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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4792 matches for " Babu AR "
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Clinical potential of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes
Kim Y, Babu AR
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S22545
Abstract: ical potential of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes Review (3169) Total Article Views Authors: Kim Y, Babu AR Published Date August 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 313 - 327 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S22545 Received: 13 April 2012 Accepted: 25 May 2012 Published: 31 August 2012 Yoojin Kim, Ambika R Babu Division of Endocrinology, John Stroger Jr Hospital of Cook County and Rush University, Chicago, IL, USA Background: The kidney plays an important role in glucose metabolism, and has been considered a target for therapeutic intervention. The sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) mediates most of the glucose reabsorption from the proximal renal tubule. Inhibition of SGLT2 leads to glucosuria and provides a unique mechanism to lower elevated blood glucose levels in diabetes. The purpose of this review is to explore the physiology of SGLT2 and discuss several SGLT2 inhibitors which have clinical data in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: We performed a PubMed search using the terms "SGLT2" and "SGLT2 inhibitor" through April 10, 2012. Published articles, press releases, and abstracts presented at national and international meetings were considered. Results: SGLT2 inhibitors correct a novel pathophysiological defect, have an insulin-independent action, are efficacious with glycosylated hemoglobin reduction ranging from 0.5% to 1.5%, promote weight loss, have a low incidence of hypoglycemia, complement the action of other antidiabetic agents, and can be used at any stage of diabetes. They are generally well tolerated. However, due to side effects, such as repeated urinary tract and genital infections, increased hematocrit, and decreased blood pressure, appropriate patient selection for drug initiation and close monitoring after initiation will be important. Results of ongoing clinical studies of the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on diabetic complications and cardiovascular safety are crucial to determine the risk-benefit ratio. A recent decision by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency has recommended approval of dapagliflozin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes as an adjunct to diet and exercise, in combination with other glucose-lowering medicinal products, including insulin, and as a monotherapy for metformin-intolerant patients. Clinical research also remains to be carried out on the long-term effects of glucosuria and other potential effects of SGLT2 inhibitors, especially in view of the observed increase in the incidence of bladder and breast cancer. SGLT2 inhibitors represent a promising approach for the treatment of diabetes, and could potentially be an addition to existing therapies.
Clinical potential of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes
Kim Y,Babu AR
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy , 2012,
Abstract: Yoojin Kim, Ambika R BabuDivision of Endocrinology, John Stroger Jr Hospital of Cook County and Rush University, Chicago, IL, USABackground: The kidney plays an important role in glucose metabolism, and has been considered a target for therapeutic intervention. The sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) mediates most of the glucose reabsorption from the proximal renal tubule. Inhibition of SGLT2 leads to glucosuria and provides a unique mechanism to lower elevated blood glucose levels in diabetes. The purpose of this review is to explore the physiology of SGLT2 and discuss several SGLT2 inhibitors which have clinical data in patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods: We performed a PubMed search using the terms "SGLT2" and "SGLT2 inhibitor" through April 10, 2012. Published articles, press releases, and abstracts presented at national and international meetings were considered.Results: SGLT2 inhibitors correct a novel pathophysiological defect, have an insulin-independent action, are efficacious with glycosylated hemoglobin reduction ranging from 0.5% to 1.5%, promote weight loss, have a low incidence of hypoglycemia, complement the action of other antidiabetic agents, and can be used at any stage of diabetes. They are generally well tolerated. However, due to side effects, such as repeated urinary tract and genital infections, increased hematocrit, and decreased blood pressure, appropriate patient selection for drug initiation and close monitoring after initiation will be important. Results of ongoing clinical studies of the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on diabetic complications and cardiovascular safety are crucial to determine the risk-benefit ratio. A recent decision by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency has recommended approval of dapagliflozin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes as an adjunct to diet and exercise, in combination with other glucose-lowering medicinal products, including insulin, and as a monotherapy for metformin-intolerant patients. Clinical research also remains to be carried out on the long-term effects of glucosuria and other potential effects of SGLT2 inhibitors, especially in view of the observed increase in the incidence of bladder and breast cancer. SGLT2 inhibitors represent a promising approach for the treatment of diabetes, and could potentially be an addition to existing therapies.Keywords: sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2, SGLT2, inhibitors, kidney, glucosuria, oral diabetes agent, weight loss
Economically Precise Water Resource Management for Domestic Usage in India  [PDF]
P. Babu, C. Rajasekaran
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.710240
Abstract: In the present years water resource that can be utilized for domestic usage is getting reduced dramatically. In order to have sufficient water for the utilization of future generation, it is our duty to conserve and utilize the available water in a very efficient way. This paper is aimed to help the people to conserve water; it is done with the help of an embedded system that is reconfigurable depending on the number of persons in the family. The system consists of three modules. Each has a different purpose, one module senses the water level present in the tank and intimates the user regarding when the water is needed to be restored. The second module deals with the division of water based on the type of application for which is intended. The third module deals with intimating the municipality regarding the availability of water. All the three modules combine to work in conserving the water; as a result, we can consume nearly 30% per year per head. So this would result in a large amount of conservation of water. Thus the saved water can be reused for several applications.
