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Why do we yawn?  [PDF]
William Burke
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.510213
Abstract:

The biomedical hypothesis proposed here is that the immediate trigger for a yawn is a restricted collapse of a few alveoli in the lungs. The extent of this alveolar collapse may be too small for it to be detected by current X-ray technology, but this technology is continually improving and may soon be good enough to test the hypothesis. In support of the hypothesis, it is shown that yawning can be inhibited by deep breaths of air, nitrogen or carbogen, thus showing that yawning is not triggered by lack of oxygen or by excess carbon dioxide, leaving alveolar collapse as the most likely possibility. A more extensive form of alveolar collapse is termed atelectasis and this involves a serious state of hypoxia which, if deepened or prolonged, can be fatal. Therefore, if the hypothesis is correct, yawning may prevent the development of atelectasis and save lives. This paper is not concerned with other indirect ways in which yawning may be induced, nor with the mechanism and neural circuitry of the yawn, nor with social aspects of yawning, only with the immediate trigger. My aim is to get better evidence for the hypothesis put forward here and also to study the behaviour of the pulmonary alveoli in normal respiration.

Quantum-Optical Foundations of Massive and Massless Particles  [PDF]
Burke Ritchie
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.59091
Abstract:

A source of the divergences in QED is proposed, and a theory in which the Lamb shift and electron’s anomalous magnetic moment are calculated free of divergences is reviewed. It is shown that Dirac’s equation for a relativistic electron can be inferred from a Lorentz invariant having the form of the Lorentz gauge equation, \"\", on identifying a carrier-wave energy \"\" with the electron’s rest mass energy

Use of Quantum Trajectories in Computational Molecular Bioscience  [PDF]
Burke Ritchie
Computational Molecular Bioscience (CMB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cmb.2014.41002
Abstract:
A spin-dependent quantum trajectory methodology is outlined which achieves electron exchangecorrelation on an ab initio basis. The methodology is intended to give workers in electronic structure the same computational capability which has been available for decades in classical dynamics.
The Ionic Composition of Nasal Fluid and Its Function  [PDF]
William Burke
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.68093
Abstract: The aim of the experiments reported here is to increase our understanding of the function of the nasal fluid. It is generally accepted that the nasal fluid assists in the humidification of the inspired air. It also assists in the capture of inspired particles such as pollen, preventing them getting lodged in the lungs. It is also known to contain antibacterial substances which keep the nose, nasopharynx and respiratory passages relatively free of infection. There are other features of the nasal fluid that are not understood. In cold weather, is it the fluid that collects in the nostrils pure water or nasal fluid? Why does nasal fluid have an exceptionally high potassium concentration? Does nasal fluid secreted during the common cold have the same composition as at other times? My objectives are to try to answer these questions. My method is to collect my nasal fluid in several different ways and have the ionic composition of each determined accurately. My findings are that nasal fluid is similar in composition however it is secreted. In cold weather, if expiration is via the nose, the nasal fluid is diluted by condensed water. The high concentration of potassium in the nasal fluid is not a way of controlling the level of potassium in the body but I suggest that it may assist in maintaining the antibacterial property of the nasal fluid.
Compatibility of Quantum Entanglement with the Special Theory of Relativity  [PDF]
Burke Ritchie
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2014.42009
Abstract:

The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox is resolved dynamically by using spin-dependent quantum trajectories inferred from Dirac’s equation for a relativistic electron. The theory provides a practical computational methodology for studying entanglement versus disentanglement for realistic Hamiltonians.

