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The Effect of Oral Ascorbic Acid Pretreatment on Feeding Changes Following Injection in Nucleus Accumbens Shell in Adult Male Rats
Salari S,Abbasnejad M,Badreh F,Esmaeili Mahani S
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Ascorbic acid (AA) is not synthesized in the brain but it is actively transported through blood-brain barrier by SVCT2 cotransporter and it is stored in high concentrations with heterogeneous distribution in areas such as nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) in the mammalian brain. Previous studies have shown that Ascorbic acid injection into AcbSh decreases feeding; therefore, in the present study we evaluated the effects of oral Ascorbic acid pretreatment on changes in feeding upon its injection in AcbSh in adult male rats.Methods: Sixty-three adult male rats (220-280 g) were divided into five treatment and five pretreatment groups. The treatment groups included the control (intact) group, sham-operated Ascorbic acid group that received normal saline as vehicle, and three other groups that received different doses of ascorbic acid (10, 50 and 250 μg/rat) by injection into AcbSh for four days. The pretreatment groups received Ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg) for 15 days via gastric gavage before receiving the aforementioned doses in treatment groups into intra nucleus AcbSh. Feeding measurement was repeated every 12 hours by automatic metabolic cage.Results: The results indicated that all injected doses of Ascorbic acid (10, 50 and 250 μg/rat) into nucleus accumbens shell decrease food intake (P<0.05) in rats and oral Ascorbic acid pretreatment had no effects in this regard.Conclusion: Our findings show that ascorbic acid is an effective factor in feeding regulation. Oral pretreatment seems to have no influence on the central effects of ascorbic acid in the nucleus accumbens shell.
The Role of Mosques in Urban Development
Gholamreza Raeisian,Mohammad Badreh
Journal of Civil Engineering and Urbanism , 2013,
Abstract: Mosque is the first and the most important base of Muslims in the formation of globalgovernment. At the beginning, this base was established by prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as the place ofpromoting and spreading Islam, a very strong structure that no other places in the world can reach its purity,sanctity and charm. Mosque is the place where people can have privacy with God, a place for meetingbeloved and praying Him and confabulate with Him. Lovers in the mosque will never feel tired of stayingthere and their love will increase and they reach their beloved. It should be mentioned that any place built topray God and doing Shari affairs of Muslims is mostly valued, but some are more special than other places.
Kroniek
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Nieuwe West-Indische Gids , 1949,
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Kroniek
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Nieuwe West-Indische Gids , 1949,
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Kroniek
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Nieuwe West-Indische Gids , 1947,
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Kroniek
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Nieuwe West-Indische Gids , 1949,
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Kroniek
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Nieuwe West-Indische Gids , 1949,
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The Lagrangian Method for a Basic Bicycle  [PDF]
F. Talamucci
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.24007
Abstract:

The ground plan in order to disentangle the hard problem of modelling the motion of a bicycle is to start from a very simple model and to outline the proper mathematical scheme: for this reason the first step we perform lies in a planar rigid body (simulating the bicylcle frame) pivoting on a horizontal segment whose extremities, subjected to nonslip conditions, oversimplify the wheels. Even in this former case, which is the topic of lots of papers in literature, we find it worthwhile to pay close attention to the formulation of the mathematical model and to focus on writing the proper equations of motion and on the possible existence of conserved quantities. In addition to the first case, being essentially an inverted pendulum on a skate, we discuss a second model, where rude handlebars are added and two rigid bodies are joined. The geometrical method of Appell is used to formulate the dynamics and to deal with the nonholonomic constraints in a correct way. At the same time the equations are explained in the context of the cardinal equations, whose use is habitual for this kind of problems. The paper aims to a threefold purpose: to formulate the mathematical scheme in the most suitable way (by means of the pseudovelocities), to achieve results about stability, to examine the legitimacy of certain assumptions and the compatibility of some conserved quantities claimed in part of the literature.

Statistical Foundation of Empirical Isotherms  [PDF]
F. Brouers
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2014.49064
Abstract: We show that most of the empirical or semi-empirical isotherms proposed to extend the Langmuir formula to sorption (adsorption, chimisorption and biosorption) on heterogeneous surfaces in the gaseous and liquid phase belong to the family and subfamily of the BurrXII cumulative distribution functions. As a consequence they obey relatively simple differential equations which describe birth and death phenomena resulting from mesoscopic and microscopic physicochemical processes. Using the probability theory, it is thus possible to give a physical meaning to their empirical coefficients, to calculate well defined quantities and to compare the results obtained from different isotherms. Another interesting consequence of this finding is that it is possible to relate the shape of the isotherm to the distribution of sorption energies which we have calculated for each isotherm. In particular, we show that the energy distribution corresponding to the Brouers-Sotolongo (BS) isotherm [1] is the Gumbel extreme value distribution. We propose a generalized GBS isotherm, calculate its relevant statistical properties and recover all the previous results by giving well defined values to its coefficients. Finally we show that the Langmuir, the Hill-Sips, the BS and GBS isotherms satisfy the maximum Bolzmann-Shannon entropy principle and therefore should be favoured.
The Fractal (BSf) Kinetics Equation and Its Approximations  [PDF]
F. Brouers
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.516160
Abstract: We discuss the Brouers-Sotolongo fractal (BSf) kinetics model. This formalism interpolates between the first and second order kinetics. But more importantly, it introduces not only a fractional order n but also a fractal time parameter a which characterizes the time variation of the rate constant. This exponent appears in non-exponential relaxation and complex reaction models as demonstrated by the extended use of the Weibull and Hill kinetics which are the two most popular approximations of the BSf (n, a) kinetic equation as well in non-Debye relaxation formulas. We show that the use of nonlinear programs allows an easy and precise fitting of the data yielding the BSf parameters which have simple physical interpretations.
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