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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 40551 matches for " Bao-Fa Sun "
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Ovipositing Pattern of the Fig Wasps and Its Effect on the Offspring Sex Ratio

SUN Bao-fa,WANG Rui-wu,HU Zhong,

动物学研究 , 2009,
Abstract: In this study, we experimentally examined the ovipositing sequence of the pollinator Ceratosolen fuscicep, non-pollinating wasp Platyneura mayri of Ficus racemosa and non-pollinating wasp Acophila sp.1 and Wakerella benjamini of Ficus benjamina in Xishuangbanna from Apr. 2006 to Jun. 2007. For the pollinating fig wasps, we injected ether into the receptive fruits with different time intervals after introducing the fig wasps, killing the fig wasps; for the non-pollinating fig wasps, we manually controlled ovipositing time length through organdy bags. After the treated fruits developed to be mature stage, we collected the adult wasps, and then analyzed and compared the offspring sex ratio under different ovipositing time length. The data showed that fig wasp C. fuscicep, P. mayri and Acophila sp.1 firstly oviposit their male offspring. The male offspring was much higher than female, if the mother wasps only oviposited one hour, whist the female offspring will be increased with the increase of oviposting time of mother wasps and the female offspring will be much higher than male offspring when the mother wasps could sufficiently oviposit their offspring in these three fig wasps. These results partly explain that the female offspring sex ratio decrease with increase of number of foundresses. However, the ovipositing sequence of Wakerella benjamini randomly oviposit their eggs and the sex ratio is about 1:1. Our results here imply that the ovipositing sequence and ovipositing time length of mother wasps might be of the most important factors determining the offspring sex ratio of fig wasps.
Multiple Interkingdom Horizontal Gene Transfers in Pyrenophora and Closely Related Species and Their Contributions to Phytopathogenic Lifestyles
Bao-Fa Sun, Jin-Hua Xiao, Shunmin He, Li Liu, Robert W. Murphy, Da-Wei Huang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060029
Abstract: Many studies have reported horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events from eukaryotes, especially fungi. However, only a few investigations summarized multiple interkingdom HGTs involving important phytopathogenic species of Pyrenophora and few have investigated the genetic contributions of HGTs to fungi. We investigated HGT events in P. teres and P. tritici-repentis and discovered that both species harbored 14 HGT genes derived from bacteria and plants, including 12 HGT genes that occurred in both species. One gene coding a leucine-rich repeat protein was present in both species of Pyrenophora and it may have been transferred from a host plant. The transfer of genes from a host plant to pathogenic fungi has been reported rarely and we discovered the first evidence for this transfer in phytopathogenic Pyrenophora. Two HGTs in Pyrenophora underwent subsequent duplications. Some HGT genes had homologs in a few other fungi, indicating relatively ancient transfer events. Functional analyses indicated that half of the HGT genes encoded extracellular proteins and these may have facilitated the infection of plants by Pyrenophora via interference with plant defense-response and the degradation of plant cell walls. Some other HGT genes appeared to participate in carbohydrate metabolism. Together, these functions implied that HGTs may have led to highly efficient mechanisms of infection as well as the utilization of host carbohydrates. Evolutionary analyses indicated that HGT genes experienced amelioration, purifying selection, and accelerated evolution. These appeared to constitute adaptations to the background genome of the recipient. The discovery of multiple interkingdom HGTs in Pyrenophora, their significance to infection, and their adaptive evolution, provided valuable insights into the evolutionary significance of interkingdom HGTs from multiple donors.
Interference Competition and High Temperatures Reduce the Virulence of Fig Wasps and Stabilize a Fig-Wasp Mutualism
Rui-Wu Wang,Jo Ridley,Bao-Fa Sun,Qi Zheng,Derek W. Dunn,James Cook,Lei Shi,Ya-Ping Zhang,Douglas W. Yu
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007802
Abstract: Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia (‘figs’) that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps) are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few galls, many empty ovules) and are overexploited in the winter (few seeds, many galls, few empty ovules). Conversely, syconia with many foundresses produce intermediate numbers of galls and seeds, regardless of season. We use experiments to explain these patterns, and thus, to explain how this mutualism is maintained. In the hot summer, wasps suffer short lifespans and therefore fail to oviposit in many flowers. In contrast, cooler temperatures in the winter permit longer wasp lifespans, which in turn allows most flowers to be exploited by the wasps. However, even in winter, only in syconia that happen to have few foundresses are most flowers turned into galls. In syconia with higher numbers of foundresses, interference competition reduces foundress lifespans, which reduces the proportion of flowers that are galled. We further show that syconia encourage the entry of multiple foundresses by delaying ostiole closure. Taken together, these factors allow fig trees to reduce galling in the wasp-benign winter and boost galling (and pollination) in the wasp-stressing summer. Interference competition has been shown to reduce virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Our results show that interference also maintains cooperation in a classic, cooperative symbiosis, thus linking theories of virulence and mutualism. More generally, our results reveal how frequency-dependent population regulation can occur in the fig-wasp mutualism, and how a host species can ‘set the rules of the game’ to ensure mutualistic behavior in its symbionts.
Relation between two non-pollinating wasps oviposition and the fruit abscission on Ficus racemosa

