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Environmental risk assessment using the Persian version of the Home Falls And Screening Tool (HOME FAST) in Iranian elderly
Bahareh Maghfouri,Afson Hassani Mehraban,Ghorban Taghizade,Gholam Reza Aminian
Pajouhan Scientific Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: One of the common problems among older people is falling. Falling inside the houses and streets makes up a large incidence between Iranian elderly, then the effort to identify environmental factors at home and home modification can reduce falls and injury in the elderly. The aim of this study is identifying elderly at risk of fall with using screening tool (HOME FAST) and define reliability of this tool.Material and Methods: As a reliability, through the health housing of the town councils in five geographical regions of Tehran, 60 old person were selected. Participants aged 60 to 65 years and the HOME FAST tool was used in the two stages (inter rater and test-retest).Results: Test-retest reliability in the study showed that agreement between the items is over than 0.8, which shows very good reliability. The results showed that the relative of the each item in the Agreement between the domain is 1 - 0.65, which shows moderate to high reliability. And the results in this study showed that agreement between the items in Inter rater reliability is over than 0.8, which shows the level of reliability is very good. Also it showed that the relative of the each item in the agreement between the domain is 1 - 0.01, which shows poor to high reliability.Conclusion: This study shows that the reliability of the HOME FAST is high. The findings of these comments have been expected that the test objectives were appropriate to prevent falls and the tools showed acceptable reliability, then this test can be used as a tool for to professionals.
A Facile and Efficient One-Pot Regioselective Synthesis of 2-Hydroxyalkyl Dithiocarbamates under Catalyst-Free Conditions  [PDF]
Barahman Movassagh, Bahareh Shokri
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2012.23033
Abstract: A simple catalyst-free, and highly regioselective approach to 2-hydroxyalkyl dithiocarbamates is described which involves a one-pot reaction of various amines and carbon disulfide,CS2, with epoxides in ethanol at room temperature.
PALEONTOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE ECHINODERMS IN THE QOM FORMATION (CENTRAL IRAN)
Khaksar Keyvan,Moghadam Iraj Maghfouri
Earth Sciences Research Journal , 2007,
Abstract: The Qom formation was formed in the Oligo-Miocene during the final sea transgression in Central Iran (Figure 1). The best outcrop is located in the vicinities of the Qom City, approximately 130 km at the south of Tehran. In general, the great heights of the zone are the result of intense tectonic activities. These heights have a number of faults and folds. Echinoderms are one of the most important and numerous fossil groups present in the Qom Formation and confirm the relationship of this environment with free waters. In the present investigation more than 100 prepared samples were studied and 17 species were identified, scanned and classified. These fossils are more abundant in the upper part of the A member, which illustrates the abundance and diversity in C1 and C3 sub-members belonging to the C member. To classify these samples, classical and up-to-date methods were used. However, the systematic schemes were used more frequently (Moore, 1966; 1969-1971). Besides these studies, the other concomitant microfossils in the formation were investigated simultaneously to estimate the accurate age of them. It is concluded that the study of Oligo-Miocene Echinoderms present in the Qom formation is essential and important because, at the same time, the Central Iran Sea had a communicative role between the Indo-Pacific Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Microbial Community from MTBE-Contaminated Soil for Aerobic Biodegradation of MTBE  [PDF]
Bahareh Montazeri, Mohammad Hossein Sarrafzadeh
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.41011
Abstract: This Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is one of the main additives in gasoline to increase octane rating and consequently reduce air pollution. The physico-chemical properties of this substance (high water solubility, low sorption in soil) result in high mobility and considerable concentrations in aquifers. In this survey, Isfehan Refinery that was encountered with MTBE contamination problem was selected as a case study and the MTBE degradation ability of this contaminated area by its indigenous microorganisms was investigated. In the first step of this survey, the influence of various factors on the aerobic degradation of MTBE such as mixed culture type, incubation time, microbial culture and optimal concentration of MTBE were investigated in shaking flasks and the most important factors were specified by means of fractional factorial design 1/2. In the second stage by using optimal values which obtained from the first stage, the effects of co-substare parameter and inoculum parameter were assayed by means of response surface method. The results of the experiments showed that the mixed culture type and initial concentration of MTBE were the most significant factors. The results of the experiments showed that the mixed indigenous culture acted better than activated sludge. The initial concentration of MTBE was also one of the most significant factors. At the best condition about 31 percent of MTBE was treated by co-substrating with n-hexane in a ratio of 0.2.
