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Performance Tradeoff with Routing Protocols for Radio Models in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Manju Bala, Lalit Awasthi
Wireless Engineering and Technology (WET) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wet.2011.22008
Abstract: In this paper, we have simulated and evaluated the performance tradeoff with routing protocols: Constrained Flooding, the Real-Time Search and the Adaptive Tree on MICA and MICAz platform with different radio models using PROWLER for wireless sensor networks. The simulation results establish that the MICAz motes give low latency, high throughput, high energy consumption, low efficiency but better lifetime while the MICA motes give high success rate and less loss rate. It has been, thus, concluded that in case of all the radio models the MICAz is preferably better than MICA in applications where energy is a constraint. Moreover, use of MICAz motes increases the network lifetime in comparison to MICA for the radio models. Further, the AT protocol can be applied to achieve better energy consumption, efficiency and lifetime in real time for wireless sensor networks.
Proficient D-SEP Protocol with Heterogeneity for Maximizing the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks
Manju Bala,Lalit Awasthi
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, we have proposed a new SEP protocol called as Deterministic-SEP (D-SEP), for electing cluster heads in a distributed fashion in two-, three-, and multi-level hierarchical wireless sensor networks. The significant improvement has been shown using D-SEP in comparison with SEP in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and data transmission to BS. Our expectations are demonstrated by simulation results. We have introduced the superior characteristic of our protocol and discussed the cluster head selection algorithm by describing the threshold and probability equations. In order to reach the constructive conclusion, two cases of two-level and four cases of three-level heterogeneity have been reported and compared. The results reveal that there is 323% & 207% improvement in the overall lifetime of the network by using D-SEP after comparing two-level (m=0.3, a=1.5) & three-level (m=0.5, m0=0.4, a=1.5, b=3) respectively. The investigations ascertain the stable region and maximized lifetime of the network by using D-SEP over SEP. The development of 17.8 fold in the lifetime of the network is reported by using D-SEP. Moreover the energy depletion slope per round is lower in case of D-SEP over SEP.
Cephalosporin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Bala Manju,Sood Seema
Journal of Global Infectious Diseases , 2010,
Abstract: Gonorrhea, a disease of public health importance, not only leads to high incidence of acute infections and complications but also plays a major role in facilitating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and transmission. One of the major public health needs for gonorrhea control is appropriate, effective treatment. However, treatment options for gonorrhea are diminishing as Neisseria gonorrhoeae have developed resistance to several antimicrobial drugs such as sulfonamides, penicillin, tetracyclines and quinolones. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance of N. gonorrhoeae helps establish and maintain the efficacy of standard treatment regimens. AMR surveillance should be continuous to reveal the emergence of new resistant strains, monitor the changing patterns of resistance, and be able to update treatment recommendations so as to assist in disease control. Current treatment guidelines recommend the use of single dose injectable or oral cephalosporins. The emergence and spread of cephalosporin resistant and multi drug resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains, represents a worrying trend that requires monitoring and investigation. Routine clinical laboratories need to be vigilant for the detection of such strains such that strategies for control and prevention could be reviewed and revised from time to time. It will be important to elucidate the genetic mechanisms responsible for decreased susceptibility and future resistance. There is also an urgent need for research of safe, alternative anti-gonococcal compounds that can be administered orally and have effective potency, allowing high therapeutic efficacy (greater than 95.0% cure rate).
Performance Evaluation Of Aodv, Olsr And Zrp Routing Protocols Under The Black Hole Attack In Manet
International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: The wireless mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is set of dissimilar types of mobile nodes. These nodes in MANET communicate with each other without any fixed infrastructure. Because of MANET’s infrastructure network is unprotected from the attacks of malicious nodes. One of the attacks is called black hole attack. In MANET black hole attack is occurring easily. In the black hole attack node falsie advertises that they have secure path to destination and absorb the data packet. Nodes those drop or misuse the data are called malicious nodes. This paper focus to analyzed the performance of reactive (AODV), proactive (OLSR) and hybrid (ZRP) routing protocols with blackhole attack and without blackhole attack using different performance metrics like Packet Delivery Ratio, Average Jitter, Average Throughput and Average End to End Delay. The simulation study of ad-hoc routing protocols in MANET is done with Qualnet5.1 simulator.
