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Optimization of physical characterization, skin permeation of naproxen from glycofurol-based topical gel
Barakat Nahla
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: In view of good skin tolerability, glycofurol was used as a vehicle-based gel and its effect on the topical penetration of Naproxen (NAP) was investigated. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable gel with bioadhesive property, spreadability, and viscosity for a topical anti-inflammatory effect. Three gelling agents were examined: Carbopol 974P, Gantrez AN 119, and Polyvinylpyrroloidone PVP K30. Skin permeation rates and lag times of NAP were evaluated using the Franz-type diffusion cell, in order to optimize gel formulation. The permeation rate of the NAP-based gel across excised rat skin was investigated. A significant increase in permeability parameters such as steady-state flux (Jss), permeability coefficient (Kp), and penetration index (PI) were observed in the optimized formulation containing 2% Transcutol as a permeation enhancer. From the skin irritation test, it was concluded that the optimized novel tetraglycol-based gel formulation was safe to be used for transdermal drug delivery. The developed naproxen / glycofurol-based gel appeared promising for dermal and transdermal delivery of naproxen and could be applicable with water-insoluble drugs, which would circumvent most of the problems associated with drug therapy.
Effect of Frying-Cooking on Nutritional and Bioactive Compounds of Innovative Ovo-Vegetarian Diets  [PDF]
Hassan Barakat
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.516171
Abstract:

Vegetarian diets are becoming increasingly popular as meat prices as well as health concerns rise. Many people are cutting down or cutting out meat in favor of a full vegetarian diet. In present study, the applicability of different vegetables for producing ready-to-use and ready-to-eat chickpea-based ovo-vegetarian diets (OVDs) was investigated. Herein, six different vegetables (cauliflower, taro, green zucchini, pea, bean and spinach) were formulated with 25% chickpea and additional edible ingredients to produce ready-to-use OVDs. Subsequently, chemical composition, minerals content, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of those OVDs were investigated. However, ready-to-eat OVDs were organoleptically evaluated after frying as common cooking method. Results of composite analysis indicated 67.73% to 73.17%, 23.20% to 37.12%, 1.86% to 2.63%, 7.63% to 9.53%, 9.06% to 9.82% and 39.24% to 55.28% for moisture, crude protein, lipids, ash, fiber, and carbohydrates contents in ready-to-use OVDs, respectively. After frying, lipid content was increased in fried diets which changed the chemical composition and caloric value. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between macro- and micro-nutrients content of ready- to-use and ready-to-eat OVDs. The ready-to-use OVDs exhibit appropriate content of ascorbic acid, chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids, and flavonols which basically depends on their ingredients. Frying process dramatically affected the ascorbic acid, chlorophylls, flavonoids, flavonols, and carotenoids contents. High organoleptic acceptability of ready-to-eat OVDs was recorded to confirm theconsumer attractiveness further. In conclusion, the possibility of producing healthy ready-to-eatand ready-to-use OVDs incorporated with common consumed vegetables could provide a promising approach for improving human health and dietary pattern as well as for selecting the optimum processing conditions for innovative OVDs.

Bio-Control of Alternaria alternata during Banana Storage by Purified AFP Using Isoelectric Focusing Technique  [PDF]
Hassan Barakat
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.515161
Abstract:

Interestingly, antifungal protein AFP was purified from Aspergillus giganteus supernatants with modified isoelectric focusing procedure after adaptation of the secretion conditions. Subsequently, the antifungal activity as well as the mode of action against Alternaria alternata was tested in vitro. Moreover, different concentrations of AFP were applied to banana fruits for 15 days at 20°C in vivo. Obtained results illustrated that A. giganteus was able to secrete about 39.78 ± 2.39 mg AFP·l-1 Olson medium. The employed ammonium sulfate (AS 75%) precipitation procedure followed by dialysis steps yielded about 16 - 22 mg AFP·l-1 culture supernatant with general mean of 18.67 ± 1.98 mg·l-1. The lost amount of AFP during purification using AS and 3KDa cut-off dialysis membrane is about 50% thus, purification procedure must be further improved. Indeed, concluded results from MIC and hyphal extension inhibition test noticed that AFP was efficiently affected by either growth or hyphae form of A. alternata in vitro. The MIC of AFP against A. alternata was 2μg·ml-1. However,short, thick and highly septated hyphae with damaged constricted apical regions extruding from condensed mycelium aggregates in treated hyphae compared to the untreated culture was remarkably shown. The mode of action of in vitro experiment manifested that AFP was effective to act the fungal cell and permeabilize the cell membrane of A. alternata. Furthermore, the in vivo experiment showed that AFP could reduce post-harvest decay on banana caused by A. alternata. AFP at concentration of 15 and 25 μg·ml-1 exhibit Alternaria decayed reduction by 45.45% and 77.27%, respectively. While no Alternaria decayed area was observed when 50 μg·ml-1 was applied during the storage time. Quantification of DNA by species-specific PCR could exude a positive correlation between the DNA amount and decayed area. In conclusion, AFP can be efficiently used as a bio-preservative agent during storage and handling of

