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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1726 matches for " Baba Shehu Umar Ibn Abubakar "
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Anaerobic digestion of cow dung for biogas production
Baba Shehu Umar Ibn Abubakar,Nasir Ismail
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The effectiveness of cow dung for biogas production was investigated, using a laboratory scale 10L bioreactor working in batch and semi-continuous mode at 53oC. Anaerobic digestion seemed feasible with an organic loading of up to 1.7 kg volatile solids (VS)/L d and an HRT of 10 days during the semi-continuous operation. The averaged cumulative biogas yield and methane content observed was 0.15 L/kg VS added and 47 % respectively. The TS, VS and COD removals amounted to 49%, 47% and 48.5%, respectively. The results of the VS/TS ratio showed very small variation, which denote adequate mixing performance. However there was some evidence of ammonia inhibition probably due to the uncontrolled pH employed. The data obtained establish that cow dung is an effective feedstock for biogas production achieving high cumulative biogas yield with stable performance. The future work will be carried out to study the effect of varying organic loading rate on anaerobic digestion of cow dung in a semi-continuous mode.
Health Services Utilization and Health Status of Insured versus Uninsured Nigerian Children with Sickle Cell Disease  [PDF]
Auwal Sani Salihu, Abdullahi Shehu Umar
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.810100
Abstract: Introduction: Nigeria accounts for 150,000 infants born with the Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) every year. Children with SCD are affected by the deleterious effect of user fees which reduces affordability and utilization of health services. Evidences supported that institutionalized health insurance increases intensity of utilization. Methodology: The study was conducted at AKTH, Kano, and north-western, Nigeria. The study was retrospective comparative cross-sectional study. 100 patients were enrolled, 50 for each arm. Paediatric SCD clinic outpatients’ records and a specialty designed form containing the variables of interest were used. Data were analysed using Minitab 16. Proportions, percentages, tables, charts and chi squared test were used to compare the two groups. Result: The study found no association between the two groups in the likelihood of being insured based on age (χ2 = 1.478), gender (χ2 = 0.224) and dwellings (χ2 = 0.062). On health services utilization and insurance status, the study revealed that follow up clinic visits, unscheduled clinic visits and emergency room visits were more likely among the insured group compared to the uninsured group. While the health status and insurance status of the two groups over 12 months period showed a significant association with the insured more likely to have improved health status compared to uninsured (χ2 = 28.019, p = 0.0001). Similarly, health status and health services utilization were significantly associated with insurance status (χ2 = 12.191, p = 0.002). Conclusion: The insurance status of children with SCD is associated with their health services utilization and health status. However, age, gender and dwellings were not associated with insurance status of children with SCD. Therefore, when expanding insurance coverage (NHIS) among children with SCD considerations have to be given to increase health services utilization and resultant improvement in health status as these have the potential of reducing morbidity and mortality among children with SCD.
The Physico-Chemical Composition and Energy Recovery Potentials of Municipal Solid Waste Generated in Numan Town, North-Eastern Nigeria  [PDF]
Alkasim Abubakar, Maigida H. Barnabas, Baba M. Tanko
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2018.1011030
Abstract: Numan is an urban center in Adamawa State North-Eastern Nigeria. Its waste characteristics are similar to other places in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, the physico-chemical characterization of municipal solid waste generated in Numan Town was carried out to estimate the electrical power to be generated from it. The solid waste types were observed to comprise of polythene (27%), organic waste (24.1%), plastic (10.2%), textile (13.2%), paper (9.8%), glass (9.3%) and metals (6.4%). The moisture content as discarded and daily average solid waste generation rate are 16.49% and 0.583 kg/sec respectively. The chemical formula with and without water was determined as C923.28H1632.60O258.28N12.89S and C923.28H2099.70O494.16N12.89S respectively. The suitability of the municipal solid waste as a possible source of electrical power was also considered. The energy content of the solid waste on ash free dry-basis was determined as 20861.48 kJ/kg. The estimated power generation per day using incinerating plant at an assumed efficiency of 25% was 3031.5 kW.
