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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9719 matches for " Bao Mutai "
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Big Data Framework for Kenya’s County Governments  [PDF]
Alex Munyole Luvembe, Hillary Mutai
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2019.71001
Abstract: Digitalization is transforming governments across the globe. At the national level, down to regional and multiple departments in the public institutions, unprecedented change is occurring exponentially as a result of massive digitalization. Digitalization is compelling governments at all levels to embrace voluminous data and institute appropriate multi-channel platforms to support digital transformation. While this is the case, most governments have been caught unprepared thwarting maximum benefits spurred by digitalization. Inherently, the social media and e-participation tools for generating huge amount of data have convoluted most governments’ appetite in Big Data management. This situation is further compounded with the slow pace of adoption of these technological tools by citizens and the public sectors. For enhanced e-citizen satisfaction and engagement, as well as e-participation processes, public institutions need to promote engagement and collaboration. In view of advancing benefits to their citizens, public institutions need to institute appropriate measures to collect citizen’s data. The information collected is vital for public institutions in actualizing what services the citizens want. Using literature reviews and cases, the authors examine Big Data benefits in counties and propose a Big Data model to improve efficiency of e-governance services and productivity in county governments. The authors demonstrate Big Data framework has the aptitude of molding citizen’s opinion in county decision making process. Better use of e-technologies is shown in the proposed model which illustrates sharing resources among various data analytics sources. Our proposed framework based on Big Data analytics is a viable initiative to progress effectiveness and productivity, strengthen citizen engagement and participation and encourage decision-making in e-governance services delivery in the counties.
Micro and Small Enterprise Sector and Existing Support System with emphasis on High-Tech oriented Entrepreneurship in Kenya
Renny Mutai
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa , 2011,
Abstract: The significance of Kenya’s micro and small enterprises (MSE) activity has continued to grow since the sector was first brought to the limelight in 1972. In Kenya, it is now recognized that the promotion of the MSE sector is a viable and dynamic strategy for achieving national goals, including employment creation, poverty alleviation and balanced development between sectors and sub-sectors. Together, all this form the foundation of a strong national base and domestic production sector that is central to the government’s vision of achieving a newly industrialized country status by the year 2020. According to Kenya’s National Development Plan (1997), the MSE sector has been growing in importance both as a source of employment as well as innovative technologies. However, industrial technology development in Kenya is yet to take off. Kenya still relies heavily on imported technology. The plant and machinery that most MSEs use to produce goods and services have little technology (know-how) value. Due to the foregoing, the study reviews the current technological situation of the MSE sector in Kenya to determine the extent of government support services. The study also seeks to analyze how best this support can be delivered to help MSEs develop their technological capacities. The methodology that the study uses to achieve its objectives is documentary analysis and analytical narrative. The main finding of the study is that the major constraint in the MSE sector’s ability to upgrade its existing technological base is lack of national support. This weakness has undermined the development of indigenous labor intensive and local resource-using technologies. Key Words: micro and small enterprises, technology
Denature gradient gel electrophoresis of stratal bacteria activation in oilfield under different pressure conditions

Mutai Bao,Bing Wang,Qingguo Chen,Guangjun Gao,Ximing Li,

微生物学报 , 2009,
Abstract: Abstract: Objective] To study the structure change of dominant microbial population during activation of stratal microflora under atmospheric pressure (1 MPa) and higher pressure (10 MPa) conditions. Method] The water sample was from Zhan 3×24 well produced water in Shengli Oilfield. We activated the bacteria in the water sample under atmospheric pressure and higher pressure, and collected samples at different time intervals. These samples were analyzed by denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Results] Based on the analysis of the number and lightness of DGGE bands, we studied the change of the microbial community diversity activation of stratal bacteria. The species number and total quantity of dominant microbial population were not abundant under oil reservoir conditions. After injecting activation agent, some bacteria grew and reproduced quickly along with the enhancement of nutrition condition, and the structure of dominant microbial population changed. Conclusion] Compared to atmospheric pressure condition, the number of DGGE bands was fewer under higher pressure condition, which indicated that only a few microbial species adapted high pressure conditions. The delayed increase of DGGE bands occurred apparently under higher pressure conditions. In late activation period, the change of DGGE bands was slight, which indicated that, the structure of dominant microbial population readjusted successfully and reached a new dynamic balance.
Laboratory simulation of oily wastewater biotreatment in Bonan low permeability oilfield

