption of Enriched Local Complementary Food in Osun State: Combating Micronutrient Deficiency in the First Two Years of Life
BO Ogunba
African Research Review , 2012,
Abstract: Locally processed complementary foods, appropriately enriched can complement breast milk and traditional foods during the nutritionally vulnerable periods of a child life. The study therefore examines the adoption of enriched local complementary foods in Osun State Nigeria. Structured interview schedule was used to collect information from 384 women about new home made complementary foods introduced to them during ante and post natal clinic. Awareness, adoption and discontinuity of the foods were also determined. Results revealed that majority of the women (44.3%) were between 30-39years of age and have attended secondary school (45%). Of the foods introduced in the urban center mothers were aware of “eko ilera” (12.8%), groundnut milk (11.1%), soya milk (23.5%), mashed potato and milk (11.1%), pap and banana (12.8%), cowpea milk (7.6%) and tom brown (6.4%). Their rural counterparts were only aware of food such as “eko ilera”, soya milk and pap and banana with low percentage which are 1.3%, 6% and 2% respectively. The adoption for “eko ilera” was (86.7%), pap and banana (93.3%), cowpea milk 88.8% and tom brown (86.6%) for the urban women, while their rural counterparts recorded 100% for eko ilera, 55.5% for soya milk and 66.6% for pap and banana. It is concluded that for sustainability, interventions must be continued for longer periods of time to reach late adopters and it is recommended that improved child feeding practices will be promoted at the community level.
Nutritional quality of the lunches of children in day care in Osun State of Nigeria
GE Ogbimi, BO Ogunba
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: Food patterns and dietary quality in the early years of life are usually determined by parents and other primary caretakers. Unfortunately the diets commonly offered to young children are of low quality and often lack variety, which is the key to specific nutrient adequacy. They are usually of low energy and nutrient density and as a result, multiple nutrient deficiencies are common in this age group. This study investigated the nutritional quality of the lunches of children in day care in Osun State of Nigeria. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data from 180 mothers randomly selected from the study area. Mothers were interviewed about their children s eating habits, lunches and snacks packed for school. Descriptive statistics, such as percentages and frequency, were used to describe data. The results of the studyrevealed that 76% of the children ate breakfast before going to school. Almost all (91%) mothers gave their children lunch packs for school. The majority (72%) of the children went to school with additional mid-morning snacks, such as biscuits and pastries, and 12% took fruits. Few children (16%) did not take snacks to school. The socio-economic status of mothers was also considered and its effect on type of meal packed was examined. Results showed that 44.4% of the meals packed by mothers included carbohydrate-rich foods; 33.3% were partially balanced diets; and 22.3% packed a balanced meal for the children. Lower class mothers (15%) gave carbohydrate-rich food, while those of the middle class (21%) gave partially balanced diets. The percentage of mothers that packed balanced meals was not significantly different for the three socio-economic groups. It is recommended that mothers shouldhave access to nutrition information about recommended dietary practices for children and should be educated on how to use the four food plan group in planning meals for children through nutrition education programmes.
Palynology of the Genus Stachytarpheta Vahl. (Verbenaceae)
Olubukola ADEDEJI
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2010,
Abstract: The exine morphology of pollen grains of Stachytarpheta indica (Linn.) Vahl, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl and Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill.) Vahl is reported. This study was carried out with a light microscope. Pollen grains from fresh anthers were collected and aceolysed. Statistical analysis used to analyse the data collected include cluster analysis, correlation analysis, similarity and distance indices. The pollen grains are spheroidal to oblate to sub-oblate in shape. They are aperturate, both colpate and porate. Tricolpate types occur most frequently, acolpate, monocolpate, bicolpate and tetracolpate types less frequently. The multicolpate and multiporate attributes in all the species indicate that the genus is not primitive in evolutionary history and this species probably, evolved around in the same time. According to the size, the pollen grains of the genus falls into groups permagna (pollen diameter 100-200 μm) and giganta (pollen diameter greater than 200 μm). S. cayennensis and S. anguistifolia belong to group permagna and S. indica only in the group giganta. This separates S. indica from the other two species. The large pollen grain size in the genus clearly supports the fact that the flowers in the genus are more insect-and-bird pollinated than wind pollinated. The similarity and distance indices of the species showed that S. cayennensis and S. angustifolia are the closest. S. indica is closer to S. angustifolia but farther from S. cayennensis.
