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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5593 matches for " Barbara Riozzi "
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Activation of mGlu3 Receptors Stimulates the Production of GDNF in Striatal Neurons
Giuseppe Battaglia, Gemma Molinaro, Barbara Riozzi, Marianna Storto, Carla L. Busceti, Paola Spinsanti, Domenico Bucci, Valentina Di Liberto, Giuseppina Mudò, Corrado Corti, Mauro Corsi, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Natale Belluardo, Valeria Bruno
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006591
Abstract: Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors have been considered potential targets for the therapy of experimental parkinsonism. One hypothetical advantage associated with the use of mGlu receptor ligands is the lack of the adverse effects typically induced by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, such as sedation, ataxia, and severe learning impairment. Low doses of the mGlu2/3 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, LY379268 (0.25–3 mg/kg, i.p.) increased glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNA and protein levels in the mouse brain, as assessed by in situ hybridization, real-time PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. This increase was prominent in the striatum, but was also observed in the cerebral cortex. GDNF mRNA levels peaked at 3 h and declined afterwards, whereas GDNF protein levels progressively increased from 24 to 72 h following LY379268 injection. The action of LY379268 was abrogated by the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, LY341495 (1 mg/kg, i.p.), and was lost in mGlu3 receptor knockout mice, but not in mGlu2 receptor knockout mice. In pure cultures of striatal neurons, the increase in GDNF induced by LY379268 required the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathways, as shown by the use of specific inhibitors of the two pathways. Both in vivo and in vitro studies led to the conclusion that neurons were the only source of GDNF in response to mGlu3 receptor activation. Remarkably, acute or repeated injections of LY379268 at doses that enhanced striatal GDNF levels (0.25 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) were highly protective against nigro-striatal damage induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyri?dinein mice, as assessed by stereological counting of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. We speculate that selective mGlu3 receptor agonists or enhancers are potential candidates as neuroprotective agents in Parkinson's disease, and their use might circumvent the limitations associated with the administration of exogenous GDNF.
Induction of the Wnt Antagonist Dickkopf-1 Is Involved in Stress-Induced Hippocampal Damage
Francesco Matrisciano,Carla L. Busceti,Domenico Bucci,Rosamaria Orlando,Alessandra Caruso,Gemma Molinaro,Irene Cappuccio,Barbara Riozzi,Roberto Gradini,Marta Motolese,Filippo Caraci,Agata Copani,Sergio Scaccianoce,Daniela Melchiorri,Valeria Bruno,Giuseppe Battaglia,Ferdinando Nicoletti
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016447
Abstract: The identification of mechanisms that mediate stress-induced hippocampal damage may shed new light into the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. We focused on the secreted glycoprotein Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt pathway, involved in neurodegeneration. Mice exposed to mild restraint stress showed increased hippocampal levels of Dkk-1 and reduced expression of β-catenin, an intracellular protein positively regulated by the canonical Wnt signalling pathway. In adrenalectomized mice, Dkk-1 was induced by corticosterone injection, but not by exposure to stress. Corticosterone also induced Dkk-1 in mouse organotypic hippocampal cultures and primary cultures of hippocampal neurons and, at least in the latter model, the action of corticosterone was reversed by the type-2 glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone. To examine whether induction of Dkk-1 was causally related to stress-induced hippocampal damage, we used doubleridge mice, which are characterized by a defective induction of Dkk-1. As compared to control mice, doubleridge mice showed a paradoxical increase in basal hippocampal Dkk-1 levels, but no Dkk-1 induction in response to stress. In contrast, stress reduced Dkk-1 levels in doubleridge mice. In control mice, chronic stress induced a reduction in hippocampal volume associated with neuronal loss and dendritic atrophy in the CA1 region, and a reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Doubleridge mice were resistant to the detrimental effect of chronic stress and, instead, responded to stress with increases in dendritic arborisation and neurogenesis. Thus, the outcome of chronic stress was tightly related to changes in Dkk-1 expression in the hippocampus. These data indicate that induction of Dkk-1 is causally related to stress-induced hippocampal damage and provide the first evidence that Dkk-1 expression is regulated by corticosteroids in the central nervous system. Drugs that rescue the canonical Wnt pathway may attenuate hippocampal damage in major depression and other stress-related disorders.