Bao Mutai,Pan Shengyou,Wang Haifeng,Du Chunan,Li Ximing,

环境工程学报 , 2009,
Abstract: 渤南油田属典型的低渗透油田,注水水质要求达到A1级,而污水中的分散油和乳化油是污水处理的难点和重点。为给污水站的建设提供合适的污水处理工艺单元和最佳参数,通过室内模拟研究,采用生物接触氧化技术处理油田污水。结果表明,当污水停留时间为8 h时,生化系统可将污水含油量由10~25 mg/L降低到1 mg/L以下,去除率高达96.18%,COD稳定在100 mg/L以内,通过生物之间的竞争作用和高浓度的氧,有效地抑制了硫酸盐还原菌的生长,使腐蚀率控制在0.076 mm/a以下。同时,该试验表明,8 h为生物接触氧化处理工艺的最佳停留时间。
Identification of a glycolipid biosurfactant-producing strain and optimization of fermentation conditions

Bao Mutai,Zhang Jinqiu,Zhang Juan,Chen Qingguo,Li Yiming,

环境工程学报 , 2013,
Abstract: 从胜利油田污水中筛选出的产生物表面活性剂菌株Bbai-1,经过生理生化鉴定及16S rDNA系统发育学分析确定其属于类短短芽孢杆菌属(Brevibacillus parabrevis),由建立的该菌株的系统发育树可知菌株Bbai-1与其他类短短芽孢杆菌类同源性较低,是一个新的种。薄层色谱和红外光谱分析结果表明此菌株所产的生物表面活性剂为一种新型的糖脂类生物表面活性剂。通过产量和表面张力双重指标对菌株Bbai-1产生物表面活性剂的条件进行优化,确定了其最佳发酵温度为25℃、盐度为8 g/L、pH为7.5。在最佳发酵条件下,生物表面活性剂的产量可达0.9764 g/L。此糖脂类生物表面活性剂具有较高的降低表面张力能力,在浓度为其临界胶束浓度(120 mg/L)时,可将水溶液的表面张力从66.15 mN/m降低至27.62 mN/m。
Experimental study on treatment of heavy oil wastewater by using bio-contact oxidation method

