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The aim of the paper was to determine benz(a)-pyrene in the preparations containing humates and study the benz(a)pyrene biological potency for the agricultural plants. The research methodology included the determination of the dependencies in the system “substance concentration (dose)—effect on the plant”. Concentrations of benz(a)pyrene in 12 samples of the humates preparations and fertilizers based on their trademarks “Irkutsk humates”, obtained from brown coal, varied in the range from 0.3 to 50 mcg/kg, which creates no soil contamination in conditions of the use of preparations. Between contents of benz(a)pyrene and humates there is a correlation (rxy = 0.95; α = 0.05). It is ascertained that the effects of stimulation and/or inhibition of the growth and yield of agricultural plants depend on the concentration of benz(a)pyrene and the method of plant processing. Optimal concentrations of benz(a)pyrene were 150-200 ng/dm3 for preplant way of processing of potato tubers, 3-10 ng/dm3—for top dressing (spraying) and 0.1-0.3 ng/dm3—for dressing under the roots (hydroponic). The obtained results allowed us to offer one of the possible mechanisms of biological potency of humates as the plant growth stimulants, and also a way testing of the preparations by screening of their benz(a)pyrene content.
Ultrasound is versatile and innovative technology due to its wide range of application and increase in knowledge and research studies. It is used in food industry for many purposes including analysis methods and food processings such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, homogenization, degassing, antifoaming, filtration and extraction. Ultrasound can be used as a promoter or alternative to food processing. There may be numereous advantages of using ultrasound for food processing such as effective mixing, increased mass transfer, reduced energy, reduced temperature and increased production rate. Due to the elimination of microorganisms and enzymes without destroying nutrients of foods, ultrasound can be used as an alternative method to thermal treatments in the food preservation. Additionally, low power ultrasound is thought to be an attractive nonthermal method due to overcome problems which occur during heat treatments such as physical and chemical changes, nutritional loss and change in organoleptic properties. This review summarizes mechanism, operation and latest potential applications of ultrasound in the food preservation.
The removal of chromium (VI)
from aqueous solutions by Donnan dialysis has been investigated in this paper.
In this process, two anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) were used: Selemion? AMV and Neosepta? AFN. The amount of chromium (VI) removed was
determined in terms of the following parameters: initial concentration of
chromium (VI), type of anion-exchange membrane, concentration of counter-ion
and magnetic stirring rate. A 24 full factorial design analysis was performed
to screen the parameters affecting the Cr (VI) removal efficiency. Using the
experimental results, a linear mathematical model representing the influence of the
different parameters as well as their interactions was
obtained. Analysis of the variance (ANOVA), the F-test and the student’s test
shows that the type of anion-exchange membrane is the most significant parameter
affecting the chromium (VI) removal. The statistical analysis of the experimental
data assumes it to be a normal distribution.
The aim of this paper is the assessment of Donnan
dialysis coupled to adsorption process for the removal of chromium from aqueous
solutions. This study was conducted in order to benefit from each process, and
it was an original and new combination. The coupling was a solution to improve
the contact time and the amount of chromium (VI) removed. The coupling was
successfully performed with 90% of chromium (VI) removed after 6 hours.