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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1953 matches for " Baker "
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Sparse Representation by Frames with Signal Analysis  [PDF]
Christopher Baker
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2016.71006
Abstract: The use of frames is analyzed in Compressed Sensing (CS) through proofs and experiments. First, a new generalized Dictionary-Restricted Isometry Property (D-RIP) sparsity bound constant for CS is established. Second, experiments with a tight frame to analyze sparsity and reconstruction quality using several signal and image types are shown. The constant \"\"?is used in fulfilling the definition of D-RIP. It is proved that k-sparse signals can be reconstructed if \"\"?by using a concise and transparent argument1. The approach could be extended to obtain other D-RIP bounds (i.e. \"\"). Experiments contrast results of a Gabor tight frame with Total Variation minimization. In cases of practical interest, the use of a Gabor dictionary performs well when achieving a highly sparse representation and poorly when this sparsity is not achieved.
Application of High-Frequency Gravitational Waves to the Cataclysmic Event of Our First Encounter with Intelligent Extraterrestrial Beings  [PDF]
Robert M. L. Baker, Bonnie Sue Baker
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.41015
Abstract: Three advances are proposed as a pathway to the cataclysmic event of our first encounter with intelligent extraterrestrial beings. First, discovery of very large numbers of extraterrestrial planets, “exoplanets” (possibly as many as1023 in our Universe); second, introduction of electronic components into the human body evolving into a cybernetic and biological “cyborg,” a model for an extraterrestrial being Cyborgs might allow advanced civilizations to endure hundreds of thousands of years. Third, the recent development of high-frequency gravitational wave (HFGW) detectors, the communication means of choice for an advanced cyborg civilization since they are not easily absorbed like electromagnetic radiation. Six HFGW detectors are presented for application to our first encounter with intelligent extraterrestrial beings. Numerical estimates are made for the failure of extraterrestrial civilizations such that no two exist at the same time (Fermi’s Paradox). It is concluded that there might remain at least ≈1.48 × 108 Worlds intercommunicating with HFGWs at any one time in any one region of our Universe. The predicted form of extraterrestrial beings is by means of animaginary, but based upon comprehensively documented and detailed projection of the evolution of “Earthling” homosapiens, to become “cyborgs.” It is proposed that such long-living cyborg forms of intelligent beings would be encountered by us. The first cataclysmic encounter with them is expected to be interception of their interstellar communications. The predicted frequency of intercepted messages under one set of assumptions is at least 1500 per day. After decoding the intercepted messages, keys may be found to improve vastly the present and future quality of life for us earthlings. Advanced beings might utilize direct brain-to-brain communication and it is concluded that research into brain-to-brain communication and HFGW detection are encouraged.
Use of Science in Autism Policy Development  [PDF]
Dana Lee Baker
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2013.31001

Though ultimately beneficial to society, interactions between science and politics require careful tending. Because science is an exercise in trial and error, public policy development can be affected by both scientific missteps and the length of time it takes to produce reasonable scientific certainty. Introduction of scientific findings, especially more preliminary ones, into the political process has a mixed record. Understanding how these tensions play out in contemporary politics is important for both disability studies and policy studies generally. This article explores how science and scientific evidence is employed by stakeholders engaged with autism policy development in the United States.

E-Learning Optimization Using Supervised Artificial Neural-Network  [PDF]
Mohamed Sayed, Faris Baker
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2015.81004
Abstract: Improving learning outcome has always been an important motivating factor in educational inquiry. In a blended learning environment where e-learning and traditional face to face class tutoring are combined, there are opportunities to explore the role of technology in improving student’s grades. A student’s performance is impacted by many factors such as engagement, self-regulation, peer interaction, tutor’s experience and tutors’ time involvement with students. Furthermore, e-course design factors such as providing personalized learning are an urgent requirement for improved learning process. In this paper, an artificial neural network model is introduced as a type of supervised learning, meaning that the network is provided with example input parameters of learning and the desired optimized and correct output for that input. We also describe, by utilizing e-learning interactions and social analytics how to use artificial neural network to produce a converging mathematical model. Then students’ performance can be efficiently predicted and so the danger of failing in an enrolled e-course should be reduced.
Geographical Analysis of Lung Cancer Mortality Rate and PM2.5 Using Global Annual Average PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth  [PDF]
Zhiyong Hu, Ethan Baker
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.56017
Exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) may increase risk of lung cancer. The repetitive and broad-area coverage of satellites may allow atmospheric remote sensing to offer a unique opportunity to monitor air quality and help fill air pollution data gaps that hinder efforts to study air pollution and protect public health. This geographical study explores if there is an association between PM2.5 and lung cancer mortality rate in the conterminous USA. Lung cancer (ICD-10 codes C34- C34) death count and population at risk by county were extracted for the period from 2001 to 2010 from the U.S. CDC WONDER online database. The 2001-2010 Global Annual Average PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth dataset was used to calculate a 10 year average PM2.5 pollution. Exploratory spatial data analyses, spatial regression (a spatial lag and a spatial error model), and spatially extended Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulation found that there is a significant positive association between lung cancer mortality rate and PM2.5. The association would justify the need of further toxicological investigation of the biological mechanism of the adverse effect of the PM2.5 pollution on lung cancer. The Global Annual Average PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth dataset provides a continuous surface of concentrations of PM2.5 and is a useful data source for environmental health research.
