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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12651 matches for " Barbara Wilson-Clay "
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The milk of human kindness: the story of the Mothers Milk Bank at Austin
Barbara Wilson-Clay
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-1-6
Abstract: The nutritional superiority and immunological benefits provided by human milk are widely accepted [1,2]. Certain populations of high-risk infants may profit even more from these protections [3-7]. Ideally, own-mother's milk is provided. There is debate about whether banked human donor milk confers similar advantages. A systematic review examined outcomes of preterm infants fed donor human milk versus infant formula [8]. Meta-analysis indicated that the use of donor human milk was associated with a significant reduction in the relative risk of development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) [8].Recently, Schanler and colleagues questioned the benefit of banked human donor milk [9]. However, tables included in the Schanler study describe a significant decrease in chronic lung disease in the both own-mothers' milk and donor milk groups compared to the group receiving preterm infant formula [10]. Further, although the small sample size was inadequate to detect statistical significance, additional data included in the tables indicate that the rate of NEC was six per cent in the mothers milk and donor milk groups compared to 11 percent in the preterm infant formula group [10].While un-pasteurized, own mothers' milk remains the gold standard, many mothers, particularly those who have given birth to preterm babies, have difficulty producing adequate volumes of milk [9,11-13]. In Austin, the capital of Texas, neonatologists George Sharpe, MD and Audelio Rivera, MD, observed in their neonatal intensive care units that human milk-fed infants experienced better outcomes and shorter hospitalizations. They became interested in establishing a human donor milk bank in order to provide human milk to infants whose own mothers were unable to fully nourish them.Dr. Sharpe recalls, "I became enamored of the prospect of not having to treat NEC, one of the worst complications of the growing premature. A milk bank seemed an essential thing to do for our babies." Dr. Rivera agrees. "We start
An Examination of Palliative or End-of-Life Care Education in Introductory Nursing Programs across Canada
Donna M. Wilson,Barbara L. Goodwin,Jessica A. Hewitt
Nursing Research and Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/907172
Abstract: An investigation was done to assess for and describe the end-of-life education provided in Canadian nursing programs to prepare students for practice. All 35 university nursing schools/faculties were surveyed in 2004; 29 (82.9%) responded. At that time, all but one routinely provided this education, with that school developing a course (implemented the next year). As compared to past surveys, this survey revealed more class time, practicum hours, and topics covered, with this content and experiences deliberately planned and placed in curriculums. A check in 2010 revealed that all of these schools were providing death education similar to that described in 2004. These findings indicate that nurse educators recognize the need for all nurses to be prepared to care for dying persons and their families. Regardless, more needs to be done to ensure novice nurses feel capable of providing end-of-life care. Death education developments will be needed as deaths increase with population aging. 1. Introduction Caring for dying persons and their families has always been a major responsibility of nurses. Nurses working today can expect to care for dying persons and their families in hospitals, private residences, nursing homes, prisons, and most other places of employment [1]. This care can be very difficult to provide, in part because death is such a significant event but also because it is not always evident when a dying process is occurring. In the 1960s, the enlightened approaches of Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, Cicely Saunders, and Jeanne Quint Benoliel began to impact end-of-life care, helping to shift it from primarily cure-oriented and life-prolongation efforts to palliative or comfort-oriented care and quality-of-life-remaining efforts [2–6]. In Canada, Balfour Mount is widely considered the father of palliative care through his efforts, which include founding Montreal's Royal Victoria Hospital palliative care service in 1974/75. Today, palliative care is widely recognized as an essential healthcare service, and it has become a nursing and medical specialty in many countries [7–9]. Since 2004, the Canadian Nurses Association has had a certification program for nurses who choose to specialize in hospice/palliative care [10]. This credential, signifying an expert level of palliative care knowledge and skills, is not a prerequisite however for every nurse who provides end-of-life care. As deaths occur in many different settings and across all age groups [1, 11], every nurse must be prepared to care for dying people and their families. Palliative or end-of-life care
Synthesis and Structure-Activity Correlation Studies of Metal Complexes of α-N-heterocyclic Carboxaldehyde Thiosemicarbazones in Shewanella oneidensis
Barbara A. Wilson,Ramaiyer Venkatraman,Cedrick Whitaker,Quintell Tillison