Female Subjects and Negotiating Identities in Jhumpa Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies
Bahareh Bahmanpour
Studies in Literature and Language , 2010,
Abstract: Jhumpa Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies is a collection of short stories mostly concerned with the diasporic postcolonial situation of the lives of Indians and Indian-Americans whose hyphenated Indian identity has led them to be caught between the Indian traditions that they have left behind and a totally different western world that they have to face culminating in an ongoing struggle to adjust between the two worlds of the two cultures. It is this in-between situation of such characters of diasporic identity that makes the collection receptive to postcolonial studies. In its discussion of four of the stories of the collection in which women have a more central role, namely “Mrs. Sen”, “This Blessed House”, “The Treatment of Bibi Heldar” and “Sexy”, the following essay draws on ideas, theories and key words of two major postcolonial theorists, Homi K. Bhabha and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak whose concerns with postcolonial cultural-identity crisis and cultural hybridity on the one hand and the predicament of female subaltern on the other hand, make them most relevant and beneficial to the concerns of the present study. Through an exclusive attention to female characters, this essay then explores the process of transition and formation of new cultural identities, blatantly engages itself with notions of “hybridity” and “liminality” and examines the way, if any, through which Lahiri gives voice to the subaltern experience. The essay’s findings revolve around the fact that by allowing the female subaltern to be voiced, Lahiri’s stories prepare a space through which the subaltern can speak. Dealing with the trauma and the possible success, failure or resistance of female subjects who in their confrontations with the culture of the Other negotiate their new identities, this essay presents the problems involved in negotiating such new identities through an exploration of the inevitable Self/Other confrontation which takes place in the process of identity-formation. Keywords: Diasporic Identity; Self, Other(ing); Hybridity; Liminality; Female subaltern
The superiority of DEAGP in ranking decision making units over DEA-AHP method: Utilizing relative closeness to ideal decision making units
Bahareh vaisi
Management Science Letters , 2012,
Abstract: Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is one of the most popular techniques for measuring relative efficiencies of various similar units. However, lack of opportunity to compare the decision making units (DMUs) on the same scale in DEA model can make it less practical to classify DMUs. In this paper, we present common weights for DMUs by applying a scientific methodology utilizing goal programming as one of multi criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques, thereby we deal with improving discrimination power for selecting the efficient DMUs. The paper investigates the validity of the ranking technique, an index called the relative closeness (RC) to the ideal DMU (IDMU). Finally, via a previously reported numerical example, the proposed data envelopment analysis-goal programming (DEAGP) model is compared with that obtained by the DEA-AHP.
Improved Dynamic K-Coverage Algorithms in Mobile Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Roghayeh Soleimanzadeh, Bahareh J. Farahani, Mahmood Fathy
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2010.210094
Abstract: In this paper, four PSO based distributed algorithms are presented to attain k-coverage in the target filed. In the first algorithm named K-Coverage Particle Swarm Optimization (KPSO), each static sensor which discovers an event in its sensing range, implements Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm in a distributed manner on its mobile sensors. The calculation time is considered as a big bottleneck in PSO, so a second algorithm named K-Coverage Virtual Force directed Particle Swarm Optimization (KVFPSO) is presented, comprised of Virtual Force and KPSO algorithms. In the first and second proposed algorithms, the best experiences of the particles were used to determine their speed. It is possible that these responses might not be the final result and cause extra movements. Another algorithm named KVFPSO-Learning Automata (KVFPSO-LA) is introduced based on which the speed of particles is corrected by using the existing knowledge and the feedback from the actual implementation of the algorithm. To improve performance of the algorithm, Improved KVFPSO-LA is introduced, in which static sensors are equipped with learning automata. Simulation results show that the proposed protocols perform well with respect to balanced energy consumption among nodes, thus maximizing network life-time.
