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Debating shura and democracy among British Muslim organizations
Bambang Arif Rahman
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies , 2011,
Abstract: Shuraas the system of representation of the Muslim’ s voice in, typically , the Islamic state is often confronted with the West representation system namely Democracy . Some Islamic scholars believe that Shura is still the best system for Muslims to vote for their need in the state. However , as Islam is not a monolithic doctrine, some other Muslim groups have another alternative view to represent their political opinion to the state by , surprisingly , practicing democracy . In brief, Shurais still placed God instructions as the reference of all decisions which are made in the council. Otherwise, democracy merely stands its policy on the people. Both systems have a long tradition processes to find their recent way in this global age. And the British Muslims have to realize that they live in a developed country like Britain and still have to be Muslim. Giving challenging condition, Hizbut T ahrir , T ablighi Jama’at, and Muslim Council of Britain, three prominent Muslim Organizations in England, have different attitude towards democratic Britain to voice their representation. On the one hand, Hizbut Tahrir strictly rejects the idea of democracy as its goal is to establish the Islamic Caliphate in the world. And on another hand, Tablighi Jama’at tends to stay away from the political issue, including its representation, as the core of this organization is only preaching in a peaceful way . Finally , Muslim Council of Britain as the umbrella of small-medium Muslim organizations in England, in fact is involving in the system of British democracy .
Performance Evaluation of a miniPET Camera for Brain Scanning  [PDF]
Arif Mahmud, Md. Moshiur Rahman
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2015.41010
Abstract:
A nuclear miniPET camera was constructed with 2 bucket rings, each having 8 BGO detector modules for brain scanning. After calibration of the camera, an experimental investigation of sensitivity was carried out to evaluate the performance of this PET scanner. The characteristics of NECR were examined for comparisons of count rate considering the statistical noise due to scattered and random events. NECR performance was observed using 10 cm diameter phantom filled with 1 L water and 240 MBq of 18F. All data were acquired in 2D acquisition mode but without septa. Randoms were estimated by introducing delay into the coincidence circuit which was an extra 100 ns time delay. Multiples were recorded simultaneously with the prompt and delayed events. The true plus scattered coincidence events were calculated as the difference between prompt and random plus multiple events. After recording all the data, the noise equivalent count rate (NECR) was calculated and graphically presented. It is observed that NEC value is significantly lower than other similar scanners. Comparing the individual components of the count rate, a much higher randoms rate is observed for the camera because of the absence of any side shielding, so that out of field activity contributes significantly to the randoms rate and hence reduces the NECR value.
On the Footsteps to Generalized Tower of Hanoi Strategy
Bijoy Rahman Arif
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper, our aim is to prove that our recursive algorithm to solve the "Reve's puzzle" (four- peg Tower of Hanoi) is the optimal solution according to minimum number of moves. Here we used Frame's five step algorithm to solve the "Reve's puzzle", and proved its optimality analyzing all possible strategies to solve the problem. Minimum number of moves is important because no one ever proved that the "presumed optimal" solution, the Frame-Stewart algorithm, always gives the minimum number of moves. The basis of our proof is Bifurcation Theorem. In fact, we can solve generalized "Tower of Hanoi" puzzle for any pegs (three or more pegs) using Bifurcation Theorem. But our scope is limited to the "Reve's puzzle" in this literature, but lately, we would discuss how we can reach our final destination, the Generalized Tower of Hanoi Strategy. Another important point is that we have used only induction method to prove all the results throughout this literature. Moreover, some simple theorems and lemmas are derived through logical perspective or consequence of induction method. Lastly, we will try to answer about uniqueness of solution of this famous puzzle.