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph2005010170
Abstract: This investigation involved the synthesis of metal complexes to test the hypothesis that structural changes and metal coordination in pyridine thiosemicarbazones affect cell growth and cell proliferation in vitro. Thiosemicarbazones are well known to possess antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial, antimalarial, and other activities. Extensive research has been carried out on aliphatic, aromatic, heterocyclic and other types of thiosemicarbazones and their metal complexes. Due to the pronounced reactivity exhibited by metal complexes of heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones, synthesis and structural characterization of di-2-pyridylketone 4N-phenyl thiosemicarbazone and diphenyl tin (Sn) and platinum (Pt) complexes were undertaken. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a metal ion-reducing bacterium, was used as a model organism to explore the biological activity under aerobic conditions. A comparision of the cytotoxic potential of selected ligand and metal-complex thiosemicarbazones on cell growth in wild type MR-1 and mutant DSP-010 Shewanella oneidensis strains at various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 25 ppm) was performed. The wild type (MR-1) grown in the presence of increasing concentrations of Sn- thiosemicarbazone complexes was comparatively more sensitive (mean cell number = 4.8 X 108 + 4.3 X 107 SD) than the DSP-010, a spontaneous rifampicillin derivative of the parent strain (mean cell number = 5.6 x 108 + 6.4 X 107 SD) under comparable aerobic conditions (p=0.0004). No differences were observed in the sensitivity of the wild and mutant types when exposed to various concentrations of diphenyl Pt- thiosemicarbazone complex (p= 0.425) or the thiosemicarbazone ligand (p=0.313). Growth of MR-1 in the presence of diphenyl Sn- thiosemicarbazone was significantly different among treatment groups (p=0.012). MR-1 cell numbers were significantly higher at 5ppm than at 10 to 20ppm (p = 0.05). The mean number of DSP-010 variant strain cells also differed among diphenyl Sn- thiosemicarbazone complex treated groups (p=0.051). In general, there was an increasing trend in the number of cells from about 5.0 X 108 cells (methanol control group) to about 6.0 X 108 cells (25ppm). The number of cells in methanol control group was significantly lower than cell numbers at 20ppm and 25ppm (p = 0.05), and numbers at 5ppm treatment were lower than at 20 and 25ppm (p = 0.05). Furthermore, a marginally significant difference in the number of MR-1 cells was observed among diphenyl Pt- thiosemicarbazone complex treatment groups (p = 0.077), and an increasing trend in the number of cells was noted from ~5.0 X 108 cells (methanol control group) to ~5.8 X 108 cells (20ppm). In contrast, the DSP-010 variant strain showed no significant differences in cell numbers when treated with various concentrations of diphenyl Pt- thiosemicarbazone complex (p = 0.251). Differences in response to Sn- metal complex between MR-1 and DSP-010 growing cultures indicate that biological activity to thiosemicarbazone metal complexes may be strain specific.
Pratiques de l’appropriation foncière en contexte musulman Land appropriation practices in the Muslim context
Alice Wilson,Fran?ois Ireton,Baudouin Dupret,Barbara Casciarri
Transcontinentales : Sociétés, Idéologies, Système Mondial , 2011,
Abstract: Cet article porte sur la question de la propriété et de sa transmission. Nous proposons de nous départir d’une vision culturaliste du droit, qui prévaut largement dans les travaux sur les mondes musulmans, au profit d’une approche ethnographique des pratiques d’acquisition et de transmission de la propriété foncière. Nous montrons comment, sur des terrains algériens et soudanais, les acteurs mobilisent des droits locaux et nationaux, voire internationaux, pour faire valoir un titre à la propriété, en particulier sur des biens collectifs ou publics. L’attention est focalisée sur les pratiques actuelles d’appropriation foncière en zone agricole et/ou périurbaine et sur les conflits qui leur sont inhérents. Après avoir succinctement présenté le cadre praxéologique de la démarche que nous entreprenons, ainsi que les travaux récents au sujet de la propriété dans ces deux pays, nous décrivons comment opèrent, autour d’un objet commun (les modes d’accès à la terre), le jeu des protagonistes, leurs différents référents juridiques et les institutions impliquées dans l’arène de la négociation pour l’accès à la terre et la résolution éventuelle du conflit. This article deals with the question of “property” and its transmission. Our approach distances itself from the right-wing culturalist perspectives often adopted in studies of the Muslim world to favour an ethnographical approach examining the ways in which land is acquired and transferred. We show how actors in Algeria and Sudan use local, national and even international laws to claim title to land, especially in cases of collective or public goods. Our focus then shifts to the land appropriation practices currently affecting agricultural and/or peri-urban areas and the conflicts they give rise to. After briefly presenting our “praxelogical” approach and recent work on property in both countries, we describe how protagonists’s strategies, different legal referents, and institutions involved in negotiations on land access and conflict resolution work towards a single goal (providing access to land).