Synthesis of Some New Thioethers and 4-Thiazolidinones Bearing 3-(Pyridine-4'-yl)-1,2,4-Triazino[5,6-b]Indole Moiety as Antifungal Agents  [PDF]
Wafa A. Baker Bawazir
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2019.91004
Abstract: Some new asymmetric thioethers 5 and 4-thiazolidinones 6 have been obtained from condensation of 5-formyl-3-(pyridin-4'-yl)-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b] indole (3) with halogenated aromatic amines followed by addition of thiophenol and/or cycloaddition with thiolactic acids in nonpolar solvents. Structures of the products confirmed by elemental analysis and spectral measurements. The new systems obtained were evaluated as antifungal agents.
Streaming Multimedia over Wireless Mesh Networks  [PDF]
David Q. LIU, Jason BAKER
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2008.12022
Abstract: Wireless mesh network (WMN) research is an emerging field in network communications. However, WMNs pose several difficulties in the transmission of information, especially time critical applications such as streaming video and audio. In this paper, we provide an overview of several research papers which utilize mesh networks for streaming multimedia. We compare the results of the research and the significance they bring to the field of wireless mesh networks. We then provide possible directions for future research into wireless mesh networks as they apply to streaming multimedia.
Resolving the Vacuum Catastrophe: A Generalized Holographic Approach  [PDF]
Nassim Haramein, Amira Val Baker
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2019.52023
Abstract: We address the ~122 orders of magnitude discrepancy between the vacuum energy density at the cosmological scale and the vacuum density predicted by quantum field theory. This disagreement is known as the cosmological constant problem or the “vacuum catastrophe”. Utilizing a generalized holographic model, we consider the total mass-energy density in the geometry of a spherical shell universe (as a first order approximation) and find an exact solution for the currently observed critical density of the universe. We discuss the validity of such an approach and consider its implications to cosmogenesis and universal evolution.
The problem of secondary contamination following chemical agent release
David Baker
Critical Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/cc3509
Abstract: The Tokyo terrorist attack in 1995 involved the release of the nerve agent sarin, which produced nearly 1500 casualties but only 12 fatalities. The low number of fatalities may have been due to the impure nature of the sarin used, but these figures underline the fact that chemical agent release does not necessarily produce the mass fatalities suggested by the term 'weapons of mass destruction'.The large number of casualties from the terrorist attack and the analysis of secondary contamination casualties from the transmission of sarin gas formed a significant proportion of the injured in Japan. Of the responding fire workers (who are professionally familiar with the management of released hazardous materials) 9.9% suffered secondary contamination, while the rate among medical personnel at St Luke's hospital (where most of the casualties were received) was 23%. The authors note that the rate of secondary exposure by occupation was 39.3% among nurse assistants, was 26.5% among nurses, was 25.5% among volunteers, was 21.8% among doctors, and was 18.2% among clerks, indicating that the degree of secondary contamination rose in proportion to the length of time a medical worker may have spent in contact with an undecontaminated patient. The data presented by the authors underline the need for awareness, particularly among medical responders, of personal protection (cross-contamination?) and methods of decontamination.Monitoring of secondary contamination and the level of protection required by medical staff are a matter of continuing debate. The authors express concern about the use of level C protection (comprising a lightweight agent-proof suit and a filtration respirator) and recommend that level B protection (a heavier suit with a self-contained air supply) should be used by medical responders. Readers should be aware that this view is not generally accepted in the international medical community where level C protection is regarded as being the standard for healthcare
Gait analysis methods in rehabilitation
Richard Baker
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1743-0003-3-4
Abstract: The state of the art of optical systems capable of measuring the positions of retro-reflective markers placed on the skin is sufficiently advanced that they are probably no longer a significant source of error in clinical gait analysis. Determining the anthropometry of the subject and compensating for soft tissue movement in relation to the under-lying bones are now the principal problems. Techniques for using functional tests to determine joint centres and axes of rotation are starting to be used successfully. Probably the last great challenge for optical systems is in using computational techniques to compensate for soft tissue measurements. In the long term future it is possible that direct imaging of bones and joints in three dimensions (using MRI or fluoroscopy) may replace marker based systems.There is still not an accepted general theory of why we walk the way we do. In the absence of this, many explanations of walking address the mechanisms by which specific movements are achieved by particular muscles. A whole new methodology is developing to determine the functions of individual muscles. This needs further development and validation. A particular requirement is for subject specific models incorporating 3-dimensional imaging data of the musculo-skeletal anatomy with kinematic and kinetic data.Clinical gait analysis is extremely limited if it does not allow clinicians to choose between alternative possible interventions or to predict outcomes. This can be achieved either by rigorously planned clinical trials or using theoretical models. The evidence base is generally poor partly because of the limited number of prospective clinical trials that have been completed and more such studies are essential. Very recent work has started to show the potential of using models of the mechanisms by which people with pathology walk in order to simulate different potential interventions. The development of these models offers considerable promise for new clinical applicati
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