Abstract:
Graphene attracts more and more scientists and researchers owing to its superior electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties. For material scientists, graphene is a kind of versatile building blocks, and considerable progress has been made in recent years. Graphene-based hybrid materials have been prepared by incorporating inorganic species and/or cross-linking of organic species through covalent and/or noncovalent interactions. The graphene-based hybrid materials show improved or excellent performance in various fields. In this review, we summarize the synthesis of graphene and graphene-based hybrid materials, and their applications in energy storage and conversion.

Abstract:
Graphene-Mn3O4 (GMNO) hybrid porous material is prepared by a hydrothermal method and its performance in carbon dioxide adsorption is investigated. In the synthesis of the GMNO materials, MnO(OH)2 colloid obtained by the hydrolysis of Mn2+ in basic solution was using as the precursor of the Mn3O4. After a hydrothermal reaction of the mixture of graphene oxide (GO) and MnO(OH)2, GO was reduced into graphene and the MnO(OH)2 was transformed into Mn3O4 with enhanced crystallization. X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectra and Raman spectroscopy were taken to characterize the hybrid material. The porosity and the carbon dioxide adsorption ability are measured by gas sorption analysis, in which the as-prepared GMNO hybrid materials exhibit a specific surface area ranging from 140 to 680 m2 g 1 and a maximum carbon dioxide capacity of about 11 wt%.

Abstract:
In this paper a new ODE numerical integration method was successfully applied to solving nonlinear equations. The method is of same simplicity as fixed point iteration, but the efficiency has been significantly improved, so it is especially suitable for large scale systems. For Brown’s equations, an existing article reported that when the dimension of the equation N = 40, the subroutines they used could not give a solution, as compared with our method, we can easily solve this equation even when N = 100. Other two large equations have the dimension of N = 1000, all the existing available methods have great difficulties to handle them, however, our method proposed in this paper can deal with those tough equations without any difficulties. The sigularity and choosing initial values problems were also mentioned in this paper.

Abstract:
This paper is a further study of two papers [1] and [2], which were related to Ill-Conditioned Load Flow Problems and were published by IEEE Trans. PAS. The authors of this paper have some different opinions, for example, the 11-bus system is not an ill-conditioned system. In addition, a new approach to solve Load Flow Problems, E-ψtc, is introduced. It is an explicit method; solving linear equations is not needed. It can handle very tough and very large systems. The advantage of this method has been fully proved by two examples. The authors give this new method a detailed description of how to use it to solve Load Flow Problems and successfully apply it to the 43-bus and the 11-bus systems. The authors also propose a strategy to test the reliability, and by solving gradient equations, this new method can answer if the solution exists or not.

Abstract:
A new continuum theory of the constitutive equation of co-rotational derivative type is developed for anisotropic viscoelastic fluid—liquid crystalline (LC) polymers. A new concept of simple anisotropic fluid is introduced. On the basis of principles of anisotropic simple fluid, stress behaviour is described by velocity gradient tensor and spin tensor instead of the velocity gradient tensor in the classic Leslie—Ericksen continuum theory. Analyzing rheological nature of the fluid and using tensor analysis a general form of the constitutive equ- ation of co-rotational type is established for the fluid. A special term of high order in the equation is introduced by author to describe the sp- ecial change of the normal stress differences which is considered as a result of director tumbling by Larson et al. Analyzing the experimental results by Larson et al., a principle of Non- oscillatory normal stress is introduced which leads to simplification of the problem with relaxation times. The special behaviour of non- symmetry of the shear stress is predicted by using the present model for LC polymer liquids. Two shear stresses in shear flow of LC polymer liquids may lead to vortex and rotation flow, i.e. director tumbling in the flow. The first and second normal stress differences are calculated by the model special behaviour of which is in agree- ment with experiments. In the research, the com- putational symbolic manipulation such as computer software Maple is used. For the anisotropic viscoelastic fluid the constitutive equation theory is of important fundamental significance.

Abstract:
An integrating method to teach Biochemical Pharmacy Technology was developed to help students understand the technology to produce biochemical pharmacy well in this paper. By the integrating method, students can compare the main content of the biochemical pharmacy and the technology to produce them. Students were encouraged to demonstrate the connection and difference of the various biochemical pharmacies. The results showed that the performance of students with integrating method is significantly better than that of students without integrating method (p < 0.05). In conclusion, integrating method can enhance students’ performance on Biochemical Pharmacy Technology.

Abstract:
A new continuum theory of the constitutive equation of co-rotational derivative type was developed by the author for anisotropic viscoelastic fluid－liquid crystalline (LC) polymers (S.F. Han, 2008, 2010) . This paper is a continuation of the recent publication [1] to study extrusion-extensional flow of the fluid. A new concept of simple anisotropic fluid is introduced. On the basis of anisotropic simple fluid, stress behavior is described by velocity gradient tensor F and spin tensor W instead of the velocity gradient tensor D in the classic Leslie?Ericksen continuum theory. A special form of the constitutive equation of the co-rotational type is established for the fluid. Using the special form of the constitutive equation in components a computational analytical theory of the extrusion-extensional flow is developed for the LC polymer liquids - anisotropic viscoelastic fluid. Application of the constitutive theory to the flow is successful in predicting bifurcation of elongational viscosity and contraction of extrudate for LC polymer liquids–anisotropic viscoelastic fluid. The contraction of extrudate of LC polymer liquids may be associated with the stored elastic energy conversion into that necessary for bifurcation of elongational viscosity in extrusion extensional flow of the fluid.

Abstract:
A two parameters equation of state (EOS) for nonaqueous electrolyte solutions system has been developed. The equation is in terms of Helmholtz free energy and incorporated with results of low density expansion of non-primitive mean spherical approximation. The EOS was tested for experimental data reported in literatures of 9 nonaqueous single electrolyte solutions of which the temperature was 298.15 K, and it also has a good predictive capability for nonaqueous electrolyte solutions at different temperature in this work. The comparisons with EOSs published earlier by other researchers in literatures are carried out in detail.

Abstract:
A new continuum theory of the constitutive equation of co-rotational derivative type is developed for anisotropic viscoelastic fluid—liquid crystalline (LC) polymers. A new concept of simple anisotropic fluid is introduced. On the basis of principles of anisotropic simple fluid, stress behaviour is described by velocity gradient tensor and spin tensor instead of the velocity gradient tensor in the classic Leslie—Ericksen continuum theory. Analyzing rheological nature of the fluid and using tensor analysis a general form of the constitutive equ- ation of co-rotational type is established for the fluid. A special term of high order in the equation is introduced by author to describe the sp- ecial change of the normal stress differences which is considered as a result of director tumbling by Larson et al. Analyzing the experimental results by Larson et al., a principle of Non- oscillatory normal stress is introduced which leads to simplification of the problem with relaxation times. The special behaviour of non- symmetry of the shear stress is predicted by using the present model for LC polymer liquids. Two shear stresses in shear flow of LC polymer liquids may lead to vortex and rotation flow, i.e. director tumbling in the flow. The first and second normal stress differences are calculated by the model special behaviour of which is in agree- ment with experiments. In the research, the com- putational symbolic manipulation such as computer software Maple is used. For the anisotropic viscoelastic fluid the constitutive equation theory is of important fundamental significance.