Eco-Friendly Pest Control in Cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) Field with Botanical Pesticides  [PDF]
Abul Kalam Azad, Arif Sardar, Nilufa Yesmin, Mizanur Rahman, Saiful Islam
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.45050
Abstract:

A field experiment on eco-friendly pest control in cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) field was conducted at Rajshahi University during April, 2011 to June, 2011 with eight botanical pesticides prepared from the leaves and seeds of Bangladeshi plants. These botanicals are mahogany seeds, (Swietenia mahagoni), chirata leaves (Swertia chirata), jute seeds (Corchorus olitorius L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), marigold leaves (Tagetes erecta) and carrot leaves (Daucus carota). One control treatment without botanicals was maintained during this experiment where only water was sprayed. Out of these botanicals, a less number of insect attacks on cucumber leaves (1.33 ± 0.19) were found in combined treatment of mahogany and chirata whereas a high number of insect attacks were observed in combined treatment of garlic and jute seed (5.89 ± 0.40) and control (4.66 ± 0.33). Individual application of chirata extract also showed good protection of cucumber leaves (1.67 ± 0.19) from insect attack. A smaller number of leaves perforations were found in the combined treatment of mahogany and chirata (3.44 ± 0.29) compared to control (14.22 ± 1.05). Chirata extract also showed good performance (4.00 ± 0.19) against leaves perforation of insect. Besides the pest control, botanical pesticides also have enormous effect on plant growth. The tallest cucumber plant was observed in the combined treatment of mahogany and chirata (469.00 ± 63.51 cm) and shortest in garlic treatment (84.56 ± 15.24 cm). The cucumber production was also high in combined treatment of mahogany and chirata (1863.33 ± 196.32 g) compared to control (1260.00 ± 501.63 g). From this study, it is found that combined application of mahogany and chirata extract not only showed good protection of cucumber plant from insect attack but also increased the cucumber production. Therefore, we conclude that farmers should use botanical pesticides from mahogany seeds and chirata leaves instead of toxic chemical insecticides for controlling pest in cucumber field.

 

Economic Valuation of Nature-Based Tourism Object in Rawapening, Indonesia: An Application of Travel Cost and Contingent Valuation Method
Arif Rahman Hakim,Sri Subanti,Mangara Tambunan
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v4n2p91
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to measure the economic value in Rawapening. This study is expected to be able to see how far the role of nature tourism is seen as an environmentally sound tourist attractions. Because the benefits of natural attractions usually have a variety of natural resources such as biodiversity, benefit directly, and indirectly related to important ecological functions that are not only considered as a tourist attraction. This study was used primary data. The primary data obtained from field surveys to the perpetrator who was visiting tourist Rawapening. The analytical method used two methods. There are travel cost method and contingent valuation method. The study was found significant factors the determinant of the probability of individuals to be willing to pay a certain nominal value for environmental quality improvement are nominal amount bid, income, and education. Then, the determinant of the number of visits are an experience to visit, travel costs, income, age, and perception. The economic value of ecotourism was estimated at Rp 7,41 billion for consumer surplus and Rp 1,65 billion for total benefit per year. This implies that the significant economic value of nature based tourism will be lost from any large scale development by degrading natural environment.
Basic Knowledge and Reasoning Process in the Art Creation  [PDF]
Bambang Sunarto
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.55036
Abstract: Basically, process in the art creation is supported by three pillars of existence, namely 1) activity, 2) method, and 3) knowledge. In the application of activities, methods, and knowledge are always accompanied by the reasoning of the creators of art. Reasoning is used to obtain formulation of practical knowledge, productive knowledge, and theoretical knowledge of an object. The creators in directing its attention to the target of creation use a set of logically interrelated concepts, supported by reasoning in varied models. Substance of reasoning contains of several elements, i.e., confidence, the will to work, models, concepts, methods of concept application and the artwork. The mastery of reasoning and the material elements of reasoning are important issues in the development of pillars of artwork creation.
