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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462014 matches for " Bamlaku A. Alemu "
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Technical Efficiency Across Agro-Ecological Zones in Ethiopia: The Impact of Poverty and Asset Endowments
Bamlaku A. Alemu,E.A. Nuppenau,H. Bolland
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Currently, Ethiopia focuses on agriculture so that it can spur growth in other sectors of the economy. In order to help policy makers understand factors affecting agriculture, studies on efficiency are important. Especially, the impact of poverty and asset endowments could be highly pronounced in an agrarian country such as Ethiopia. In this regard, the objectives of this study are two fold: to investigate efficiency variations across agro-ecological zones and to examine the impacts of poverty and asset endowments on inefficiency in the study area. Data were collected from 254 randomly selected households. Stochastic frontier production function was estimated and the results of the analysis revealed a mean technical efficiency of 75.68%. F-test also showed a statistically significant difference in technical efficiency among agro-ecological zones. On the other hand, maximum likelihood estimates indicated positive and significant elasticities for asset endowments including physical (land and draft power), financial (credit access and market) and human (labor and education). However, poverty was found to reduce efficiency levels significantly. Thus, future endeavoers should envisage better market and education access and reduced liquidity constraints.
Comparative Analysis of Instructional Language Issues in Ethiopia and the United States  [PDF]
Daniel S. Alemu, Abebayehu A. Tekleselassie
Creative Education (CE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2011.24058
Abstract: Crafting and implementing language policies that address the needs of language minority students have always been challenging. The major challenges include addressing such concerns as: How do we address the language needs of minority students, while keeping the academic standards high? Should the role of minority langue be cultural maintenance or the facilitation of instruction through the mother tongue? To what extent does the use of minority language prepare the child for the global world? Through comparative analysis of practices in the United States and Ethiopia, this paper explores the background, approaches, and challenges/controversies in implementing polices that cater for language minority children in the two countries.
Development and maintenance of the Ethiopian legal information website
G. A. Alemu
Afrika Focus , 2007,
Abstract: Information and Communication Technology in general and the internet in particular have been creating unprecedented opportunities in facilitating and streamlining access to information. Websites have become a common way of publishing legal information for the public in many countries. In Ethiopia, however, the availability of legal websites has been very limited or non-existent. Except for the constitution, no other basic Ethiopian law has ever been published online. To benefit from the tremendous potentials of the internet, a project was initiated to develop an Ethiopian Legal Information Web Site. Based on users' requirements obtained from questionnaire analysis, and current paradigms and implications, the Ethiopian Legal Information Website was designed, developed, implemented and maintained. The website is an online database of Ethiopian basic laws developed by Mekelle University, Ethiopia, in cooperation with the Non-Western Law Department of Ghent University, Belgium. Basic laws included on the site at present are the Ethiopian Constitution, Civil Code, Criminal Code, Civil Procedure Code, Criminal Procedure Code, Commercial Code and Family Code. The laws can be viewed and used in full text html, whereas some of the laws including the 2004 Criminal Code, Family Code, FDRE Constitution and the Tigray Regional State Constitution are available in pdf. Laws can be searched by keywords using the site search engine. Comments and suggestions from experts and Ethiopian laws users have been collected, hence modifications, improvements and additions have been made to the website. The Ethiopian Legal Information Website was first hosted on the University of Ghent internet server and currently in the Mekelle University server at http://mail.mu.edu.et/~ethiopialaws/.1 The Ethiopian Legal Information Website has been found to be a useful web portal to access and use the basic Ethiopian laws. The University of Ghent, ILO, the Library of Congress, AUSTLII, WASHLAW, WIKIPEDIA and other major legal web portals make citations in reference to the site. While the website currently contains only the basic laws of the federal government, an action plan is prepared to include regional laws of Ethiopia. Other legal information including amendments to the laws, decisions and legal news will also be included on the site, hence a comprehensive Ethiopian Legal Web Portal will be developed and maintained.