Transitioning From Nursing Practice to a Teaching Role
Barbara K. Penn,Laurie Dodge Wilson,Robert Rosseter
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2008,
Abstract: The national dialogue about the expanding nurse faculty shortage has piqued the interest of many nurses in practice and motivated them to pursue a teaching role. Thought eager to share their clinical expertise as nurse educators, many of them have questions about what is required to transition from the clinical practice setting to the academic environment, even on a part-time basis. This article provides practical advice on how to find teaching opportunities in higher education and make the role transition successfully. The authors address types of faculty appointments, educational qualifications needed for teaching, considerations in taking a faculty position, beginning a faculty position and learning about the academic work environment, and faculty development opportunities. They conclude by paying special attention to the essential skills needed to become a nurse educator and flourish in a teaching role.
Evaluating Two Oral Health Video Interventions with Early Head Start Families
Lynn B. Wilson,Barbara DeBaryshe,Malkeet Singh,Sharon Taba
International Journal of Dentistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/437830
Abstract: Poor oral health in early childhood can have long-term consequences, and parents often are unaware of the importance of preventive measures for infants and toddlers. Children in rural, low-income families suffer disproportionately from the effects of poor oral health. Participants were 91 parents of infants and toddlers enrolled in Early Head Start (EHS) living in rural Hawai'i, USA. In this quasi-experimental design, EHS home visitors were assigned to use either a didactic or family-centered video with parents they served. Home visitors reviewed short segments of the assigned videos with parents over an eight-week period. Both groups showed significant prepost gains on knowledge and attitudes/behaviors relating to early oral health as well as self-reported changes in family oral health routines at a six-week followup. Controlling for pretest levels, parents in the family-centered video group showed larger changes in attitudes/behaviors at posttest and a higher number of positive changes in family oral health routines at followup. Results suggest that family-centered educational videos are a promising method for providing anticipatory guidance to parents regarding early childhood oral health. Furthermore, establishing partnerships between dental care, early childhood education, and maternal health systems offers a model that broadens potential reach with minimal cost. 1. Introduction The U.S. Surgeon General released the Report on Oral Health in America in 2000 celebrating progress in improving overall oral health nationwide; the report also identified a “silent epidemic” of poor oral health that disproportionately affects vulnerable populations [1, 2]. Low-income children living in rural communities are especially vulnerable to systemic limitations in accessing oral health services including: (1) a lack of access to care—for example, financial, geographical; (2) decreasing numbers of dental providers in proportion to families who need services; (3) a lack of continuity of care involving obstetricians, pediatricians, family physicians, and, for children with special health care needs, specialists; and, (4) low levels of parent and family oral health literacy [1, 3–9]. Poor oral health in early childhood can compromise the functional capacity of children to eat, sleep, and learn to speak properly [1]. Moreover, it can lead to mouth pain, inappropriate use of over-the-counter medications, reduced concentration in preschool and school, missed days of school and parental work, expenses associated with childcare or unpaid work leave, overreliance on
Joins of Euclidean orbital topologies
Ellen Clay
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 1997, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171297000185
Abstract: This paper is concerned with joins of orbital topologies especially on the orbit of the reals with the usual topology.
The Study of Chelation Therapy Should Not Be Abandoned
Beth Clay
Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons , 2009,
Abstract:
E-Government in the Asia-Pacific Region: Progress and Challenges
Clay Wescott
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2005,
Abstract: This paper will focus on two issues: (i) recent e-government progress and challenges, and (ii) the practices regional organizations follow to cope with the challenges, while maximizing the benefits. Beginning with an overview of efforts to improve governance in the region, it then analyzes recent progress in the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in the Asia-Pacific region to promote more efficient, cost-effective, and participatory government, facilitate more convenient government services, allow greater public access to information, and make government more accountable to citizens. Successful adoption of e-government presents major challenges. The paper concludes by examining the practices regional organizations follow to cope with the challenges, while maximizing the benefits.
A Fixed Point Theorem for Deformation Spaces of G-trees
Matt Clay
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: For a finitely generated free group F_n, of rank at least 2, any finite subgroup of Out(F_n) can be realized as a group of automorphisms of a graph with fundamental group F_n. This result, known as Out(F_n) realization, was proved by Zimmermann, Culler and Khramtsov. This theorem is comparable to Nielsen realization as proved by Kerckhoff: for a closed surface with negative Euler characteristic, any finite subgroup of the mapping class group can be realized as a group of isometries of a hyperbolic surface. Both of these theorems have restatements in terms of fixed points of actions on spaces naturally associated to them. For a nonnegative integer n we define a class of groups (GVP(n)) and prove a similar statement for their outer automorphism groups.
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