SUN Bao-Fa,WANG Rui-Wu,HU Zhong,LI Yao-Tang,

生态学报 , 2009,
Abstract: In the fig-fig wasp obligate mutualism, parasitic wasps Platyneura testacea and Platyneura mayri coexist with pollinating wasps. Theses non-pollinating wasps only use the seeds of figs or compete with pollinating wasp for floral resources, bring no any benefits to figs. The parasitism of these non-pollinating wasps may result in the disruption of the cooperation between figs and fig wasps. The fruit abscission mechanism of plant is generally considered as one of the key factors maintaining system stability. However, our quantitative experiment and field observations of fig-fig wasp system showed that the figs did not abscise fruits oviposited by Platyneura mayri, but abscised fruits over-ovipisited by P.testacea. The observation showed that tree oviposited by more P. testacea will have higher proportion of abscission. The over-ovipositing of P.testacea is the main reason for selective abscission of syconium. Our results indicate that the plant can only abscise fruits oviposited by parasitic wasps before pollinating wasps in fig-fig wasp mutualism, but do not abscise the fruits parasitized by wasps ovipositing simultaneous or later than pollinating wasps, implying that abscission can not sufficiently maintain the fig-fig wasp mutualism.
A retrospective analysis of laparoscopic and open ureterolysis for treating the patients with retroperitoneal fibrosis
Fan ZHANG,Xu ZHANG,Bao-fa HONG,Jiang-ping GAO
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army , 2011,
Abstract: Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of laparoscopic ureterolysis in the treatment of retroperitoneal fibrosis,and compare the effectiveness with the therapy of open ureterolysis.Methods The clinical data of 10 patients undergone laparoscopic ureterolysis(LS group) and 13 patients undergone open ureterolysis(OS group) were retrospectively reviewed.A comparison was performed between the two groups in terms of operative preparing time,operating time,estimated blood loss,recovery of intestinal function,ambulation activities after operation,postoperative length of hospital stay,total length of hospital stay and complication.Results The estimated blood loss,recovery of intestinal function,postoperative length of hospital stay,total length of hospital stay in LS group(59.50ml,2.70±0.82d,8.70±1.42d,17.40±5.64d) were all better than those in OS group(100.00ml,3.85±1.07d,11.62±3.18d,23.38±5.45d,P < 0.05).The operative preparing time in LS group was longer than that in OS group(29.25±11.43min vs 19.85±7.36min,P < 0.05).No difference existed between the two groups in the operating time and ambulation activities after operation(P > 0.05).No transfusion was required and no complication occurred in the both groups.With a follow-up of 18 months,no recurrence in situ and no obstruction were observed in the both groups.Conclusions Laparoscopic ureterolysis has the advantages of less blood loss,rapid recovery of intestinal function,shorter hospital stay as compared to that of open ureterolysis.It is therefore a safe and effective surgical procedure in treatment of retroperitoneal fibrosis.
Effects of Food Variation on the Feeding Behavior of the Steppe Polecat Mustela eversmanni