Byssinosis and other respiratory symptoms among factory workers in Akaki textile factory, Ethiopia
K Alemu, A Kumie, G Davey
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Textile cotton workers are at risk for occupational lung disease, including Byssinosis and chronic Bronchitis. Byssinosis is primarily associated with exposure to cotton dust. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with byssinosis and respiratory symptoms among workers in cotton mills of Akaki textile factory. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 417 randomly selected factory workers. Information was collected through interview using the modified American Thoracic Society standard respiratory symptoms questionnaires. Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC ratio were measured using portable medical spirometers. Area sampling for cotton dust concentration in the work environment was measured using Data RAM 4 real time measurement for 8 hours during a day shift. Results: The highest prevalence of respiratory symptoms was found in the carding section - cough 77%, phlegm 62%, chest tightness 46% and dyspnea 62%. The Overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 32%. Those working in the carding section appeared 13 times more likely to have chronic bronchitis compared to other sections (Adjusted OR=13.4, 95% CI 3.43-52.6). The prevalence of byssinosis was 38%; the highest being recorded in the carding section at 84.6%. High exposure to cotton dust was noted among those in the blowing and carding section at mean dust levels of 32.2 mg/m3 and 8 mg/m3, respectively. About 11% of byssinotics developed severe chronic FEV1 changes. Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a strong relationship between exposure to cotton dust and byssinosis and other respiratory impairments, which is mediated through chronic ventilator impairments. Preventive measures are warranted in order to reduce the high prevalence of byssinosis and other respiratory disorders in textile manufacturing. [Ethiop. J .Health Dev. 2010;24(2):133-139]
Dysfunctional Organization: The Leadership Factor  [PDF]
Daniel S. Alemu
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2016.51001
Abstract: In an extension of studies on dysfunctional organizations, vis-à-vis leadership, the current research examines leaders of dysfunctional and functional organizations in view of the functions of leadership. Sixteen variables related to leadership functions were tested to examine the relationship between leadership and organizational level of functionality and the differences between the characteristics of leaders of functional and dysfunctional organizations. A strong positive correlation was found between effective leadership and organizational level of functionality and a statistically significant difference was found between the characteristics of leaders of functional and dysfunctional organizations.
Integrated Watershed Management and Sedimentation  [PDF]
Molla Mekonnen Alemu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.74043

Environmental development and protection measures such as feasibility studies, land-use planning and soil and water conservation are some of the issues that need to be considered in watersheds management. Apparently, integrated watershed management is emerging as an approach for the sustained development and management of natural resources. The integral enactment of different environmental frameworks, strategies and policies could positively impact watershed- based developmental approaches. Sediment which is brought through water erosion can hamper the proper functioning of waterways as well as the quality of water in dams. Knowhow on soil erosion and the sedimentation process is among the requisites that need to be considered for the control of sedimentation. Other elements like climate, edaphic factors, land management, topography, and land cover, etc. will also determine the sedimentation process. Integrated Watershed Management approach is a worthy approach to manage the ecological, social and economic watershed development challenges in countries like Ethiopia. Thus, this article is intended to assess watershed characteristics that will help to explore the possibilities of reducing sedimentation and its related effects.

Sustainable Land Management  [PDF]
Molla Mekonnen Alemu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.74045

In one way or another, one out of three people are being affected by land degradation. It is estimated that, about every year, 75 billion tonnes of soil material are being lost worldwide as a result of land degradation. Recent findings also showed that about 2 billion hectares of land were severely degraded, in some cases in an irreversible way, all these caused a severe damage to local ecologies as well as contributed a lot for climate change and its associated effects on the wellbeing of humanity. Apart from this, the major portion of most developing countries population are still dependent on the un-mechanized and primitive forms agriculture, livestock production, forestry and fishery, and their livelihood and options for economic development are directly linked to the quality of the land and its resources. The objective of this article is to reaffirm the role of Sustainable Land Management in the process of agricultural development, the main source of livelihood in the developing countries. The paper initially explored the basic concept and principles of sustainable management. Causes of land degradation, the prime challenge of sustainable land management and development are also dealt in detail.

