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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 465998 matches for " Barbara A. Laraia "
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The importance of accurate road data for spatial applications in public health: customizing a road network
Brian G Frizzelle, Kelly R Evenson, Daniel A Rodriguez, Barbara A Laraia
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-8-24
Abstract: A custom road network dataset was developed to examine associations between health behaviors and the environment among pregnant and postpartum women living in central North Carolina in the United States. Three analytical measures were developed to assess the comparative accuracy and utility of four publicly and commercially available road datasets and the custom dataset in relation to participants' residential locations over three time periods. The exclusion of road segments and positional errors in the four comparison road datasets resulted in between 5.9% and 64.4% of respondents lying farther than 15.24 meters from their nearest road, the distance of the threshold set by the project to facilitate spatial analysis. Agreement, using a Pearson's correlation coefficient, between the customized road dataset and the four comparison road datasets ranged from 0.01 to 0.82.This study demonstrates the importance of examining available road datasets and assessing their completeness, accuracy, and currency for their particular study area. This paper serves as an example for assessing the feasibility of readily available commercial or public road datasets, and outlines the steps by which an improved custom dataset for a study area can be developed.Over the last two decades, the public health field has increasingly adopted the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for analyzing environments in which people live and how those environments affect health. One subset of this research focuses on the impacts of road networks, examining accessibility to health care along those networks [1-3]. Another area of research has examined the geographic location of road networks relative to other locations of interest, such as places of residence, schools, or other community facilities, and how such proximity affects health outcomes. Specifically, this research has used road networks in GIS to examine exposures such as traffic [4], air pollution [5-8], and degree of urbanicity [9] and t
Measuring the neighborhood environment: associations with young girls' energy intake and expenditure in a cross-sectional study
Cindy W Leung, Steven E Gregorich, Barbara A Laraia, Lawrence H Kushi, Irene H Yen
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-7-52
Abstract: This study is based on a subset of participants in the Cohort Study of Young Girls' Nutrition, Environment and Transitions (CYGNET). In-person street audits were conducted within 215 girls' residential neighborhoods using a modified St. Louis Audit Tool. From the street audit data, exploratory factor analysis revealed five neighborhood scales: "mixed residential and commercial," "food and retail," "recreation," "walkability," and "physical disorder." A Neighborhood Deprivation Index was also derived from census data. The authors investigated if the five neighborhood scales and the Neighborhood Deprivation Index were associated with quartiles of total energy intake and expenditure (metabolic equivalent (MET) hours/week) at baseline, and whether any of these associations were modified by race/ethnicity.After adjustment for demographic characteristics, there was an inverse association between prevalence of "food and retail" destinations and total energy intake (for a one quartile increase, OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.74, 0.96). Positive associations were also observed between the "recreation" and "walkability" scales with physical activity among Hispanic/Latina girls (for a one quartile increase in MET, OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.31, 2.88 for recreation; OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.11, 2.63 for walkability). Among African-American girls, there was an inverse association between "physical disorder" and physical activity (OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.12, 0.80).These results suggest that neighborhood food and retail availability may be inversely associated with young girls' energy intakes in contrast to other studies' findings that focused on adults. There is considerable variation in neighborhoods' influences on young girls' physical activity behaviors, particularly for young girls of different racial/ethnic backgrounds.Neighborhoods are geographic and social units that can have profound effects on health outcomes. For children, neighborhoods can encompass the schools they attend, the grocery stores th
Violent crime exposure classification and adverse birth outcomes: a geographically-defined cohort study
Lynne C Messer, Jay S Kaufman, Nancy Dole, Amy Herring, Barbara A Laraia
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-5-22
