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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3039 matches for " Bacterial "
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Analysis of the Tropism and Anti-Bacterial Potential of a Type of Clay  [PDF]
Cássio Ilan Soares Medeiros, Erica Renata Nogueira Sá, Juliana Raquel de Morais Santos Oliveira, Lis Magalh?es, Geraldo Gon?alves de Almeida Filho, Hilzeth de Luna Freire Pess?a
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.42016
Natural clays have been used by man in infections of bacterial etiology, since the first historical registers. Our attention turned to a red-colored clay, known in the northeast of Brazil as “barro de louça” (dish clay). These clays and other natural earth materials seem interesting to us, as the blockage of the liberation of toxins or inactivation, may be related to the interruption of infection cycles in the skin and mucous membranes. The adsorptive and absorptive properties of the mineral clays are well documented in the cure process of skin and gastrointestinal diseases. Susceptibility and bacterial tropism tests were carried out. The results were analyzed and interpreted according to the conventional microbiological protocol. The bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e Pseudomonas aeruginosa, did not present a susceptibility profile to an isotonic solution of clay, but there was an increase of the bacterial tropism as the concentration of the isotonic solution was increased, being the minimal observed concentration of 100 mg/mL. Our aim is to document a type of red clay from the northeast of Brazil with possible attraction properties (Tropism) to bacteria and their toxins.
Bacterial Vaginosis and Correlates in Women of Reproductive Age in Thika, Kenya  [PDF]
J. Nzomo, P. Waiyaki, R. Waihenya
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2013.33036

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge among women of childbearing age which is associated with STI/HIV and adverse birth outcomes. The Main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of BV among women of reproductive age in Thika. Methods: Between July 2010 and February 2011, 193 women of reproductive age (18 - 49 years) were enrolled from family planning and ante-natal clinics in Thika District Hospital, Kenya. The study was descriptive cross sectional in which organisms were identified from vaginal specimens using culture, biochemical testing and Nugent score method. Statistical analyses included conventional descriptive statistics and multivariable analysis using regression. Results: Of one hundred and ninety three specimens, 9.3% were Mobiluncus isolates, 23.0% Bacteriodes species and 67.7% Gardnerella vaginalis. Among the study participants, 77.7% had non-classical BV with a score of 7 - 8 while 22.3% classical BV with a score of 9 - 10 indicating complete depletion of Lactobacillus species. Whiff test was positive for 89.1% (74) of the 83 patients with BV. Though, 32.5% of women with BV had a vaginal pH of more than 4.5, only 66.0% of women fulfilling the criteria of BV had a characteristic discharge. Conclusions: In this population, the prevalence of BV was relatively high when compared with other community settings. BV was associated with condom use and multiple sexual partners. Further research is needed to understand their role in BV and the socioeconomic context surrounding the condition in Kenya.

Antibacterial Activity of Polyethylenimine/Carrageenan Multilayer against Pathogenic Bacteria  [PDF]
Annabelle V. Briones, Toshinori Sato, Ursela G. Bigol
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2014.42026

The multilayer of polyethylenimine (PEI) and carrageenan (k, i, l) formed by layer-by-layer assembly was investigated for its antibacterial activity against Enterobacter cloaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis 29505 for potential use as coating on biomaterial surface. All the multilayers exhibited growth inhibition. PEI/Iota carrageenan multilayer was effective in inhibiting the growth of the E. cloaceae, S. aureus and E. faecalis while PEI/Lambda carrageenan was effective in inhibiting the growth of E. cloaceae. Results of the paper strip test for combined action of carrageenan and PEI showed synergism with regards to bacterial growth inhibition. The multilayers had also contact-killing effect with the test organisms. The multilayer was also characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and biomolecular interaction analysis.

Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of common bacterial pathogens in NICU and neonatal ward in Hamedan province of Iran  [PDF]
Alireza Monsef, Fatemeh Eghbalian
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.26094
Abstract: Bacterial pathogens and drug resistance are different in hospitals of each country. In this study we determined bacterial path- ogens and drug sensitivity in the neonatal ward and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Ekbatan hospital in Hamedan. This cross-sectional descriptive study was done on 1150 hospitalized neonates in neonatal and NICU wards of Ekbatan hospital of the Hamadan university of medical sciences from September 2004 to September 2006. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), urine, stool, eye excretion, synovial fluid, umbilical secretion and ascitic fluid were evaluated. Positive cultures were evaluated for antibiotic resistance with disk diffusion test methed. All of the data in questionnaires was analyzed with SPSS 13. Cultures including blood, urine, CSF , stool, eye excretion, synovial fluid, umbilical secretion and ascitic fluid was done in 417 neonates (833 cultures). These cultures were including: urine, 323 cases (38.8%) blood 293 cases (35.2%), CSF 180 cases (21.6%) , stool 17 cases (2%), eye secretion 16 cases (1.9%) and other secretions (synovial, umbilical, etc) 4 cases (0.5%). The cultures were positive in 105 cases (25.2%). 60 male neonates (57.1%) and 45 female neonates (42.9%) were culture positive. The most common microorganisms were E coli 66.7% (70 cases), Klebsiella 10.5% (11 cases). Drug resistance was high in these microorganisms. The most common microorganisms were Ecoli and klebsiella. Drug resistance was high in the isolated microorganisms.
Antifouling Activity of Bacterial Symbionts of Seagrasses against Marine Biofilm-Forming Bacteria  [PDF]
Bintang Marhaeni, Ocky Karna Radjasa, Miftahuddin Majid Khoeri, Agus Sabdono, Dietriech G. Bengen, Herawati Sudoyo
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.29143
Abstract: Marine biofouling has been regarded as a serious problem in the marine environment. The application of TBT and other heavy metal-based antifoulants has created another environmental problem. The present study explored the possible role of baterial symbionts of seagrasses Thalassia hemprichii, and Enhalus acoroides, which were successfully screened for antifouling activity against marine biofilm-forming bacteria isolated from the surrounding colonies of seagrasses. Bacterial symbionts were isolated and tested against biofilm-forming bacteria resulted in 4 bacterial symbionts capable of inhibiting the growth biofilm-forming isolates. Molecular identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the active bacterial symbionts belonged to the members of the genera Bacillus and Virgibacillus. Further tests of the crude extracts of the active bacterial symbionts supported the potential of these symbionts as the alternative source of environmentally friendly marine antifoulants.
Review on Molecular Typing Methods of Pathogens  [PDF]
Tiehao Lin, Liying Lin, Fan Zhang
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.43017
This paper presents several common molecular typing methods, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisma (RFLP), Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Automatic Ribotyping, rep-PCR, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), in which the application and progress of molecular typing of pathgens for these methods are described. These methods played an important role in pathgens source tracking, knowing the source(s) of bacteria in pharmaceutical, preventing and controlling the diarrhea and food-poisoning outbreaks, which have great value in the remediation and prevention of further bacterial contamination.
Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Resorbing Magnesium Implants  [PDF]
Olga Charyeva, Jessica Neilands, Gunnel Svens?ter, Ann Wennerberg
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2015.51001
Abstract: Background: Implant-associated infections are a result of bacterial adhesion to an implant surface and subsequent biofilm formation at the implantation site. This study compares different magnesium materials based on their ability to resist bacterial adhesion as well as further biofilm formation. Material and Methods: The surfaces of four magnesium-based materials (Mg2Ag, Mg10Gd, WE43 and 99.99% pure Mg) were characterized using atomic force microscope. In addition, the samples were tested for their ability to resist biofilm formation. Planktonic bacteria of either S. epidermidis or E. faecalis were allowed to adhere to the magnesium surfaces for two hour followed by rinsing and, for S. epidermidis, further incubation of 24, 72 and 168 h was carried out. Results: E. faecalis had a significantly stronger adhesion to all magnesium surfaces compared to S. epidermidis (p = 0.001). Biofilm growth of S. epidermidis was different on various magnesium materials: the amount of bacteria increased up to 72 h but interestingly a significant decrease was seen at 168 h on Mg2Ag and WE43 surfaces. For pure Mg and Mg10Gd the biofilm formation reached plateau at 72 h. Surface characteristics of resorbable magnesium materials were changing over time, and the surface was generally less rough at 168 h compared to earlier time points. No correlation was found between the surface topology and the amount of adherent bacteria. Conclusion: In early stages of biofilm adhesion, no differences between magnesium materials were observed. However, after 72 h Mg2Ag and WE43 had the best ability to suppress S. epidermidis’ biofilm formation. Also, bacterial adhesion to magnesium materials was not dependent on samples’ surface topology.