Pectinolytic and Cellulolytic Enzymes Enhance Fusarium compactum Virulence on Tubercles Infection of Egyptian Broomrape
Olubukola O. Babalola
International Journal of Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/273264
Abstract: The use of enzyme could facilitate pathogen penetration into plant host. Here the combination of cellulase and pectinase was ascertained on the pathogenicity of F. compactum (1.4×106  propagules ml−1) on broomrape tubercles. F. compactum alone infected all the inoculated tubercles but did not kill any significant number. Infested tomato roots that were inoculated with mycelia plus pectinase (20 U ml−1) had over 50% tubercles dead one week after treatment. Those inoculated with mycelia plus cellulase (20 U ml−1) had above 60% mortality. Mixtures of mycelial plus the two enzymes (10 U ml−1 of each enzyme) showed synergy. The activity catalyzed by an enzyme is a measure of the amount of enzyme present. It was shown that, in a 1 mg (10 U mg−1) cellulase used, 0.055 mg pectinase (1.1 U mg−1) is present. This explains why mycelial plus cellulase mix contends with mycelial plus the two enzymes.
Exogenous Cellulase Contributes to Mycoherbicidal Activity of Fusarium arthrosporioides on Orobanche aegyptiaca
Olubukola O. Babalola
International Journal of Agronomy , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/963259
Abstract: This paper investigates an association between the tubercle size of Orobanche aegyptiaca, tubercle death, and days to tubercle death in relation to cellulase-assisted mycoherbicide. Fusarium arthrosporioides killed 56% of tubercles when applied with cellulase compared to 35% when no cellulase was added. Death was inversely correlated with days over the two fungal treatment types. O. aegyptiaca tubercle size significantly correlated with the two other infection parameters studied. For F. arthrosporioides, only 9% ( ) of the variation in days to death was explained by variation in tubercle size, whereas with cellulase it reaches 14%. In this study, mycelia of F. arthrosporioides did not show apparent damage to the tomato roots. 1. Introduction Orobanche spp. (broomrapes) are holoparasitic flowering plants, penetrating roots of susceptible hosts, removing water, minerals, and sugars. Orobanche attacks several crops causing enormous yield losses [1]. Orobanche generally maintains a close relationship with the host and so it is unreasonable to attack it using herbicides because the latter may adversely affect the nontarget host. Despite research on Orobanche spp. for over three decades, yield losses still abound because there is no sustainable method for controlling the parasite. Several weed biocontrol agents are not sufficiently virulent for field release [2]. Since hydrolytic enzyme plays an important role in the pathogenicity of plants by facilitating fungal penetration through the host cell wall [3, 4], it may be worthwhile to attempt coinoculation of enzyme and fungi. A series of experiments were conducted using Fusarium arthrosporioides, a biological control agent that infects Orobanche without affecting the roots of tomato. Experiments using mycoherbicidal organisms plus pectinase enzyme [5] indicate that the enzymes enhance the weed control of a pathogenic fungus. The role of cellulase for plant pertains to modifing cellulose assemblies that are the dominant component of the plant cell wall [6]. Here, cellulase has been used to improve the virulence of F. arthrosporioides on tomato plants infested with O. aegyptiaca. A semiaxenic polyethylene bag system was used that allowed easy visual observation of the fungal infection of the tubercles. It was demonstrated that O. aegyptiaca tubercle size best described the relationship between tubercle death and biological control treatment. The addition of cellulase alone or in mixtures enhanced the virulence of F. arthrosporioides on O. aegyptiaca. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Fungal Inoculum Production F.
Molecular techniques: An overview of methods for the detection of bacteria
Olubukola O Babalola
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2003,
Abstract: Several DNA molecular markers are now available for use in surveillance and investigation of food-borne outbreaks that were previously difficult to detect. The results from several sources of literature indicate substantially different degrees of sensitivities between conventional detection methods and molecular-based methods. The new technology is noted for increased sensitivity over the traditional culture methods which they complement.
