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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 251 matches for " BN Alemu "
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Outcome of Transhiatal Esophagectomy Done for Advanced Oesophageal Cancer
BN Alemu, A Ali, D Gulilat, S Kassa, A Bekele
East and Central African Journal of Surgery , 2012,
Abstract: Background: This study was aimed at assessing a single unit experience of Transhiatal Oesophagectomy (THE) done for advanced esophageal cancer and the possible contributing factors for adverse outcomes. Methods: A Retrospective hospital based longitudinal case series analysis was undertaken at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Central Referral Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. All patients admitted for esophageal cancer and operated with transhiatal oesophagectomy over a period of six years from November 2006 to November 2011. The outcome measures studied included the demographic characters, duration and severity of symptoms, relevant investigations, stage and site of the tumor, hospital stay, mortality, morbidity, and variables associated with adverse out comes. Results: A total of 156 patients were operated for possible THE, of them 139 (89.1%) were found suitable for the planned procedure. Male to female ratio was 1:1.72 and mean age of presentation was 54.9 +/- 11.8. Majority of patients seek medical advice late in the course of the illness. At the time of surgery, One hundred twenty seven (91.4%) of them were either stage three or above. Tumor was localized in the upper (1.4%) middle (23%) lower (62.2%) and GEJ (13%). Majority were squamous cell carcinoma (82%) . Patients presented after an average of 5.54 + / - 3.05 months of symptom onset. The mean duration of surgery was 152.98 +/- 37.3 minutes and the mean estimated amount of intra-operative blood loss was 733.38+/- 380.5 ml. The average hospital stay after surgery was 11.58 +/- 7.4 days and the hospital mortality was 18.7%. The major risk factors for mortality were sepsis, anastomotic leak and respiratory conditions. All the 113(81.3%) operative survivors were discharged from the hospital after they resumed normal swallowing. Conclusion: With Transhiatal Oesophagectomy, it is possible to achieve lasting relief from dysphagia if done in appropriately selected patients even for advanced esophageal cancer with acceptable mortality and morbidity.
Dysfunctional Organization: The Leadership Factor  [PDF]
Daniel S. Alemu
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2016.51001
Abstract: In an extension of studies on dysfunctional organizations, vis-à-vis leadership, the current research examines leaders of dysfunctional and functional organizations in view of the functions of leadership. Sixteen variables related to leadership functions were tested to examine the relationship between leadership and organizational level of functionality and the differences between the characteristics of leaders of functional and dysfunctional organizations. A strong positive correlation was found between effective leadership and organizational level of functionality and a statistically significant difference was found between the characteristics of leaders of functional and dysfunctional organizations.
Integrated Watershed Management and Sedimentation  [PDF]
Molla Mekonnen Alemu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.74043

Environmental development and protection measures such as feasibility studies, land-use planning and soil and water conservation are some of the issues that need to be considered in watersheds management. Apparently, integrated watershed management is emerging as an approach for the sustained development and management of natural resources. The integral enactment of different environmental frameworks, strategies and policies could positively impact watershed- based developmental approaches. Sediment which is brought through water erosion can hamper the proper functioning of waterways as well as the quality of water in dams. Knowhow on soil erosion and the sedimentation process is among the requisites that need to be considered for the control of sedimentation. Other elements like climate, edaphic factors, land management, topography, and land cover, etc. will also determine the sedimentation process. Integrated Watershed Management approach is a worthy approach to manage the ecological, social and economic watershed development challenges in countries like Ethiopia. Thus, this article is intended to assess watershed characteristics that will help to explore the possibilities of reducing sedimentation and its related effects.

Sustainable Land Management  [PDF]
Molla Mekonnen Alemu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.74045

In one way or another, one out of three people are being affected by land degradation. It is estimated that, about every year, 75 billion tonnes of soil material are being lost worldwide as a result of land degradation. Recent findings also showed that about 2 billion hectares of land were severely degraded, in some cases in an irreversible way, all these caused a severe damage to local ecologies as well as contributed a lot for climate change and its associated effects on the wellbeing of humanity. Apart from this, the major portion of most developing countries population are still dependent on the un-mechanized and primitive forms agriculture, livestock production, forestry and fishery, and their livelihood and options for economic development are directly linked to the quality of the land and its resources. The objective of this article is to reaffirm the role of Sustainable Land Management in the process of agricultural development, the main source of livelihood in the developing countries. The paper initially explored the basic concept and principles of sustainable management. Causes of land degradation, the prime challenge of sustainable land management and development are also dealt in detail.