YANG Sheng-mei,WEI Wan-hong,YIN Bao-fa,FAN Nai-chang,ZHOU Wen-yang,

动物学研究 , 2008,
Abstract: 在室内条件下,通过双通道选择实验比较艾虎在不同饥饿条件下对固定食物量斑块和变化食物量斑块的利用程度,确定艾虎对食物变化量的敏感性,以验证风险敏感取食原理。研究结果表明,训练期实验中,艾虎对固定食物量斑块中的取食量和利用频次明显高于变化食物量斑块,而对两个斑块的利用时间基本相同;艾虎饥饿一天后对固定食物量斑块中的利用频次明显高于变化食物量斑块,而对两个斑块的利用时间和取食量基本相同;艾虎饥饿两天后对两个斑块利用程度与训练期的结果相同;同时,艾虎在两个斑块中的取食量均与饥饿程度无关,而对两个斑块的利用时间和利用频次均随饥饿程度明显降低。因此,艾虎对固定食物量斑块和变化食物量斑块的利用程度基本相同,食物变化量对艾虎的取食行为没有明显影响,艾虎对食物变化量是不敏感的。产生这种结果的主要原因可能是艾虎的能量代谢水平较低,在食物受到限制时主要采用降低活动使单位活动时间内所获得的能量值达到最大的取食对策增加自身的存活机率。
The Associations of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in miR-146a, miR-196a and miR-499 with Breast Cancer Susceptibility
Ping-Yu Wang, Zong-Hua Gao, Zhong-Hua Jiang, Xin-Xin Li, Bao-Fa Jiang, Shu-Yang Xie
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070656
Abstract: Background Previous studies have investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in microRNAs (miRNAs) and breast cancer susceptibility; however, because of their limited statistical power, many discrepancies are revealed in these studies. The meta-analysis presented here aimed to identify and characterize the roles of miRNA SNPs in breast cancer risk, and evaluate the associations of polymorphisms in miR-146a rs2910164, miR-196a rs11614913 and miR-499 rs3746444 with breast cancer susceptibility, respectively. Methodology/Principal Findings The PubMed and Embases databases were searched updated to 31st December, 2012. The complete data of polymorphisms in miR-146a rs2910164, miR-196a rs11614913 and miR-499 rs3746444 from case-control studies for breast cancer were analyzed by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to reveal the associations of SNPs in miRNAs with breast cancer susceptibility. Totally, six studies for rs2910164 in miR-146a, involving 4225 cases and 4469 controls; eight studies for rs11614913 in miR-196a, involving 4110 cases and 5100 controls; and three studies of rs3746444 in miR-499, involving 2588 cases and 3260 controls, were investigated in the meta-analysis. The rs11614913 (TT+CT) genotype of miR-196a2 was revealed to be associated with a decreased breast cancer susceptibility compared with the CC genotypes (OR = 0.906, 95% CI: 0.825–0.995, P = 0.039); however, no significant associations were observed between rs2910164 in miR-146a (or rs3746444 in miR-499) and breast cancer susceptibility. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrates the compelling evidence that the rs11614913 CC genotype in miR-196a2 increases breast cancer risk, which provides useful information for the early diagnosis and prevention of breast cancer.
The predation risks of the plateau pika and plateau zokor and their survival strategies in the Alpine Meadow Ecosystem