Incidence and Predictors of Tuberculosis among HIV/AIDS Infected Patients: A Five-Year Retrospective Follow-Up Study  [PDF]
Mulugeta Dalbo, Alemu Tamiso
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2016.62010
Abstract: Background: Despite increased deliverance of antiretroviral therapy (ART), morbidity and mortality from TB are still predominant among HIV/AIDS infected patients in Ethiopia. Thus, current study aimed to determine magnitude and predictors of tuberculosis among cohort of HIV infected patients at Arba Minch General Hospital, Ethiopia, 2015. Methods: Hospital based retrospective follow-up study was conducted among study population which was HIV/AIDS infected individuals registered from September 2007 to 2013. The data were collected using structured data abstraction form and four ART trained nurses were used to abstract the data. The data were checked for completeness, cleaned and entered into Epi Info 7.0 and analyzed using SPSS version (IBM-21). Results were summarized by using table of frequency, graph, and measure of central tendency. Statistical significance was inferred at P-value ≤ 0.05. Adjusted odd ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to determine predictors. Result: Four hundred ninety six patient’s charts were abstracted. Cumulative and incidence density of tuberculosis were 21.4% (95% CI: 21.3, 21.44) and 5.36 per 100 person year respectively. Cigarette smokers (AOR: 2.82, 95% CI (1.27 - 6.27)), household with family size of 3 - 4 (AOR: 2.26, 95% CI (1.14 - 4.50)), baseline WHO clinical stage III (AOR: 20.26, 95% CI (7.09 - 57.6)) and IV (AOR: 22.9, 95% CI (6.91 - 76.4)) and heamoglobin level of <10 (AOR: 2.56, 95% CI (1.22 - 5.33)) were important predictors (risk factors) of tuberculosis among HIV
Household Energy Demand and Its Impact on the Ecological Capital of Nech Sar National Park, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Molla Mekonnen Alemu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.710112
Abstract: Household energy demand is among the prime problems that cause deforestation. The use of fuel wood in the developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America is be-lieved to play a key role for the razing of forests and the degradation of associated biodiversity and other land resources. High population growth, increased energy demand, urbanization, infrastructure development, etc. are among the factors that exacerbate the current rate of deforestation in Ethiopia. This growing demand is also posing a threat to the remaining natural capital and associated wildlife of the country’s national parks. NechSar national park, a jewel in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia is not in different to this threat. The issue is calling for an urgent interference in the provision of environment friendly energy sources, afforestation programmes, raising the level of awareness on climate change, etc. This study is therefore, aimed at exploring the level of household energy demand interference on the woody vegetation of NechSar Park and promoting the use of environment friendly and energy saving technologies in the vicinity of the park area and beyond.
Outcome of Transhiatal Esophagectomy Done for Advanced Oesophageal Cancer
BN Alemu, A Ali, D Gulilat, S Kassa, A Bekele
East and Central African Journal of Surgery , 2012,
Abstract: Background: This study was aimed at assessing a single unit experience of Transhiatal Oesophagectomy (THE) done for advanced esophageal cancer and the possible contributing factors for adverse outcomes. Methods: A Retrospective hospital based longitudinal case series analysis was undertaken at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Central Referral Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. All patients admitted for esophageal cancer and operated with transhiatal oesophagectomy over a period of six years from November 2006 to November 2011. The outcome measures studied included the demographic characters, duration and severity of symptoms, relevant investigations, stage and site of the tumor, hospital stay, mortality, morbidity, and variables associated with adverse out comes. Results: A total of 156 patients were operated for possible THE, of them 139 (89.1%) were found suitable for the planned procedure. Male to female ratio was 1:1.72 and mean age of presentation was 54.9 +/- 11.8. Majority of patients seek medical advice late in the course of the illness. At the time of surgery, One hundred twenty seven (91.4%) of them were either stage three or above. Tumor was localized in the upper (1.4%) middle (23%) lower (62.2%) and GEJ (13%). Majority were squamous cell carcinoma (82%) . Patients presented after an average of 5.54 + / - 3.05 months of symptom onset. The mean duration of surgery was 152.98 +/- 37.3 minutes and the mean estimated amount of intra-operative blood loss was 733.38+/- 380.5 ml. The average hospital stay after surgery was 11.58 +/- 7.4 days and the hospital mortality was 18.7%. The major risk factors for mortality were sepsis, anastomotic leak and respiratory conditions. All the 113(81.3%) operative survivors were discharged from the hospital after they resumed normal swallowing. Conclusion: With Transhiatal Oesophagectomy, it is possible to achieve lasting relief from dysphagia if done in appropriately selected patients even for advanced esophageal cancer with acceptable mortality and morbidity.
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