Incidence and Predictors of Tuberculosis among HIV/AIDS Infected Patients: A Five-Year Retrospective Follow-Up Study  [PDF]
Mulugeta Dalbo, Alemu Tamiso
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2016.62010
Abstract: Background: Despite increased deliverance of antiretroviral therapy (ART), morbidity and mortality from TB are still predominant among HIV/AIDS infected patients in Ethiopia. Thus, current study aimed to determine magnitude and predictors of tuberculosis among cohort of HIV infected patients at Arba Minch General Hospital, Ethiopia, 2015. Methods: Hospital based retrospective follow-up study was conducted among study population which was HIV/AIDS infected individuals registered from September 2007 to 2013. The data were collected using structured data abstraction form and four ART trained nurses were used to abstract the data. The data were checked for completeness, cleaned and entered into Epi Info 7.0 and analyzed using SPSS version (IBM-21). Results were summarized by using table of frequency, graph, and measure of central tendency. Statistical significance was inferred at P-value ≤ 0.05. Adjusted odd ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to determine predictors. Result: Four hundred ninety six patient’s charts were abstracted. Cumulative and incidence density of tuberculosis were 21.4% (95% CI: 21.3, 21.44) and 5.36 per 100 person year respectively. Cigarette smokers (AOR: 2.82, 95% CI (1.27 - 6.27)), household with family size of 3 - 4 (AOR: 2.26, 95% CI (1.14 - 4.50)), baseline WHO clinical stage III (AOR: 20.26, 95% CI (7.09 - 57.6)) and IV (AOR: 22.9, 95% CI (6.91 - 76.4)) and heamoglobin level of <10 (AOR: 2.56, 95% CI (1.22 - 5.33)) were important predictors (risk factors) of tuberculosis among HIV
Household Energy Demand and Its Impact on the Ecological Capital of Nech Sar National Park, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Molla Mekonnen Alemu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.710112
Abstract: Household energy demand is among the prime problems that cause deforestation. The use of fuel wood in the developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America is be-lieved to play a key role for the razing of forests and the degradation of associated biodiversity and other land resources. High population growth, increased energy demand, urbanization, infrastructure development, etc. are among the factors that exacerbate the current rate of deforestation in Ethiopia. This growing demand is also posing a threat to the remaining natural capital and associated wildlife of the country’s national parks. NechSar national park, a jewel in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia is not in different to this threat. The issue is calling for an urgent interference in the provision of environment friendly energy sources, afforestation programmes, raising the level of awareness on climate change, etc. This study is therefore, aimed at exploring the level of household energy demand interference on the woody vegetation of NechSar Park and promoting the use of environment friendly and energy saving technologies in the vicinity of the park area and beyond.
The practice of essential nutrition actions in healthcare deliveries of Shebedino District, South Ethiopia  [PDF]
Habte Bolka, Amanuel Alemu Abajobir
Advances in Reproductive Sciences (ARSci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/arsci.2014.21002
Abstract: The essential nutrition actions explain nutrition through life cycle approach addressing women’s nutrition during pregnancy and lactation, optimal infant and young children feeding, nutritional care for sick children and control of anemia, iodine and vitamin A deficiencies. Essential nutrition action has been implemented and resulted in positive outcome in less developed countries. However, the status of practice and associated factors were not studied in Ethiopia. Thus, institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the practice of essential nutrition actions in healthcare deliveries of Shebedino District, South Ethiopia. Quantitative data were collected though face-to-face interview with health workers and triangulated with data obtained through in-depth interview with health managers in the district and non-participatory observation of client-provider interaction in health facilities. Data were analyzed using SPSS16.0 software. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were undertaken. The study revealed that 61 (56.0%) health workers practiced essential nutrition actions. Seventy one (65.1%) health workers were trained on essential nutrition actions. The practice of essential nutrition actions was associated with career structure of the health workers (AOR = 6.79, 95%CI: 2.31, 19.98), essential nutrition actions knowledge of health workers (AOR = 6.87, 95%CI: 2.11, 21.51) and availability of monthly nutrition related report form (AOR = 4.95, 95%CI: 1.46, 16.81). The practice of essential nutrition actions was low. The factors affecting the practice were inadequate training and knowledge of essential nutrition actions, career structure of the health workers and availability of monthly report form. Training should be provided for health workers on essential nutrition actions; moreover, essential nutrition actions indicators should be included in monthly report forms of the health institutions.
Strategies for Cultural Adaptation towards Solutions in Childhood Care Facility Design
BN Ifeanyi
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: Cultural Inheritance is an indispensable enduring facet of self- identity for both children and adults alike. It is the tradition, custom and way of life that guides and limits life practices. It is a common saying by cultural researchers that cultural understanding is normally established between ages five through to nine. Accommodation of cultural heritage in childhood care facility requires sensitive spatial organization and engagement of the physical environment to support culturally based activities and rituals. This paper outlined the importance of creating cultural reflective childhood care environments. It described the experiences of a design firm in creating schematic design for the model employer supported child care facility including cultural research process needed to create such and the application of cultural principles in a bid to finding solution against challenges encountered in childhood care facility design.
Achieving polio eradication in Nigeria: Prospects and challenges
BN Tagbo
Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics , 2013,
Abstract: The Global polio eradication initiative was launched in 1988 by the international community. Since then, tremendous progress has been made (99%). However, the last 1% of the journey has experienced several setbacks and rate of progress has slowed down in the last few years. Nigeria is one of the remaining 3 endemic countries in the world that has never interrupted the transmission of the poliovirus compared to more than 125 countries in 1988. What are the prospects and challenges to polio eradication in Nigeria? This paper discusses these and other relevant issues regarding polio eradication in Nigeria.
Epidemiology of blinding eye diseases in Cross River State, Nigeria as seen in University Of Calabar Teaching Hospital
BN Ekpenyong
Journal of the Nigerian Optometric Association , 2006,
Abstract: This study was to determine themagnitude anddistributionof blindingeye diseases in Cross River State. A total of 3903 case files of patients who visited the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) from January 2001-September 2003 were reviewed. Secondly 580 patients who visited the hospital within 3 months of the study period October 2003- December 2003 were examined and questionnaires administered on them. The overall prevalence of blindness during the study period was 9.2%. Cataract caused blindness in nearly half of the cases. Other important causes of blindness include refractive error, glaucoma, retinal/macular diseases and corneal diseases. The overall prevalence of these identified blinding eye diseases was 56.3%. Refractive error (62.8%)was the most prevalent followed by cataract (15.4%), glaucoma (11%), retinal/macular diseases (7%) and corneal disease (3.7%). Results of analysis have shown that the prevalence of blinding eye diseases depends on age, sex and occupation. Increasing age and being male characterized the prevalence of cataract, glaucoma and retinal/macular diseases. More females were seen to have refractive error while more males and children had corneal diseases.The prevalence of blinding eye diseases was also seen more among people that do out door jobs.
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