Study of Blackhole Attack Using Different Routing Protocols in MANET
International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: An ad-hoc network (MANET) is set of different types of mobile node. MANET is mobile so they utilize wireless connection to attach with network. MANET can be deployed at low cost in variety of application. In MANET different types of routing protocols have been recommended. These protocols can be classified into three main categories reactive (on-demand), proactive (table-driven) and hybrid routing protocols namely AODV, OLSR and ZRP [1] [2] [3]. This research effort focused first the comparative investigations of routing protocols under the various types of attack then to create scenario and simulate and investigate the performance metrics viz. Packet delivery ratio, average jitter, average throughput and end to end delay of reactive, proactive and hybrid routing protocols such as AODV and AODV with blackhole attack, OLSR and OLSR with blackhole attack and ZRP and ZRP with blackhole attack for the different scenario under the different conditions.
High systemic levels of interleukin-10, interleukin-22 and C-reactive protein in Indian patients are associated with low in vitro replication of HIV-1 subtype C viruses
Juan F Arias, Reiko Nishihara, Manju Bala, Kazuyoshi Ikuta
Retrovirology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-7-15
Abstract: A small subset of HIV-1C isolates showing efficient replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is described, and the association of in vitro replication capacity with disease progression markers and the host cytokine response was evaluated. Viruses were isolated from patient samples, and the corresponding in vitro growth kinetics were determined by monitoring for p24 production. Genotype, phenotype and co-receptor usage were determined for all isolates, while clinical category, CD4 cell counts and viral loads were recorded for all patients. Plasmatic concentrations of cytokines and, acute-phase response, and microbial translocation markers were determined; and the effect of cytokine treatment on in vitro replication rates was also measured.We identified a small number of viral isolates showing high in vitro replication capacity in healthy-donor PBMC. HIV-1C usage of CXCR4 co-receptor was rare; therefore, it did not account for the differences in replication potential observed. There was also no correlation between the in vitro replication capacity of HIV-1C isolates and patients' disease status. Efficient virus growth was significantly associated with low interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-22 (IL-22), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in plasma (p < .0001). In vitro, pretreatment of virus cultures with IL-10 and CRP resulted in a significant reduction of virus production, whereas IL-22, which lacks action on immune cells appears to mediate its anti-HIV effect through interaction with both IL-10 and CRP, and its own protective effect on mucosal membranes.These results indicate that high systemic levels of IL-10, CRP and IL-22 in HIV-1C-infected Indian patients are associated with low viral replication in vitro, and that the former two have direct inhibitory effects whereas the latter acts through downstream mechanisms that remain uncertain.HIV-1 subtype C is the most prevalent HIV-1 subtype worldwide, accounting for more than 50% of HIV-1 infections
Production and characterization of human anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies from the cells of HIV-1 infected Indian donors
Andrabi Raiees,Kumar Rajesh,Bala Manju,Nair Ambili
Virology Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-9-196
Abstract: Background Analysis of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) developed from HIV-1 infected donors have enormously contributed to the identification of neutralization sensitive epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. The third variable region (V3) is a crucial target on gp120, primarily due to its involvement in co-receptor (CXCR4 or CCR5) binding and presence of epitopes recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Methods Thirty-three HIV-1 seropositive drug naive patients (18 males and 15 females) within the age range of 20–57 years (median = 33 years) were recruited in this study for mAb production. The mAbs were selected from EBV transformed cultures with conformationally constrained Cholera-toxin-B containing V3C (V3C-CTB) fusion protein. We tested the mAbs for their binding with HIV-1 derived proteins and peptides by ELISA and for neutralization against HIV-1 viruses by TZM-bl assays. Results We isolated three anti-V3 mAbs, 277, 903 and 904 from the cells of different individuals. The ELISA binding revealed a subtype-C and subtype-A specific binding of antibody 277 and 903 while mAb 904 exhibited cross reactivity also with subtype-B V3. Epitope mapping of mAbs with overlapping V3 peptides showed exclusive binding to V3 crown. The antibodies displayed high and low neutralizing activity against 2/5 tier 1 and 1/6 tier 2 viruses respectively. Overall, we observed a resistance of the tier 2 viruses to neutralization by the anti-V3 mAbs, despite the exposure of the epitopes recognized by these antibodies on two representative native viruses (Du156.12 and JRFL), suggesting that the affinity of mAb might equally be crucial for neutralization, as the epitope recognition. Conclusions Our study suggests that the anti-V3 antibodies derived from subtype-C infected Indian patients display neutralization potential against tier 1 viruses while such activity may be limited against more resistant tier 2 viruses. Defining the fine epitope specificities of these mAbs and further experimental manipulations will be helpful in identification of epitopes, unique to clade C or shared with non-clade C viruses, in context of V3 region.
Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from India, Pakistan and Bhutan in 2007–2011
Sethi Sunil,Golparian Daniel,Bala Manju,Dorji Dorji
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-35
Abstract: Background Knowledge on antimicrobial drug resistance and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates circulating in India, Pakistan, and Bhutan is sorely lacking. In this paper, we describe the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and molecular characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae isolates from India, Pakistan, and Bhutan in 2007–2011. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility and β-lactamase production were tested for 65 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from India (n=40), Pakistan (n=18) and Bhutan (n=7) using Etest methodology (eight antimicrobials) and nitrocefin solution, respectively. Resistance determinants, i.e. penA, mtrR, porB1b, gyrA, and parC, were sequenced. N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) was performed for molecular epidemiology. Results The highest resistance level was observed for ciprofloxacin (94%), followed by penicillin G (68%), erythromycin (62%), tetracycline (55%), and azithromycin (7.7%). All the isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, cefixime, and spectinomycin. Thirty-four (52%) of the isolates were producing β-lactamase. No penA mosaic alleles or A501-altered alleles of penicillin-binding protein 2 were identified. Forty-nine NG-MAST STs were identified, of which 42 STs have not been previously described worldwide. Conclusions Based on this study, ceftriaxone, cefixime, and spectinomycin can be used as an empirical first-line therapy for gonorrhoea in India, Pakistan, and Bhutan, whereas ciprofloxacin, penicillin G, tetracycline, erythromycin, and azithromycin should not be. It is imperative to strengthen the laboratory infrastructure in this region, as well as to expand the phenotypic and genetic surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, emergence of new resistance, particularly, to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and molecular epidemiology.
Anju Dhiman,Deepika Singh,Manju Bala,Kavita Sharma
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation , 2012,
Abstract: Transdermal drug delivery is one of the efficient methods in novel drug delivery system. Skin is a major target as well as a principle barrier for transdermal drug delivery. The major disadvantage of this system is low diffusion rate of drug(s) across stratum corneum. Ethosomes are modified lipid carriers that enables drug to reach deep into the systemic delivery system. Ethosomes are soft, malleable vesicles embodying alcohol in relatively higher concentration and efficient in delivering drug across the skin. The present review is an attempt to overview the applications of ethosomal formulations and various herbal options (plants or their active therapeutic principles) that may be explored further in the form of ethosomes for treating various types of skin ailments v.i.z. itching , eczema , leucoderma , scabies and other skin diseases.
Cannabis Responsive Head Injury Induced Mutiple Disabilities: A Case Report  [PDF]
Manju Sharma
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.31009
Abstract: In recent years cannabinoids and their derivatives have drawn renewed attention because of their diverse pharmacologic activities. We report here one such case, where all types of medical & psychiatric treatment failed to improve the symptoms; however cannabis use was able to bring back this patient to normal productive & meaningful life. The patient was a 47 year old left handed Caucasian had minor subdural hematoma at the posterior vertex and a minor focal subarachnoid haemorrhage following a physical assault. His impairments included cognitive slowing with decreased short term memory, organized skill & language deficit. His physical disabilities included spastic gait (hemiplegic), VII nerve palsy, mild cerebellar dysfunction, blurred vision and easy fatigue. He was unable to return to work or drive. In addition to cognitive deficit, right hemi paresis & dizziness; he had symptoms of anxiety & depression. Cannabis improved his gait and brought back lots of his memory. Within 6 months all his symptoms abated with use of cannabis and he started to look at cannabis as a real medicine. Slowly he also had improvement in cognitive functions, memory, vocabulary and his gait became increasingly better day by day with continued use of cannabis.
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