Design and Implementation Challenges of Microelectrode Arrays: A Review  [PDF]
Bahareh Ghane-Motlagh, Mohamad Sawan
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.48059
Abstract:

The emerging field of neuroprosthetics is focused on design and implementation of neural prostheses to restore some of the lost neural functions. Remarkable progress has been reported at most bioelectronic levels—particularly the various brain-machine interfaces (BMIs)—but the electrode-tissue contacts (ETCs) remain one of the major obstacles. The success of these BMIs relies on electrodes which are in contact with the neural tissue. Biological response to chronic implantation of Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) is an essential factor in determining a successful electrode design. By altering the material compositions and geometries of the arrays, fabrication techniques of MEAs insuring these ETCs try to obtain consistent recording signals from small groups of neurons without losing microstimulation capabilities, while maintaining low-impedance pathways for charge injection, high-charge transfer, and high-spatial resolution in recent years. So far, none of these attempts have led to a major breakthrough. Clearly, much work still needs to be done to accept a standard model of MEAs for clinical purposes. In this paper, we review different microfabrication techniques of MEAs with their advantages and drawbacks, and comment on various coating materials to enhance electrode performance. Then, we propose high-density, three-dimensional (3D), silicon-based MEAs using micromachining methods. The geometries that will be used include arrays of penetrating variable-height probes.

Efficacy of Quality of Life Therapy on Increasing Happiness in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder  [PDF]
Hossein Jenaabadi, Bahareh Azizi Nejad, Ghazal Fatehrad
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.52025
Abstract: Introduction: The present study sought to examine the effectiveness of quality of life therapy on increasing happiness among patients with major depression. Methods: The research followed an experimental research design with an experimental and a control group. To this end, among the statistical population of the study that consisted of all individuals with major depression disorder, 30 individuals were randomly selected and placed in two groups (experimental and control). The experimental group individually received an intervention with a trend based on quality of life improvement for 10 sessions. The control group received no such treatment. Beck’s Depression Inventory and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used in two occasions of pretest and posttest. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of covariance. Results: The results revealed that quality of life therapy reduced depression and increased happiness among the subjects on the posttest (p < 0.01). Conclusion: This research found two important results. First, it was revealed that quality of life therapy had high efficiency in treating depression considered as a resistant disorder to treatment. Second, it was indicated that focus on happiness in the treatment of major depression disorder can significantly helppatients recover.
Validity and Reliability of Persion Version of home Falls and Accident Screening Tool in Iraniaian Elderly
B Maghfouri,A Hassani Mehraban,G Taghizade,G Aminian
Modern Rehabilitation , 2012,
Abstract: Background and aim: One of the common problems in elderly people is falling. The effort to identify environmental risk factors at home and their modifications may control falls and injury in the elderly. Home FAST as a valid and reliable screening tool is used to identify elderly at risk of falling at home and in society.Materials and methods : International quality of life assessment (IQOLA) was used for validity and reliability of Home fast. After forward and backward translation , the questionnaire was evaluated for content validity by 5 occupational therapists. Sixty participants aged over 65 were randomly selected through five geographical regions of Tehran. Inter-rater and test-retest with one week interval were conducted by two occupational therapists. Results: Agreement among experts about the validity of screening tool of Home FAST (χ2= 25.008) were more than 96%.The correlations of test-retest with relative and absolute coefficients were high (ICC = 0.72 and SEM = 0.89). Also, the correlation coefficients between the raters with absolute and relative (ICC = 0.88 and SEM = 0.54) were significant, indicating the high reliability of this test.Conclusion: This study shows the reliability and validity of the test are high. Since, test items are conformable to fall prevention goals, these results can be expected. The tool can be used by professionals.
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