Effect of Insulin and Losartan on Modulation of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor at Heart Level in Diabetic Rats
Anwar B. Bikhazi, Wael M. Maharsy, Lina N. Kadi, Nahla G. Issa, Ghinwa M. Barakat, Nuha Nuwayri-Salti, George K. Karam, Omar A. BatalKhalil M. Bitar
The Open Drug Delivery Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.2174/1874126600701010001]
Abstract: This study investigates insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) modulation in hearts of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with insulin/angiotensin-II receptor subtype-1 blocker (AR1B), losartan. Male rats were divided into: normal (N), losartan-treated normal (NL), diabetic (D), insulin-treated diabetic (DI), losartan-treated diabetic (DL), and insulin/losartan co-treated diabetic (DIL) groups. Thirty days post-treatment, rats underwent heart perfusion using [I125]-labeled IGF-1 to assess receptor-binding affinity on coronary endothelial cells (CE) and cardiomyocytes (CM). This revealed an increase in binding affinity of IGF-1 to its receptor on CE in all groups compared to N. On CM, binding affinity increased in D, DI, and DL compared to N, but was almost normalized in DIL. Western blot analyses and immunohistochemistry done on heart tissues showed decrease in IGF-1R density in DIL versus remaining groups. These results demonstrate a complex interaction between insulin, angiotensin-II, and IGF-1, and mass blockade of myocardial remodeling by AR1B treatment in diabetic state.
Respectable people in Mamluk sultans era: Religious and scientific life :
Nahla Moustafa
Historical Kan Periodical , 2010,
Abstract: . . . .
Respectable people in Mamluk sultans era: The economic conditions :
Nahla Moustafa
Historical Kan Periodical , 2009,
Abstract: .
Respectable people in Mamluk sultans era: In political and administrative life :
Nahla Moustafa
Historical Kan Periodical , 2009,
Abstract: (648-923 /1250-1517 ) . . ( ) .
Respectable people in Mamluk sultans era: Social Conditions :
Nahla Moustafa
Historical Kan Periodical , 2010,
Abstract: . . ( ) .
Angiogenesis and inflammatory bowel disease
Azzam Nahla
Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology , 2007,
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has gained immense attention recently due primarily to increasing prevalence. The exact disease mechanism is still unknown. There is considerable evidence of interrelation between the mechanisms of angiogenesis and the chronic inflammation of IBD. This evidence was obtained from animal models of colitis and confirmed in human studies. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) have been found to be significantly higher in patients with IBD than in controls. In addition, it was found that these factors correlate well with disease activity and decrease with the use of steroids. Therefore pharmacological inhibition of angiogenesis has the potential to be a therapeutic strategy in IBD.
The 3D virtual environment online for real shopping
Nahla Khalil
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: The development of information technology and Internet has led to rapidly progressed in e-commerce and online shopping, due to the convenience that they provide consumers. E-commerce and online shopping are still not able to fully replace onsite shopping. In contrast, conventional online shopping websites often cannot provide enough information about a product for the customer to make an informed decision before checkout. 3D virtual shopping environment show great potential for enhancing e-commerce systems and provide customers information about a product and real shopping environment. This paper presents a new type of e-commerce system, which obviously brings virtual environment online with an active 3D model that allows consumers to access products into real physical environments for user interaction. Such system with easy process can helps customers make better purchasing decisions that allows users to manipulate 3D virtual models online. The stores participate in the 3D virtual mall by communicating with a mall management. The 3D virtual mall allows shoppers to perform actions across multiple stores simultaneously such as viewing product availability. The mall management can authenticate clients on all stores participating in the 3D virtual mall while only requiring clients to provide authentication information once. 3D virtual shopping online mall convenient and easy process allow consumers directly buy goods or services from a seller in real-time, without an intermediary service, over the Internet. The virtual mall with an active 3D model is implemented by using 3D Language (VRML) and asp.net as the script language for shopping online pages
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