Abstract:
Background: Cysteine-Cysteine Chemokine Receptor
5 (CCR5), also referred to as CD195, is a component of the
mammalian cell membrane and is receptor for chemokines that are activated
during cell damage and inflammations. This receptor is coded by a gene located
in the human chromosome 3. A Mutation on this CCR5 through deletion of 32 base
pairs results into a non-destructive gene CCR5Δ32. It enables protection
against HIV infection to its homozygous carriersand slows progression of the disease to heterozygous carriers. Objective:
To systematically review and establish global distribution of CCR5Δ32 allele in
HIV-1 infected individuals over the history of the epidemic and compare regions
inhabited by Caucasians, Asians and Africans. Methodology: This
meta-analysis comprised of published papers with over 10,000 individuals from
whom CCR5-Delta32 allele was successfully
genotyped and recorded. The study review period was from 1984 to 2017. The
search targeted online sources such as Hinari specifically PubMed Central,
Google scholar, Science Direct, Research4Life, National Center for
Biotechnology Information (NCBI), OVID databases, AIDS Journal and Google. The
searches were not limited to a particular publication language or study design
but excluded letters of correspondence and conference presentations. Search
strategy using key words from a combination of Medical Subject Heading (MeSH)
and free text including terms related to CCR5, CCR5Δ32 and HIV were performed
in Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) through
OvidOpenAccess. Additional studies were identified by perusing the reference list
of relevant and included articles. The review considered studies conducted
among general population, both HIV

Abstract:
The solution of an initial-boundary value problem for a linear evolution partial differential equation posed on the half-line can be represented in terms of an integral in the complex (spectral) plane. This representation is obtained by the {\em unified transform} introduced by Fokas in the 90's. On the other hand, it is known that many initial-boundary value problems can be solved via a classical transform pair, constructed via the spectral analysis of the associated spatial operator. For example, the Dirichlet problem for the heat equation can be solved by applying the Fourier sine transform pair. However, for many other initial-boundary value problems there is {\em no} suitable transform pair in the classical literature. Here we pose and answer two related questions: Given any well-posed initial-boundary value problem, does there exist a (non-classical) transform pair suitable for solving that problem? If so, can this transform pair be constructed via the spectral analysis of a differential operator? The answer to both of these questions is positive and given in terms of {\em augmented eigenfunctions}, a novel class of spectral functionals introduced by one of the authors. These are eigenfunctions of a suitable differential operator in a certain generalised sense, they provide an effective spectral representation of the operator, and are associated with a transform pair suitable to solve the given initial-boundary value problem.

Abstract:
We derive the solution representation for a large class of nonlocal boundary value problems for linear evolution PDEs with constant coefficients in one space variable. The prototypical such PDE is the heat equation, but we also consider the third order case, which is much less studied and has been shown by the authors to have very different structural properties in general. The nonlocal conditions we consider can be reformulated as multipoint conditions, and then an explicit representation for the solution of the problem is obtained by an application of the Fokas Transform method. The analysis is carried out under the assumption that the problem being solved is well posed, i.e. that it admits a unique solution. For the second order case, we also give criteria that guarantee well-posedness.

Abstract:
Given a square matrix $A$, Brauer's theorem [Duke Math. J. 19 (1952), 75--91] shows how to modify one single eigenvalue of $A$ via a rank-one perturbation, without changing any of the remaining eigenvalues. We reformulate Brauer's theorem in functional form and provide extensions to matrix polynomials and to matrix Laurent series $A(z)$ together with generalizations to shifting a set of eigenvalues. We provide conditions under which the modified function $\widetilde A(z)$ has a canonical factorization $\widetilde A(z)=\widetilde U(z)\widetilde L(z^{-1})$ and we provide explicit expressions of the factors $\widetilde U(z)$ and $\widetilde L(z)$. Similar conditions and expressions are given for the factorization of $\widetilde A(z^{-1})$. Some applications are discussed.

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to identify the performance measurements used for the evaluation of quality in Kenyan university libraries, with the aim of determining the perceptions of university librarians towards performance measurement. The study established that the majority of the university librarians considered 25 of the 26 performance indicators important. More than 60% of them considered 11 of the 20 performance indicators very important. The study recommends the use of nine performance criteria and 26 indicators for the evaluation of the quality of university libraries.