ASSISTED PERFORMANCE – A PRAGMATIC CONCEPTION OF ONLINE LEARNING
Habibah Ab. Jalil,Angela McFarlane,Ismi Arif Ismail,Fadzilah Rahman
International Journal of Instruction , 2008,
Abstract: This paper proposes a novel theoretical perspective on the nature of online learning. Taking a socio-cultural perspective, an argument is offered for the theorisation of peer to peer learning as a variety of ‘assisted performance’. Using this theoretical lens, a case study is then offered which uses this model to frame an analysis of the nature and occurrences of online exchanges between students, and with tutors. The case study looks at two years of online discussion in a Master’s programme in a United Kingdom university. The results suggest that looking for examples of assisted performance in the online exchanges can offer insights into the learning that can take place in online discussion and offers one way of recognising meaningful online interaction, and therefore point to ways of promoting such exchanges.
DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL WITH CONVENTIONALLY ANNEALED AND POST-HYDROTHERMALLY TREATED NANOCRYSTALLINE SEMICONDUCTOR OXIDE TiO2 DERIVED FROM SOL-GEL PROCESS
Akhmad Herman Yuwono,Badrul Munir,Alfian Ferdiansyah,Arif Rahman
Makara Seri Teknologi , 2010,
Abstract: Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is one of the very promising alternative renewable energy sources to anticipate the declination in the fossil fuel reserves in the next few decades and to make use of the abundance of intensive sunlight energy in tropical countries like Indonesia. In the present study, TiO2 nanoparticles of different nanocrystallinity was synthesized via sol gel process with various water to inorganic precursor ratio (Rw) of 0.85, 2.00 and 3.50 upon sol preparation, followed with subsequent drying, conventional annealing and post-hydrothermal treatments. The resulting nanoparticles were integrated into the DSSC prototype and sensitized with an organic dye made of the extract of red onion. The basic performance of the fabricated DSSC has been examined and correlated to the crystallite size and band gap energy of TiO2 nanoparticles. It was found that post-hydrothermally treated TiO2 nanoparticles derived from sol of 2.00 Rw, with the most enhanced nanocrystalline size of 12.46 nm and the lowest band gap energy of 3.48 eV, showedthe highest open circuit voltage (Voc) of 69.33 mV.
Mobility Issue on Octagonal Structured ZigBee Network Using Riverbed  [PDF]
Nazrul Islam, Md. Jaminul Haque Biddut, Md. Faizul Huq Arif, Mohammad Motiur Rahman, Md. Syfur Rahman
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2016.93005
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a special type of communication medium through distributed sensor nodes. Popular wireless sensor nodes like ZigBee have splendid interoperability after IEEE 802.15.4 standardization in the domain of wireless personal area network (WPAN). ZigBee has another great feature mobility that makes the ZigBee network more versatile. The mobility feature of ZigBee mobile nodes has a greater impact on network performance than fixed nodes. This impact sometimes turns into more severe because of network structure and mobility model. This study mainly focuses on the performance analysis of the ZigBee mobile node under Random and Octagonal mobility management model with the Tree routing method. The Riverbed academic modeler is used to design, implement and simulate the ZigBee network under certain conditions. This study also presents a competitive performance analysis based on ZigBee mobile nodes transmitter and receiver characteristics under the observation of the mobility model. This indicates that Octagonal mobility model exhibits better performance than the Random mobility model. This study will constitute a new way for further designing and planning a reliable and efficient ZigBee network.
Security Approaches in IEEE 802.11 MANET—Performance Evaluation of USM and RAS  [PDF]
Arif Sari
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2014.79038
Abstract: Evaluation of IEEE 802.11 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) security issues becomes significant concern for researchers since Denial of Service (DoS) attacks are recognized as one of the most harmful threats. A variety of security mechanisms are proposed to solve security dilemma in MANETs against different layers of DoS attacks. Physical Layer jamming attacks exhaust the victim’s network resources such as bandwidth, computing power, battery, etc. Unified Security Mechanism (USM) and Rate Adaptation Scheme (RAS) are two of the proposed methods by researchers against DoS attacks. USM and RAS mechanisms are simulated through OPNET simulator and Jamming Attack is generated on the network for each security mechanisms to compare specific performance metrics on the network.
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