Abstract: Using geocoded linked birth record, crime and census data in multilevel models, this paper explored the relevance of four spatial violent crime exposures: two proximal violent crime categorizations (count of violent crime within a one-half mile radius of maternal residence and distance from maternal residence to nearest violent crime) and two area-level crime categorizations (count of violent crimes within a block group and block group rate of violent crimes) for adverse birth events among women in living in the city of Raleigh NC crime report area in 1999–2001. Models were adjusted for maternal age and education and area-level deprivation.In black and white non-Hispanic race-stratified models, crime characterized as a proximal exposure was not able to distinguish between women experiencing adverse and women experiencing normal birth outcomes. Violent crime characterized as a neighborhood attribute was positively associated with preterm birth and low birth weight among non-Hispanic white and black women. No statistically significant interaction between area-deprivation and violent crime category was observed.Crime is variably categorized in the literature, with little rationale provided for crime type or categorization employed. This research represents the first time multiple crime categorizations have been directly compared in association with health outcomes. Finding an effect of area-level violent crime suggests crime may best be characterized as a neighborhood attribute with important implication for adverse birth outcomes.The literature related to area-level effects, particularly socioeconomic disadvantage, on public health outcomes has grown substantially in recent years [1-18]. Research in perinatal health has demonstrated modest but consistent effects of neighborhood-level socioeconomic disparities in key pregnancy outcomes using census variables [4,5,19,20]. Low birth weights (LBW) have been associated with a variety of neighborhood level socioeconomic var
Assessing urban and rural neighborhood characteristics using audit and GIS data: derivation and reliability of constructs
Kelly R Evenson, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Amy H Herring, Lynne Messer, Barbara A Laraia, Daniel A Rodríguez
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-6-44
Abstract: We collected detailed information on 10,770 road segments using an audit and secondary data. The road segment sample was randomly split into an exploratory (60%) and validation sample (40%) for cross-validation. Using the exploratory sample (n = 6,388), seven a priori constructs were assessed separately (functionality, safety, aesthetics, destinations, incivilities, territorality, social spaces) by urbanicity using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Additionally, new a posteriori constructs were derived using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). For cross-validation (n = 4,382), we tested factor loadings, thresholds, correlated errors, and correlations among a posteriori constructs between the two subsamples. Two-week test-retest reliability of the final constructs using a subsample of road segments (n = 464) was examined using Spearman correlation coefficients.CFA indicated the a priori constructs did not hold in this geographic area, with the exception of physical incivilities. Therefore, we used EFA to derive a four-factor solution on the exploratory sample: arterial or thoroughfare, walkable neighborhood, physical incivilities, and decoration. Using CFA on the validation sample, the internal validity for these a posteriori constructs was high (range 0.43 to 0.73) and the fit was acceptable. Spearman correlations indicated the arterial or thoroughfare factor displayed near perfect reliability in both urban and rural segments (r = 0.96). Both the physical incivilities factor and the walkable neighborhood factor had substantial to near perfect reliability in both urban and rural segments (r = 0.77 to 0.78 and r = 0.79 to 0.82, respectively). The decoration factor displayed moderate reliability in urban segments (r = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.38–0.60) and lower reliability in rural segments (r = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25–0.52).The results of our analyses yielded four reliably and objectively measured constructs that will be used to explore associations with physical activ
Direct observation of neighborhood attributes in an urban area of the US south: characterizing the social context of pregnancy
Barbara A Laraia, Lynne Messer, Jay S Kaufman, Nancy Dole, Margaret Caughy, Patricia O'Campo, David A Savitz
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-5-11
Abstract: This study used data from the Pregnancy, Nutrition and Infection (PIN) prospective cohort study to describe neighborhoods where low- and moderate-income pregnant women reside. Women who participated in the PIN study and who resided in Raleigh, NC and its surrounding suburbs were included (n = 703). Neighborhood attributes captured by the inventory included litter, housing condition, road condition, and social interactions that informed theoretical constructs of physical incivility, territoriality and social spaces. US Housing and Population Census 2000 data at the block group level were also assessed to identify the unique contribution of directly observed data. We hypothesize that neighborhood environments can influence health through psychosocial mediated pathways that lead to increased stress, or through disadvantage leading to poor neighborhood resources, or by protective attributes through increased social control.Findings suggest that directly observed neighborhood attributes distinguished between different types of areas in which low-income pregnant non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women lived. Theoretically informed scales of physical incivilities, territoriality and social spaces were constructed and found to be internally consistent. Scales were weakly associated indicating that these constructs capture distinct information about these neighborhoods. Physical incivilities, territoriality and social spaces scales were poorly explained by traditional census variables used to proxy neighborhood environment.If neighborhoods influence health through psychosocial mediated pathways then careful detailing of neighborhood attributes that contribute to stress or deterioration, beyond traditional socioeconomic status, are needed. We believe that measuring physical incivility, territoriality and social spaces as expressions of underlying issues of maintenance and social communication make important contributes to this field.In the last two decades, research a