YANG Sheng-Mei,WEI Wan-Hong,YIN Bao-Fa,FAN Nai-Chang,ZHOU Wen-Yang,

生态学报 , 2007,
Abstract: The present paper investigated the population densities and the survival strategies of plateau pika and plateau zokor,and the predation risks induced by their major natural enemies in the Alpine Meadow Ecosystem.The results showed that the population densities of the pika and the zokor were 4.97 ind./hm2 and 10.6 ind./hm2,respectively,while the densities of the natural enemies were 0.16 ind./100hm2 for red fox,0.37 ind./100hm2 for steppe polecat and 3.00ind./100hm2 for alpine weasel.We observed that the polecat and weasel mainly captured pika and zokor by searching the burrows,while the red fox hunted pika on the ground and captured zokor by digging the mounds.The examination of diet composition and feeding intensities showed that the pika constituted 100%,96.1% and 100% of the food of red fox,polecat and weasel,respectively,and the zokor constituted 87.5%,73.2% and 0%.The average feeding intensities of the natural enemies included 0.703% of pika and 0.038% of zokor and the predation risks of pika and zokor were 0.780 and 0.393,indicating that the pika has higher predation risk than zokor.The survival strategies of pika are to increase the fitness by unique behavior and reproductive rate,while the strategies of zokor are to enhance the fitness by sealing burrow system and survival rate.
Influence of Qinghai-Tibetan railway and highway on wild animal''s activity

YIN Bao-Fa,HUAI Hu-Yin,ZHANG Yi-Li,ZHOU Le,WEI Wan-Hong,

生态学报 , 2006,
Abstract: 2003年8月和2004年8月,在不冻泉保护站(35°17′N;93°16′E)至五道梁(35°13′N;93°04′E)一带调查青藏公路的运营和青藏铁路的建设对野生动物活动的影响,并分析了野生动物对青藏铁路上所建立的动物通道的利用情况。结果表明,青藏铁路的建设增加了青藏公路的交通运输量,青藏公路在铁路修建期间会对藏羚羊(Pantholops hodgsoni)、藏原羚(Procapra picticaudata)和藏野驴(Equus kiang)的活动产生部分影响。同时,野生动物通过自身的适应和行为调节可以减少环境改变产生的影响,如公路两侧动物的活动高峰正好是公路上车流量较少的时段、动物可以利用野生动物通道来通过青藏铁路等。藏野驴、藏羚羊与藏原羚均可利用通道穿越铁路,而藏羚羊对通道的利用频次和通道到公路的距离显著的正相关(p<0.5),大多数的动物通道因其高度、宽度和到公路的距离以及人类活动等因素的影响而不能被动物利用。总的看来,动物能够通过自己的适应和行为调节,可以适应青藏铁路修建对该地区的环境所带来的变化。
Trophic niches of Pantholops hodgsoni, Procapra picticaudata and Equus kiang in Kekexili region.

YIN Bao-fa,HUAI Hu-yin,ZHANG Yi-li,ZHOU Le,WEI Wan-hong,

应用生态学报 , 2007,
Abstract: Interspecies competition is the main factor determining the trophic niche width of sympatric species on both ecological and evolutionary levels. In August 2004, a microscopic analysis of feces was made to analyze the diet compositions of Pantholops hodgsoni, Procapra picticaudata and Equus kiang under free-living circumstances between Chuma River and Wudaoliang in the Kekexili National Nature Reserve. The trophic niche widths and overlaps of these herbivorous ungulates were calculated based on the diet compositions, and the results showed that these three ungulates had similar foods, but the proportions of their diet compositions were different. Gramineous plants were the main food sources for P. hodgsoni, P. picticaudata and E. kiang, accounting for 58.7%, 44.57% and 92.28% of the diet, respectively. The trophic niche widths of P. hodgsoni, P. picticaudata and E. kianthese were 0.878, 0.735 and 0.695, and the niche overlaps of P. hodgsoni and E. kiang, P. hodgsoni and P. picticaudata, and E. kiang and P. picticaudata were 0.869, 0.985 and 0.785, respectively, which suggested that there was a potential intense competition among them, especially for P. hodgsoni and P. picticaudata. The relations between competition and coexistence among P. hodgsoni, P. picticaudata and E. kiang were discussed from the viewpoints of their ecological characteristics and trophic ecology.
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