Existence and Linear Stability of Equilibrium Points in the Robe’s Restricted Three-Body Problem with Oblateness
Jagadish Singh,Abubakar Umar Sandah
Advances in Mathematical Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/679063
Abstract: This paper investigates the positions and linear stability of an infinitesimal body around the equilibrium points in the framework of the Robe’s circular restricted three-body problem, with assumptions that the hydrostatic equilibrium figure of the first primary is an oblate spheroid and the second primary is an oblate body as well. It is found that equilibrium point exists near the centre of the first primary. Further, there can be one more equilibrium point on the line joining the centers of both primaries. Points on the circle within the first primary are also equilibrium points under certain conditions and the existence of two out-of-plane points is also observed. The linear stability of this configuration is examined and it is found that points near the center of the first primary are conditionally stable, while the circular and out of plane equilibrium points are unstable. 1. Introduction Robe [1] considered a new kind of restricted three-body problem in which, one of the primaries of mass is a rigid spherical shell, filled with homogenous, incompressible fluid of density ; the second one is a point mass located outside the shell and moving around the mass in a Keplerian orbit; the infinitesimal mass is a small sphere of density , moving inside the shell and is subject to the attraction of and the buoyancy force due to the fluid of the first primary. Further, he discussed the linear stability of an equilibrium point obtained in two cases. In the first case, the orbit of around is circular and in the second case, the orbit is elliptic, but the shell is empty (there is no fluid inside it) or densities of and are equal. Since then various studies (e.g., [2–4]) under different assumptions have been carried out. In his study, Robe [1] assumed that the pressure field of the fluid has a spherical symmetry around the center of the shell and he took into account only one out of the three components of the pressure field which is due to the own gravitational field of the fluid . He did not consider the other two components arising from the attraction of and the centrifugal force. Taking care of all these three components of the pressure field, A. R. Plastino and A. Plastino [5] reanalyzed the Robe’s. But in their study, they assumed the hydrostatic equilibrium figure of the first primary as Roche’s ellipsoid (see Figure 1). They found that when the density parameter is taken as zero, every point inside the fluid is an equilibrium point; otherwise the center of the ellipsoid is the only equilibrium point and it is linearly stable. Figure 1: The Robe’s CRTBP
Abattoir as a Tool for Veterinary Extension and Communication Services: A Practical Demonstration of Its Implementation  [PDF]
Shehu AbdulQadir Zailani, Sani Bello Nma, Nuhu Abubakar, Hassan Kanti Madu, Ahmad Tijjani Tinau
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2019.91001
Abstract: Considering the widespread disease transmission among butchers/meat inspectors and a possible risk of exposure to diseases due to the attitude of some butchers and nature of meat inspector’s jobs. Ignorance and lack of awareness of such dangers has also been identified to be responsible for some of the problems encountered in most instances as well as the presence of some predisposing factors for diseases. In view of the above, this model is developed as a means of demonstrating the use of the abattoir and other registered related slaughter premises in the provision of the physical facility, where the primary role of extension personnel to develop the capacity and capability of target groups in the abattoir and livestock producing community, in order to enhance animal/zoonotic disease surveillance and control. The model if adopted and fully utilized will create awareness among target groups of dangers of disease transmission and ways of curtailing such problems, government through their agencies, professionals and private organizations should be involved in the implementation of this model in order to achieve the desired response.
Sero-Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) among High Risk Groups in Abuja, Nigeria  [PDF]
Shehu Busu Mohammed, Yakubu Ya’aba, Moses Chinenye Abarike, John Baba
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2019.91009
Abstract: Measurement of HIV prevalence among the general population as well as among specific sub-groups who are at high risk of infection is crucial for planning and for providing health care for those who are infected. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 infection among high risk groups in Abuja. The testing for the presence of HIV antibodies was carried out using Determine® HIV-1/2 Test Cards (Inverness Medical, Japan), UnigoldTM kit (Trinity Biotech, Ireland) and Stat Pak® HIV-1/2 (Chembio Diagnostic Systems, Inc. USA). A total of 1587 high risk persons were screened for HIV-1, 739 (46.6%) were males while 848 (53.4%) were females. 261 (16.4%) tested HIV-1 positive, out of which 74 (5.3%) were males and 190 (11.1%) were females. This study indicates that the incidence of HIV-1 is higher among the females. Prevalence is higher within the age range of 26 - 30 years (5.17%) and highest prevalence was observed within the age range of 31 - 35 years in males (1.32%) and of 26 - 30 years in females (3.91%). Commercial sex workers had the highest prevalence of HIV-1 (7.01%), while Commercial Motorcyclists had the least (2.02%) (p ≤ 0.05). This study has shown that there are local sub-epidemics of HIV infection in Abuja.