Comparison of MIC with MBEC Assay for in Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing in Biofilm Forming Clinical Bacterial Isolates  [PDF]
Summaiya Mulla, Ambuj Kumar, Sangita Rajdev
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2016.62007
Abstract: Context: MIC results can be misleading for treatment of biofilm associated. The Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration (MBEC) measures the determination to be made for a biofilm susceptibility to antibiotics. Aims: Assessment of biofilm production and comparison of the MIC and MBEC assays evaluate differences in the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of different clinical bacterial isolates from patients implanted with medical devices. Settings and Design: Random sampling with experimental study at tertiary care institute. Methods and Material: The study was carried out during January 2014 to March 2014 on 50 positive bacteriological cultures of medical devices which were inserted in hospitalized patients. Biofilm forming strains were identified by tissue culture plate method & tube method. Biofilm-producing and non-biofilm forming reference strains were used as controls. Assay has been developed for the use with flat bottom, 96-well microtiter plates. Sterile autoclaved PCR tubes were used as pegs which provided surface for the biofilm formation. Amikacin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, cefoperazone/ sulbactam, gentamycin were tested for MIC and MBEC assay. Statistical Analysis Used: Results will be discussed in the form of percentages. Results: Colonization by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter
Septic Chronic Multifocal Osteomyelitis in Children: A Challenging Presentation of Osteomylitis in a Low Income Country  [PDF]
S. A. Kissou, P. W. H. Dakouré, J. M. Somé, M. Soulama, M. Diallo
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2018.86024
Abstract: Background: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical, biological and x-ray presentation of Septic Chronic Multifocal Osteomyelitis (SCMO) and discuss the therapeutic difficulties of this pathology in an African Sub-Saharan teaching hospital. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in the Orthopedics and Trauma department of the university teaching hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). Over a period of two years, we selected all cases of chronic osteomyelitis. We studied the epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of SCMO cases. Results: Eleven cases of SCMO were identified. The mean age of the patients was 11.8 years and the sex ratio was 1.75. There were 7 rural patients. The mean time to visit the hospital was 158 days. The most common reasons for consultation were pain (10 cases), swelling (9 cases), and fever (7 cases). Two were sickle cell patients. The most affected bones were the femur (10 cases), the tibia (9 cases) and the fibula (6 cases). The most frequent specific radiological lesions were sequestra (6 cases) followed by pandiaphysitis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common aetiology. Treatment combined antibiotherapy and surgery (sequestrectomy and/or bone curettage and/or fistulectomy). Hip dislocations, pathological fractures and bone defect complicated the course of this disease. The therapeutic results was good in 3 patients and bad in 5 patients; the other 3 patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusion: Septic chronic multifocal osteomyelitis is a rare but formidable form of osteomyelitis in children. Therapeutic outcomes are often poor in hospitals with limited resources. The best strategy is prevention through early diagnosis and aggressive treatment of acute osteomyelitis.
Bacterial Transfer to Cups and Water by Drinking  [PDF]
Paul Dawson, Hayley Thorson, Kelly Hooton, Justin Runey, David Hughes, Sally Foster, Melissa Roskosky, Sutton Fain-Swartz, Danielle Lynn, Inyee Han
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.912100
Abstract: Bacterial transfer is a concern when sharing food and drink, so to address this concern, this study examined the bacterial transfer onto and into plastic drinking cups. Two experiments were performed to: 1) test bacterial transfer to the rim of a plastic drinking cup, and 2) test residual bacteria in the liquid that was consumed from the cup. Bacteria were enumerated from the cup rim and the water in the cup. The results for both types of transfer showed higher bacterial populations on cups exposed to drinking compared to those where no drinking occurred. However, there was more bacterial transfer to the rim of the plastic cup than the liquid inside the cup.
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