An ArcGIS Geo-Morphological Approach for Snow Avalanche Zoning and Risk Estimation in the Province of Bergamo  [PDF]
Barbara Marana
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2017.92006
Abstract: This paper describes the results of a study developed, with a GIS approach, at the University of Bergamo, about snow avalanche zoning and risk assessment in the Province of Bergamo. The adoption of a simplified estimation model, presented here, nonetheless allowed achieving results in good accordance with those provided by previous, more rigorous studies at the Province of Bergamo. A following analysis has also been performed to estimate ski lifts, urban areas, power lines, highways, railroads and roads at possible risk. This is a work in progress, since further development has already been taken into account to enrich the risk model with more parameters describing land morphology and meteorology. These results will then be used to simulate accidents and to estimate the shortest routes for rescuers. Finally, the development of a geo-app for mobile devices could become a very useful and fast tool for avalanche risk areas information.
A Simplified ArcGIS Approach for Landslides Risk Assessment in the Province of Bergamo  [PDF]
Barbara Marana
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2017.96044
Abstract: The paper describes a simplified GIS approach, for landslides risk assessment in the Province of Bergamo, developed for a GIS degree thesis at the faculty of Engineering of the University of Bergamo. The subject has been and still is largely studied by many researchers with the aid of rigorous mathematical/statistical analysis tools. This work follows some procedures carried out by other studies, but at the end it has been decided to adopt a simple, fast and not rigorous way to find a solution. A following analysis, on the higher risk areas identified, has also been performed to test their reliability, allowing achieving satisfactory results. It has been planned to study the risk model more thoroughly, by taking into account other triggering causes for landslide susceptibility and to try also a rigorous approach, so as to get a better idea of the results achieved so far and how to improve them.
A Green GIS Solution against Air Pollution in the Province of Bergamo: The Paulownia Tree  [PDF]
Barbara Marana
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2018.102010
Abstract: The paper describes a GIS approach to identify the most suitable areas for growing the Paulownia tree in the Province of Bergamo; this work will become the subject of a dissertation thesis at the School of Engineering of the University of Bergamo. Paulownia is quite an ancient tree, well known especially in the far east countries, for its wonderful flowers and the quality of the wood which is a source of certain profit. The paper is focused on the employment of the Paulownia tree against air pollution, since its big leaves absorb high amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere and can capture the small particles of pollutants in the air ten times more than any other tree species. First, the analysis identifies the most favourable areas for its growth in the Province of Bergamo. Secondly, among the latter, the analysis detects the strategic areas for its growth near the most polluted zones. Finally, a quantitative evaluation is carried out about the trees contribution against pollutants in the atmosphere.
A GIS Pre and Post Processing Contribution to a Multi Techniques Test Survey for an Ancient Railway Restoration in the Brembana Valley  [PDF]
Barbara Marana
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2018.105031
Abstract: Stemming from the renewed desire to requalify the former Brembana Valley railway route (inside one of the valleys of the Province of Bergamo and close to the important city of Milan), from Bergamo to Villa d’Almè, in 2017, the Bergamo Transport Company and other partners have signed a memorandum of understanding. They have also entrusted a project company to develop a technical and economic viability study, which would be an update of a preliminary one presented in 2009. A private proposal for the realization of a test survey, useful for the required engineering project, has been submitted to the project company and accepted. For this reason, a team, comprising different companies, and among them also the Geomatics group at the University of Bergamo, was formed so as to perform this task and develop it in a degree thesis. The aim of the test survey is to evaluate a joint use of the new available technologies, so as to possibly get faster, more economic and thorough results, by performing a 3D metric analysis over two sub-areas selected along the route. The paper describes this experience and the achieved results. In particular, the areas of interest in the test project have been analyzed first thing with a GIS software and then surveyed with a multi-sensor approach, i.e. terrestrial laser scanner, GNSS techniques and UAV. The final integrated results allowed providing a metric model of the morphological and urban aspect for the territorial layout, useful also for further advanced GIS analyses. The analysis of the reached precisions has provided satisfactory results which agree with the metric requirements of the project. Further meaningful considerations can be derived from this test survey: the implementation of different techniques has helped to overcome problems due to hidden parts in complex objects, it has allowed to provide a faster survey and to test different technologies and software packages. The results have been quite satisfactory.