Neurofibroma of the labium majus: A case report
TS Sa’adatu, SM Shehu, HS Umar
Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research , 2006,
Abstract: Neurofibroma is a benign tumour that rarely affects the vulva. This report describes the case of a vulval neurofibroma in a 21-year old nulliparous woman with no history of trauma and no features of Von Recklinghausen’s disease. Treatment involved excision of the tumour with satisfactory results.
Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in Fadama II Project in Niger State, Nigeria
HU Muhammad, BF Umar, BZ Abubakar, AS Abdullahi
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The paper investigated factors influencing beneficiary participation in Fadama II project in Niger State. Three LGAs out of eleven LGAs that benefited in Fadama II project were randomly selected for the study. To this end, one Fadama Community Association (FCA) and five Fadama User Groups (FUGs) were randomly selected from each LGA that benefited. Five beneficiaries were also randomly sampled from each FUG. Seventy five (75) beneficiaries were randomly sampled for the study. Descriptive statistics and logit regression model were used to analyze the data collected. However, large proportion of the beneficiaries participated in problem identification (69.3%) and project implementation (80%) in the stages of project development. Women participation in Fadama II project was identified to be low (28.0%). Meanwhile, educational level and membership of cooperative society significantly influenced participation (P < 0.01). Household size was a positive factor that significantly influenced participation (P < 0.05) in Fadama II project in the study area.
Yakasai IA, Umar U, Ibrahim SA, Abubakar IS
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: Antenatal clinics perform routine serological tests for syphilis as a screening procedure. Syphilis is still a serious but treatable disease with maternal and fetal complications. There are two categories of serological tests for syphilis, the cardiolopin; venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test and the specific tests treponema Pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA) test. Pregnancy is a recognised cause of false-positive VDRL test result. The aim of the study was todetermine the seroprevalence and cost-effectiveness of antenatal syphilis screening at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano, Nigeria. The method includes a retrospective analysis of venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test results among pregnant women in AKTH during a 4 year period (January 2007-December 2010) was undertaken. The resulst include: a) fourteen –thousand, eight hundred and seventy-one pregnant women were screened for syphilis, using VDRL test; 95women were positive. Only eighty- two (82) folders were retrieved and analyzed given a seroprevalence rate of 0.55%.The peak age specific incidence was in the 20-24 years age group, b) the median gestational age at booking was 22 weeks, c) the cost of VDRL testper patient in AKTH is $2.5. To detect the 95 seropositive cases the sum of $38,106 was spent. It was concluded that the seroprevalence rate of syphilis in this study was low (0.55%). Initial screening using VDRL alone is neither justified nor cost effective. Selective screening base on risk factors and confirmatory test with FTA-AB is recommended.
Five Centimeter Concrete Nail Aspiration in a 2-Year-Old Nigerian Child: A Call for More Parental/Care-Givers’ Education: A Case Report  [PDF]
Aliyu J. Daniel, Abubakar Umar, Solomon J. Hassan, Yikawe S. Stephen, Ray Bayo, Solomon Ukwuani
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2015.47052
Introduction: Foreign body (FB) aspiration is a common cause of respiratory emergency in early childhood. Parents and care-givers are usually unaware of initial time of FB aspiration, and the varied symptoms may be confusing to them. Therefore, education on ways of avoiding the inci-dence is paramount, and prompt hospital presentation will reduce morbidity and mortality. Case Report: A 5 cm concrete nail, which was aspirated by a 2-year-old male Nigerian child of the Hausa ethnic group, was successfully removed by rigid bronchoscopy. We emphasize the need for more parental/care-givers’ education on foreign body aspiration among children. Conclusion: Infants commonly play with objects by inserting them in various orifices of their body. This, therefore, predisposes them to aspiration, which will go unnoticed at the time of aspiration. There is a need for repeated parental/care-givers’ education on dangers of allowing children to play alone. Parents/care-givers should be conversant with varied presentations of FB aspiration in children, as this will reduce the morbidity and mortality to the minimum.
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