Speeds Criteria vs. Modified Aldrete and Fast-Track Criteria for Evaluating Recovery in Outpatients  [PDF]
Brent Burke,Mark Kyker
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.37068
Abstract: Background: The authors have developed criteria utilizing the mnemonic “SPEEDS” (saturation, pain, extremity movement, emesis, dialogue, stable vitals signs) to evaluate and predict which patients would not require phase I nursing intervention and could transition to phase II recovery. Methods: Seventy-three adult surgery patients underwent a standardized general anesthetic. Patients were evaluated with the modified Aldrete, Fast-Track and SPEEDS criteria immediately before leaving the OR and then 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes after arrival in the recovery area. Results: Significantly more patients met phase I bypass criteria when evaluated with Modified Aldrete (90%) and Fast-Track (94%) as compared to SPEEDS (77%) (p < 0.0429 modified Aldrete vs. SPEEDS, p < 0.0038 Fast-Track vs. SPEEDS). However, SPEEDS was more sensitive having a lower number of patients meeting phase II criteria yet requiring phase I intervention (32%) vs. Fast-track (43%) and Modified Aldrete (44%) (p < 0.001 SPEEDS vs. modified Aldrete and Fast-Track). SPEEDS was more accurate (74%) in predicting which patients should move directly to phase II compared to modified Aldrete (42%) (p < 0.001) and Fast-track (59%) (p = 0.05). Conclusion: SPEEDS criteria are as specific and more sensitive in determining phase I nursing interventions for ambulatory surgery patients when compared to Fast-Track and modified Aldrete criteria.
Speeds Criteria vs. Modified Aldrete and Fast-Track Criteria for Evaluating Recovery in Outpatients  [PDF]
Mark Kyker, Brent Burke
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.37068
Abstract:

Background: The authors have developed criteria utilizing the mnemonic SPEEDS (saturation, pain, extremity movement, emesis, dialogue, stable vitals signs) to evaluate and predict which patients would not require phase I nursing intervention and could transition to phase II recovery. Methods: Seventy-three adult surgery patients underwent a standardized general anesthetic. Patients were evaluated with the modified Aldrete, Fast-Track and SPEEDS criteria immediately before leaving the OR and then 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes after arrival in the recovery area. Results: Significantly more patients met phase I bypass criteria when evaluated with Modified Aldrete (90%) and Fast-Track (94%) as compared to SPEEDS (77%) (p < 0.0429 modified Aldrete vs. SPEEDS, p < 0.0038 Fast-Track vs. SPEEDS). However, SPEEDS was more sensitive having a lower number of patients meeting phase II criteria yet requiring phase I intervention (32%) vs. Fast-track (43%) and Modified Aldrete (44%) (p < 0.001 SPEEDS vs. modified Aldrete

The Occurrence of Migraine Auras and Possible Triggers  [PDF]
William Burke, John Robinson
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.619307
Abstract: Our aim is to determine the cause(s) of migraine auras. Our understanding of how migraines and migraine auras originate is very imperfect. An important observation is that migraines occur more frequently in women at reproductive age than in men at a similar age. This suggests that gonadal hormones may be relevant triggers. The occurrence of classical (typical auras without headache) auras in one author (WB) has been recorded. Every aura in six years (85) has been noted, studied and analysed statistically. The auras occur predominantly in Spring and Autumn, especially in the longer reproductive season of Spring. This association is supported statistically. The results support the idea of gonadal hormones as relevant triggers, the strongest candidate being estrogen. Basic mechanisms underlying the auras are discussed, especially the phenomenon of cortical spreading depression. We also propose that both auras and migraines depend upon previous injury to the head or to the brain, giving rise to a condition of “deafferentation hypersensitivity”.
Change-Point Detection for General Nonparametric Regression Models  [PDF]
Murray D. Burke, Gildas Bewa
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2013.34030
Abstract: A number of statistical tests are proposed for the purpose of change-point detection in a general nonparametric regression model under mild conditions. New proofs are given to prove the weak convergence of the underlying processes which assume remove the stringent condition of bounded total variation of the regression function and need only second moments. Since many quantities, such as the regression function, the distribution of the covariates and the distribution of the errors, are unspecified, the results are not distribution-free. A weighted bootstrap approach is proposed to approximate the limiting distributions. Results of a simulation study for this paper show good performance for moderate samples sizes.
História como alegoria
Burke, Peter;
Estudos Avan?ados , 1995, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-40141995000300016
Abstract: this article is concerned with the different circunstances in wich comments are made as one event (usually in the past) when the commentators are really preoccupied with another (usually in the present). it distinguishes pragmatic allegory, to be found whenever there are restrictions on freedom of political speed, from mystical allegory, which assumes some kind of occult connection between the two events. this second kind of allegory has been in decline since the end of the seventeenth century, but it may remain more influential on us all than we think.
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