Abstract:
Lightcurve observations of asteroids and bare cometary nuclei are the most widely used observational tool to derive the rotational parameters. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of how component periods of dynamically excited non-principal axis (NPA) rotators manifest in lightcurves is a crucial step in this process. We investigated this with the help of numerically generated lightcurves of NPA rotators with component periods known a priori. The component periods of NPA rotation were defined in terms of two widely used yet complementary conventions. We derive the relationships correlating the component rotation periods in the two conventions. These relationships were then used to interpret the periodicity signatures present in the simulated lightcurves and rationalize them in either convention.

Abstract:
We present some advances, both from a theoretical and from a computational point of view, on a quadratic vector equation (QVE) arising in Markovian Binary Trees. Concerning the theoretical advances, some irreducibility assumptions are relaxed, and the minimality of the solution of the QVE is expressed in terms of properties of the Jacobian of a suitable function. From the computational point of view, we elaborate on the Perron vector-based iteration proposed in [http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.0577]. In particular we provide a condition which ensures that the Perron iteration converges to the sought solution of the QVE. Moreover we introduce a variant of the algorithm which consists in applying the Newton method instead of a fixed-point iteration. This method has the same convergence behaviour as the Perron iteration, since its convergence speed increases for close-to-critical problems. Moreover, unlike the Perron iteration, the method has a quadratic convergence. Finally, we show that it is possible to alter the bilinear form defining the QVE in several ways without changing the solution. This modification has an impact on convergence speed of the algorithms.

Abstract:
The study examined poverty, divorce and peer-pressure as correlates of behavioural problems among adolescents in Adekunle Ajasin University. A total number of 100 students were randomly selected from various Departments in the Faculty of Education. The research instrument titled: Adolescent Psychological Questionnaire (APQ) consisting of 18 items was administered to the adolescents in the Faculty. Four research hypotheses were formulated. The data were analysed using frequency count and Chi-Square statistics. Results showed that all the hypotheses tested were significant. This implies that poverty, divorce and peer-pressure were correlates of behavioural problems among adolescents in the Faculty of Education, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba- Akoko, Nigeria.

Abstract:
The study investigated the effect of maternal employment on breastfeeding and child care practices of mothers in Southwestern Nigeria. Information was collected on maternal socio economic characteristics, care and feeding practices of 450 mothers selected by multi stage random sampling procedure from both urban and rural communities. Results revealed that 46.9% mothers spent more than 8 hours at work, 62.7% worked outside their homes and 73.1% spent about 17 - 24 hours with their children per day. Children received prelacteal feeds such as water (61.1%), concoction (34%), glucose (32%) and infant formula (54.7%). Mean number of breastfeeding per day was 9.7 ± 3.9; only 24% were exclusively breastfed, 37.3% introduced complementary foods at 6 months and 68.6% terminated breastfeeding between 13 - 18 months. Mothers that were engaged in work outside their home in offices and factories practiced exclusive breastfeeding. Mothers below 30 years of age used prelacteal feeds, did not practice exclusive breastfeeding (58.3%), terminated breastfeeding earlier and combined the use of feeding bottles, plates and cups for feeding (50.3%) when compared with mothers between 40 - 50 years. Mothers in the rural areas used water as prelacteal feeds (85.3%) mothers in urban communities used infant formula (65.4%). A significant association was found between maternal places of employment. It is strongly associated with the timing of introduction of complementary foods (p < 0.02) and the number of snack consumed/day (p < 0.03). Conclusively, maternal place of work positively influences the adoption of appropriate infant feeding practice. Working mothers should receive more support in the work place for them to practice appropriate feeding practices.

Abstract:
Studies have associated demographic characteristics as strong determinants of utilization of health care services; however, not much has been done to explore the dynamics of these variables in Nigeria. This empirical study explores the link between demographic factors and the use of health care services. 543 respondents were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. The findings showed that a majority (56.9%) of the respondents were female while (50.3%) were married. Testing the demographic characteristics regarding where people will prefer to go for treatment with multiple regression, it is only sex as a demographic variable that indicates positive association, with 0.08 level of significance. Variables such as age and education did not indicate any strong correlation with health care services utilization in the study area. This result corroborates the reality in many parts of African society where it is the father that dictates the cause of action. That means gender plays an important role in the utilization of health care delivery.