Bao Mutai Liu Zeyue Wang Haifeng Guo Shengxue Li Ximing,

环境工程学报 , 2009,
Abstract: Three high effective hydrocarbon degradation strains HD-1,HD-2,HD-3 screened from heavy oil wastewater were used to treat the heavy oil wastewater.The degradation rate of the crude oil and the removal of the COD of the single and mixed strains were studied.The results showed that the ability to degrade oil and remove COD of the single strain was high,and the mixed strains were more effective.The laboratory simulation experiment showed that the oil could be degraded from 30 to less than 1 mg/L and the COD co...
Determinants of Persistent Sputum Smear Positivity after Intensive Phase Chemotherapy among Patients with Tuberculosis at Rhodes Chest Clinic, Nairobi, Kenya  [PDF]
D. Maingi, M. Mutugi, P. Wanzala, J. Mutai, P. Mwaniki
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.615237
Abstract: The prevalence of TB in sub-Sahara Africa has been reported as 511 per 100,000 populations and a mortality of 74 per 100,000 in year 2009. In the same period, incidence was estimated at 350 cases per 100,000. In this regard, the health system requires strengthening to respond to the rising cases of infection, drug resistance and quality of life lost while continuing to seek interventions that improve adherence to medication and case detection among those infected. Methods: This study sought to determine factors that are associated with sputum positivity after intensive phase of chemotherapy in people with tuberculosis. It was a retrospective case-control study conducted in Rhodes chest clinic, a City Council health unit in Nairobi that specializes in treatment of chest infections. The participants were sampled from clinic attendants who had completed two months of intensive phase TB chemotherapy and met inclusion criteria. Results: Seventy participants of whom 25 (36%) were sputum positive at the end of two (2) months intensive phase were included in the study. Skipping medication doses was significantly associated with sputum positivity (p = 0.01). Patients who were sputum positive at the end of the two-month period were more likely to have taken longer time before seeking treatment compared to those who were sputum negative by median (IQR) 8 (3 - 12) and 4 (3 - 8) weeks respectively although this difference was not significant (p = 0.09). Patients who had not disclosed their infection status had a two-fold possibility of remaining sputum positive at the end of intensive phase. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment of TB, and adherence to medication were important factors that affect sputum conversion during intensive phase of TB treatment. Therefore, public health practitioners should advise patients to seek prompt diagnosis and treatment of signs and symptoms of tuberculosis.
Antioxidant, Enzyme Inhibitory and Anti-Obesity Potential of Sorrel Calyx Extracts in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  [PDF]
E. Mutai, Jorge Vizcarra, L. T. Walker, M. Verghese
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.65047
Abstract: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (sorrel) has been widely used in the development of tropical beverages and folk medicine. This study’s objective was to investigate the anti-obesity potential of sorrel calyx extracts (methanol and water) on 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells. Phytochemical content, antioxidant potential as DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and enzyme (α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and pancreatic lipase) inhibitory activities were determined in sorrel methanol extracts (SME) and sorrel water extracts (SWE). Effect of SWE and SME on lipid accumulation, lipolysis and apoptosis were tested in 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and maintenance stage of cells at selected concentrations (200 - 1000 μg/ml) was studied. The total phenolic (GAE mg/100g dry weight) and total flavonoid (mg catechin equi/ 100g dry weight) contents in SME and SWE were 158.31 and 317.27 and 90.77 and 100.08. DPPH% inhibition (IC-50-mg/ml) and FRAP (mmol Fe [II]/100g dry weight) were 0.82 and 0.33 and 1799.13 and 2296.38 for SWE and SME, respectively. SME and SWE inhibited α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and pancreatic lipase activities by more than 40% at 4mg/ml. Significant (p < 0.05) reduction in lipid accumulation and increased glycerol release in 3T3-L1 cells was observed at concentrations ranged from 600 mg/ml of both extracts. Treating cells with SME-1000 μg/ml at differentiation resulted inhibition (p < 0.05) of lipid accumulation by 45% compared to untreated cells. Highest (p < 0.05) (35%) decrease in triglyceride content as well as higher glycerol release was seen in cells exposed to SME at the differentiation stage. Sorrel extracts induced apoptosis in adipocytes at higher concentrations with prominent effect of treating cells at differentiation stage. The results of this study showed effect of sorrel extracts in reduction of lipid accumulation and increase in lipolysis of 3T3-L1 cells.
Isolation of Antibiotic Vibrionaceae Bacteria from a Community Marine Silvo-Fishery Farm along Mtwapa Creek, Kenya  [PDF]
Moses Ngeiywa, Mutai Edwin, David Liti, Raymond Mutai
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101313
Abstract: Bacterial strains inhibitory towards pathogenic bacteria were isolated from a marine fish pond culture facility in Mtwapa Creek, Kenya. 12 of these antibacterial isolates were assigned to the Vibrionaceae family. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of five Vibrionaceae strains with pronounced antibacterial activity. These were identified as Vibrio coralliilyticus (two strains), V. neptunius (two strains), and Photobacterium halotolerans (one strain). The two related V. coralliilyticus and V. neptunius strains were isolated from marine fish pond culture system. Bioassay identified two known antibiotics as being responsible for the antibacterial activity, andrimid (from V. coralliilyticus) and holomycin (from P. halotolerans). Despite the isolation of already known antibiotics, our findings show that marine Vibrionaceae are a resource of antibacterial compounds and may have potential for future natural product discovery.
Enhancement of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua L. through Induced Mutation  [PDF]
Mutai Raymond, Kinyua Miriam, Kiplagat Oliver, Mutai Edwin, Kimno Stephen
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102189
Abstract: Artemisia annua is the source of artemisinin, an antimalarial drug which is effective against multidrug-resistant strains of plasmodium, the malarial parasite. Malaria has serious effects on morbidity and mortality thus negatively impacting on agricultural production and food security. Although artemisinin has been found to be a useful medicine; its production is very low in comparison with what is actually needed to treat the worldwide threat of malaria. On the other hand, the lower content (0.01% - 0.8%, dry weight) of artemisinin found in leaves and flowers of A. annua has seriously limited its commercialization. Currently there are only two varieties of A. annua present in Kenya; hence there is a need to increase its diversity. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of mutation on agronomical traits and artemisinin production by parents and mutant (M2) A. annua plants in Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation (KALRO) Njoro and the University of Eldoret (UoE). Seeds of two varieties of Artemesia annua varartemis and varanamed were sent to Vienna Austria for irradiation at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at a dosage of 150 gray. The M1 seeds were multiplied at the University of Eldoret farm. The harvested seeds were planted in replicate at the University of Eldoret and Njoro (KALRO). The results showed that mutation had significant effect on agronomical traits (P-value < 0.001). Mutant varieties and lines showed wide variation in terms of agronomical traits (crown length, stem length, plant height and stem diameter) and yield of artemisinin. The following lines showed superiority in artemisinin production; Artemis line 1, 2 and 9 with an average mean of 58.843, 58.393 and 69.192 μg/l, respectively while Anamed line 2, 3, 5 and 8 with an average of 56.268, 51.704, 53.557 and 54.448 μg/l, respectively. The effect of mutation on both agronomical traits and production of the artemisinin content appeared to occur randomly and was also dependent on environmental factors in the different ecological zones. Higher means in agronomical traits was observed in UoE while production of artemisinin content was enhanced in Njoro. The artemisinin yield in A. annua crops was negatively correlated with leaf traits, shoot and stem characteristics. Leaf traits had positive correlations with shoot and stem characteristics. It is recommended that superior lines be advanced in generations for further stability and evaluation of its efficacy in treatment of malaria.
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