Geometric Instruments for the Orientation and Measurement: The Astrolabes  [PDF]
Barbara Aterini
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2019.81004
Abstract: The astrolabe, stereographic projection of the celestial sphere on the plane of the equator, simulates the apparent rotation of this sphere around the Earth, with respect to a certain latitude, and allows to establish the relative position of the stars at a given moment. To understand its meaning and use it is necessary to recall out the main elements of astronomical geography. From the III century BC onwards, various types of astrolabe were built. Among the tools used in the course of the centuries for orientation and measurement, it is the one that perfectly performed both functions, providing measurements related to different fields of investigation: astronomy, chronometry, orientation, measurements (length-height-depth), astrology.
Eliciting Guilty Feelings: A Preliminary Study Differentiating Deontological and Altruistic Guilt  [PDF]
Barbara Basile, Francesco Mancini
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.22016
Abstract: Guilt has been identified as both an intrapsychic and an interpersonal emotion. The current study presents evidence of the existence of two senses of guilt, deontological and altruistic guilt, induced through different experimental paradigms. Deontological guilt evolves from having slighted moral authority or norms, while altruistic guilt arises from selfish behavior and the distress of others. We hypothesize that specific stimuli would evoke, separately, deontological guilt and altruistic/interpersonal guilt feelings. Two different procedures were used to test our hypothesis, adding two emotions as control conditions (i.e. anger and sadness). Results clearly indicate that two different guilt emotions can be evoked separately, by appropriate stimulation. Findings and possible clinical implications are discussed.
A Case Study of Gut Fermentation Syndrome (Auto-Brewery) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the Causative Organism  [PDF]
Barbara Cordell, Justin McCarthy
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.47054

Gut Fermentation Syndrome also known as Auto-Brewery Syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in modern medicine. Very few articles have been written on the syndrome and most of them are anecdotal. This article presents a case study of a 61 years old male with a well documented case of Gut Fermentation Syndrome verified with glucose and carbohydrate challenges. Stool cultures demonstrated the causative organism as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The patient was treated with antifungals and a low carbohydrate diet and the syndrome resolved. Helicobacter pylori was also found and could have been a possible confounding variable although the symptoms resolved post-treatment of the S. cerevisiae.

Early Childhood Teacher Preparation: Using the Co-Teaching Model  [PDF]
Barbara F. Hartigan
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.58076

Previous research shows that co-teaching during the student teaching practicum should be the model used by colleges and universities. This researcher used an open-ended questionnaire, a Likert-type scale survey, and individual conferences to ascertain teacher candidates’, cooperating teachers’, and university supervisors’ perceptions of the co-teaching model’s benefits, or lack thereof. The twenty-nine student teachers surveyed represent a private university and earned degrees in early childhood special education. The teacher candidates, cooperating teachers, and university supervisors are hired by the university and are experts in the aforementioned field of education. Findings reveal that pre-teacher candidates, university supervisors, and cooperating teachers all believe that mentoring during student teaching using the co-teaching model is beneficial for both the pre-teacher candidates and students in the classroom if proper professional development is offered and continuous and ongoing reflection and planning take place.

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