Association Between Physical Activity and Proximity to Physical Activity Resources Among Low-Income, Midlife Women
Stephanie B. Jilcott, PhD,Kelly R. Evenson, PhD,Barbara A. Laraia, PhD, MPH, RD,Alice S. Ammerman, DrPH, RD
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2007,
Abstract:
The Reward-Based Eating Drive Scale: A Self-Report Index of Reward-Based Eating
Elissa S. Epel, A. Janet Tomiyama, Ashley E. Mason, Barbara A. Laraia, William Hartman, Karen Ready, Michael Acree, Tanja C. Adam, Sachiko St. Jeor, David Kessler
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101350
Abstract: Why are some individuals more vulnerable to persistent weight gain and obesity than are others? Some obese individuals report factors that drive overeating, including lack of control, lack of satiation, and preoccupation with food, which may stem from reward-related neural circuitry. These are normative and common symptoms and not the sole focus of any existing measures. Many eating scales capture these common behaviors, but are confounded with aspects of dysregulated eating such as binge eating or emotional overeating. Across five studies, we developed items that capture this reward-based eating drive (RED). Study 1 developed the items in lean to obese individuals (n = 327) and examined changes in weight over eight years. In Study 2, the scale was further developed and expert raters evaluated the set of items. Study 3 tested psychometric properties of the final 9 items in 400 participants. Study 4 examined psychometric properties and race invariance (n = 80 women). Study 5 examined psychometric properties and age/gender invariance (n = 381). Results showed that RED scores correlated with BMI and predicted earlier onset of obesity, greater weight fluctuations, and greater overall weight gain over eight years. Expert ratings of RED scale items indicated that the items reflected characteristics of reward-based eating. The RED scale evidenced high internal consistency and invariance across demographic factors. The RED scale, designed to tap vulnerability to reward-based eating behavior, appears to be a useful brief tool for identifying those at higher risk of weight gain over time. Given the heterogeneity of obesity, unique brief profiling of the reward-based aspect of obesity using a self-report instrument such as the RED scale may be critical for customizing effective treatments in the general population.
Entrevista com David Maybury-Lewis
Corrêa, Mariza;Oliveira, Roberto Cardoso de;Laraia, Roque de Barros;
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-69092002000300001
Abstract: in this interview professor david maybury-lewis recalls his fondness when playing with camel care keepers in pakistan, where he was born, becoming, later on, a young researcher who stated up his career by living among the xavante and xerente indians in brazil in the 1950?s and 1960?s. adding personal reminiscences to professional memories from the time he spent in this country, mr. maybury-lewis also draws an outline of the brazilian anthropology in the past fifty years.
Entrevista com David Maybury-Lewis
Corrêa Mariza,Oliveira Roberto Cardoso de,Laraia Roque de Barros
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais , 2002,
Abstract: Nesta entrevista, o professor David Maybury-Lewis conta como o menino que adorava brincar com os "cameleiros" no Paquist o, onde nasceu, tornou-se um jovem pesquisador que iniciou sua carreira vivendo entre os índios Xavante e Xerente no Brasil das décadas de 1950 e 1960. Mesclando reminiscências pessoais às suas lembran as profissionais do tempo em que viveu no nosso país, Maybury-Lewis tra a também um esbo o da antropologia no Brasil nos últimos cinqüenta anos.
Maybury-Lewis e a etnologia brasileira
Laraia, Roque de Barros;
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-69092008000200002
Abstract: on december 2, 2007 the anthropologist david maybury-lewis died in cambridge (massachusetts). in this article, the author tells how a british citizen, born in pakistan, chose brazil as a field for anthropological studies, taking the shavante society as his research object. as a professor at harvard university since 1961, he continued his strong link with the brazilian ethnology, having been supervisor of important brazilian anthropologists. endowed with a strong personal friendly style, he became a friend of several colleagues. his research with the sherente and shavante is a great contribution to our ethnology. he played an important role in founding the graduate program in anthropology at the museu nacional. in 2001 he was one of the speakers at the annual meeting of anpocs.
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