Testing for Random Walk Behavior in Indian Bond Market  [PDF]
A. Sarath Babu
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.74052
Abstract: This study examines the random walk behavior of Indian bond market. Bond indices published by Clearing Corporation of Indian (CCIL) were used in this study. The hypothesis is tested with multiple variance ratio tests from daily and weekly data, from 3-Jan.-2011 to 30-Dec.-2016. This paper also applies the bootstrap procedure on all the tests used because it shows desirable small sample properties under conditional heteroscedasticity. Variance test ratios show that Indian bond market does not follow random walk behavior.
Comparative Studies on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Fly Ash Reinforced AA 2024 Composites  [PDF]
Inampudi Narasimha Murthy, Nallabelli Arun Babu, Jinugu Babu Rao
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2014.24037
Abstract: Composites are most promising materials of recent interest. Metal matrix composites (MMCs) possess significantly improved properties compared to unreinforced alloys. There has been an increasing interest in composites containing low density and low cost reinforcements. In view of the generation of large quantities of solid waste by products like fly ash and slags, the present expensive manner in which it is discarded, new methods for treating and using these solid wastes are required. Hence, composites with fly ash and granulated blast furnace (GBF) slag as reinforcements are likely to overcome the cost barrier for wide spread applications in automotive and small engine applications. In the present investigation, AA 2024 alloy-5 wt% fly ash and GBF slag composites separately were made by stir casting route. Phase identification and structural characterization were carried out on fly ash and GBF slag by X-ray diffraction studies. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDS was used for microstructure analysis. The hardness and compression tests were carried out on all these alloy and composites. The SEM studies reveal that there was a uniform distribution of fly ash and GBF slag particles in the matrix phase and also very good bonding existed between the matrix and reinforcement. Improved hardness and mechanical properties were observed for both the composites compared to alloy; this increase is higher for Al-fly ash composite than Al-GBF slag composite.
Nano Nickel-Cobalt Ferrite Catalysed One-Pot Multi-Component Synthesis of Xanthenediones and Acridinediones  [PDF]
Srividhya Maripi, Raghu Babu Korupolu, Suri Babu Madasu
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2017.71006
Abstract: 1,8-Dioxo-octahydroxanthenes (4a-4f) and 1,8-dioxohexahydroacridines (5a-5c) were synthesized by novel, simple and eco-friendly method with higher yields in the presence of magnetically separable nano nickel-cobalt ferrite catalyst (Ni0.5Co0.5Fe2O4). The former, 1,8-dioxo-octahydroxanthenes have been synthesized from dimedone and different aromatic aldehydes, while the latter from this mixture are along with ammonium acetate. The main advantage of this method is that the nano catalyst can be reused up to five reaction cycles without losing the catalytic activity.
Anti-oxidant activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extracts from rhizome of Musa acuminata  [PDF]
KPS Adinarayana, P Ajay Babu
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.34037
Abstract: In the present study, antioxidant activities of rhizome of Musa acuminata were investigated. Free radical scavenging assay (DPPH) and reducing power of the ethanolic extract of banana rhizome resulted in potential antioxidant activities. A relatively high percentage of antioxidant activity by DPPH assay (81.41% at 200 μg/ml) which was comparable to that of the standard, ascorbic acid at 100 μg/ml was observed. With the gallic acid as standard the extract showed a relatively low reductive potential, however, when tested for cytotoxicity at the highest concentration of the tested dose (256 μg/ml), the maximum rate of inhibition observed was 50.32%. The present work indicates that the ethanolic extract of Musa acuminata exhibits significant antiproliferative and antioxidant activities.