Routine antenatal syphilis screening in South West Nigeria - a questionable practice
A Olubukola, O Adesina
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Untreated maternal syphilis is strongly associated with adverse birth outcomes, especially in women with high titre syphilis. The WHO recommends routine serological screening in pregnancy. Some workers have advised a reappraisal of this practice, having demonstrated low sero-prevalence in their antenatal population. In view of this, the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis in the antenatal population presenting at a major hospital in south-west Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of healthy pregnant Nigerian women attending Adeoyo Maternity Hospital in the capital of Oyo State. The case record of every pregnant woman presenting for their first antenatal clinic visit over a 4-month period (September 1st to December 31st 2006) was reviewed. Results: During the study period, two thousand six hundred and seventy-eight women sought antenatal care. Three hundred and sixty-nine women (369; 13.4%) had incomplete records and were excluded from analysis. The records of the 2,318(86.6%) women with adequate records were subsequently reviewed. The mean age of the women was 27.4 years (± 5.34) and the mean gestational age 26.4 weeks (±6.36). The modal parity was 0. Only three patients were found to be reactive for syphilis giving a prevalence of 0.13%. Conclusion: The sero- prevalence value in this study is quite low and may justify the call to discontinue routine antenatal syphilis screening. However, a more rigorous screening program using diagnostic tests with higher sensitivity maybe necessary before jettisoning this traditional aspect of antenatal care.
Pectinolytic and Cellulolytic Enzymes Enhance Fusarium compactum Virulence on Tubercles Infection of Egyptian Broomrape
Olubukola O. Babalola
International Journal of Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/273264
Abstract: The use of enzyme could facilitate pathogen penetration into plant host. Here the combination of cellulase and pectinase was ascertained on the pathogenicity of F. compactum ( ??propagules ml?1) on broomrape tubercles. F. compactum alone infected all the inoculated tubercles but did not kill any significant number. Infested tomato roots that were inoculated with mycelia plus pectinase (20?U?ml?1) had over 50% tubercles dead one week after treatment. Those inoculated with mycelia plus cellulase (20?U?ml?1) had above 60% mortality. Mixtures of mycelial plus the two enzymes (10?U?ml?1 of each enzyme) showed synergy. The activity catalyzed by an enzyme is a measure of the amount of enzyme present. It was shown that, in a 1?mg (10?U?mg?1) cellulase used, 0.055?mg pectinase (1.1?U?mg?1) is present. This explains why mycelial plus cellulase mix contends with mycelial plus the two enzymes. 1. Introduction Broomrapes (Orobanche spp.) are fully parasitic flowering plants that lack chlorophyll; hence they penetrate roots of susceptible hosts, removing water, minerals and sugars. Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers. (Egyptian broomrape) attacks dicotyledonous crops cultivated around the Mediterranean, causing massive yield losses [1]. Broomrape attached to the host by means of tubercle, a swollen organ which may be simple or composite. With the exception of the case of transgenic target-site, herbicide-resistant host plants, meant to be a temporary measure until other effective control means are found [2]. Orobanche generally maintains a close relationship with the host and so it is unreasonable to attack it using herbicides because the latter may adversely affect the nontarget host. Despite research on Orobanche spp. for over three decades, yield losses still abound because there is no sustainable method for controlling the parasite. Fusarium compactum (Wollenw.) Gordon, used in this study is a pathogen of broomrape plants. The inundative biocontrol approach, with repeated applications of the biocontrol agent, generates a state of equilibrium with a very low level of weed density as a result of the artificial inoculation of the biocontrol agent but the fungi are not sufficiently virulent for field release, regardless of the amount used. A series of experiments were conducted using F. compactum, a biological control agent that infects Orobanche without affecting the roots of tomato. Some fungi are reported to have pectinolytic and/or cellulolytic enzymes [3]. Pectins are complex polysaccharides and are one of the major components of the plant cell wall of dicotyledonous
Nutritive Values and Antioxidant Activity of Citrullus lanatus Fruit Extract  [PDF]
Adewale Adetutu, Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola, Olusoji Abiodun Owoade
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.611109
Abstract: Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) is a fruit cultivated and consumed in Africa for its essential nutrients which are very beneficial to the human body. The present study was designed to evaluate the nutritive contents, free radical scavenging activities and phytochemical components of C. lanatus fruit. The extract of the fruit was subjected to in vitro antioxidant assessment using 1,1-di-phenylpicryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assays. The proximate and phytochemical analyses were conducted using standard procedures. The results of this study showed that C. lanatus fruit had very high moisture content and its crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and ash content were all in traceable amounts. The sugar content was considerably high in comparison with other nutritive contents. Lycopene and β-carotene contents of C. lanatus fruit were estimated to be 4537.83 and 308.71 μg/100g respectively. The gross energy evaluation showed a value of 0.335 Kcal/g. The fruit extract exhibited significant (p < 0.05) DPPH (IC50 of 0.10 mg/ml) and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activity (IC50 of 0.62 mg/ml) in comparison with the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene (BTH). This study therefore recommends that C. lanatus fruit could be an excellent source of antioxidants which may prevent diseases whose pathogenesis involves oxidative stress.
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