Experimental Investigations and Theoretical Modeling Aspects in Column Studies for Removal of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Solutions Using Activated Tamarind Seeds  [PDF]
Suresh Gupta, B. V. Babu
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.28081
Abstract: Continuous adsorption experiments are conducted using fixed-bed adsorption column to evaluate the performance of the adsorbent developed (from activated tamarind seeds) for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and the results obtained are validated with a model developed in this study. The effects of significant parameters such as flow rate, mass of adsorbent, and initial Cr(VI) concentration are studied and breakthrough curves are obtained. As the flow rate increases from 10 to 20 mL min-1, the breakthrough time decreases from 210 to 80 min. As the mass of adsorbent increases, breakthrough time gets delayed. The breakthrough times are obtained as 110, 115 and 210 min for 15, 20 and 25 g of activated tamarind seeds. As the initial Cr(VI) concentration increases from 100 to 200 mgL-1, the break point time decreases from 210 to 45 min. The process parameters for fixed-bed adsorption such as breakthrough time, total percentage removal of Cr(VI), adsorption exhaustion rate and fraction of unused bed length are calculated and the performance of fixed-bed adsorption column is analyzed. The mechanism for Cr(VI) adsorption on activated tamarind seeds is proposed. At low value of solution pH (= 1), the increase in Cr(VI) adsorption is due to the electrostatic attraction between positively charged groups of activated tamarind seeds and the HCrO4-. A mathematical model for fixed-bed adsorption column is proposed by incorporating the effect of velocity variation along the bed length in the existing model. Pore and surface diffusion models are used to describe the intra-particle mechanism for Cr(VI) adsorption. The breakthrough curve obtained theoretically from pore diffusion model and surface diffusion model are compared with experimental results for different operating conditions. The standard deviation values obtained for pore diffusion model and solid diffusion model are 0.111 and 0.214 respectively.
Aid Effectiveness and Capacity Development: Implications for Economic Growth in Developing Countries  [PDF]
Prabuddha Sanyal, Suresh C. Babu
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.35075
Abstract: In this paper, we present a stylized model for understanding the relationship between capacity strengthening and eco-nomic growth in an endogenous growth framework. Endogenous growth theory provides a novel starting point for combining individual, organizational, and enabling environmental issues as part of attaining the capacity-strengthening goal. Our results indicate that although donors can play an important role in aiding countries to develop their existing capacities or to generate new ones, under certain conditions, the potential also exists for uncoordinated and fragmented donor activities to erode country capacities. From the policy exercises, we demonstrate that improving economy-wide learning unambiguously increases the rate of growth of output, technology, capital stock, and capacity. Moreover, a donor’s intervention has the maximum impact on the above variables when the economy’s capacity is relatively low. In contrast, donor intervention can lead to “crowding-out effects” when the economy’s capacity is moderately high. Under such a situation, the economy never reaches a new steady state. Our results not only lend support to diminishing returns to aid but also to an S model of development aid and country capacity relationship.
Preparation of Al-5Ti Master Alloys for the In-Situ Processing of Al-TiC Metal Matrix Composites  [PDF]
Satish Babu Boppana, K . Chennakeshavalu
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2009.87049
Abstract: The present paper reports on the preparation of various Al-5Ti master alloys by the reaction of halide salt (K2TiF6) with molten Al in an induction furnace. The master alloys are supposed to be used for the in-situ processing of Al-TiC Metal Matrix Composites. During the preparation of these master alloys the reaction temperature was varied from 800-1000℃ with the intervals of 100℃, while the reaction time was varied at 45, 60 and 75 min. The binary master alloys prepared were characterized using image analyzer and particle size was measured. It was found that the master alloy Al-5Ti prepared at 8000C, and 45 minutes had a minimum particle size of 9.0 micrometer. Also it is observed that the population of particles less than 10 micrometer decreases at higher reaction temperature.
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