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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 295 matches for " BK Pokharel "
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Assessment of Imja Glacier Lake outburst Flood (GLOF) Risk in Dudh Koshi River Basin using Remote Sensing Techniques
Kamal P Budhathoki,OR Bajracharya,BK Pokharel
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/jhm.v7i1.5618
Abstract: Glacier lakes are common phenomena in the Himalaya region of Nepal. Glacier lake outburst floods have repeatedly caused the death tolls and severe damage to downstream infrastructures. In Himalayas, a vital uncertainty about the glacier lake hazard potential still exists, thereby the effects of accelerating rates of glacier retreat and expansion of Glacier Lake could be the wake of recent global warming and resulting climatic changes. The paper, first describes the general different-level approach upon which the study is based. Then, in the methodological part, applicable remote sensing techniques, geographic information system (GIS) and statistical methods are presented. Observed data of lake area, volume, and depth having similar lake characteristics reported in the different literature are used to develop empirical equations by using statistical methods. The values of r 2 (coefficient of determination) - obtained are very high (r 2 =0.939 for depth – area relationship and r 2 = 0.990 for volume – area relationship). The comparison of the empirical expression clearly indicated that there is more than 90% variation in the dependent variable, lake volume,as explained by the linear regressions in both cases. Area of Imja glacier lake for different years are determined from the available satellite imagery and volume of the Imja glacier lake are estimated using the expression: V = 0.094 A 1.453 .developed from linear regression analysis of the observed data. Similarly, mean depth can be estimated by using the expression: D = 0.94 A 0.452 . After the preparation of maps and data, a scheme of decision criteria for the evaluation of hazard potential of Imja glacier lake is established. A list of decision criteria is a documented set of factors that are used to examine and compare for evaluating the hazard potential of a glacier lake. The empirical scores are given in terms of hazard magnitude for hazard rating. Analysis of Imja glacier lake based on the empirical scoring system clearly indicated that GLOF risk of the possible outburst from Imja glacier lake is MODERATE . A systematic application of remote sensing based methods for glacier lake outburst flood risk assessment is applicable and thus recommended. Keywords: Glacier lake outburst; remote sensing; risk assessment; hazard potential; empirical parameters; climate change DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jhm.v7i1.5618 JHM 2010; 7(1): 75-91
Thyroid Hormone levels in Highlanders- A Comparison Between Residents of Two Altitudes in Nepal
O Nepal,BR Pokharel,K Khanal,P Gyawali,SL Malik,R Koju,BK Kapoor
Kathmandu University Medical Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/kumj.v11i1.11017
Abstract: Background The endocrine changes related to altitude adaptation in human have attracted physiologists around the globe for long. A number of high altitude studies to detect the physiological changes have been performed now and then. But, the study to see the hormonal changes to compare populations residing at different high altitudes is a scarce. Hence, we have performed a study in native populations of different high altitude comparing changes in thyroid hormones in western Nepal. The Jharkot population included in this study is at altitude of 3760m and Jomsom population at 2800m height from sea bed. Objective The study is to compare changes in thyroid hormones at two different high altitude natives. Methods To compare thyroid status between high altitude natives at two different altitudes a cross sectional study is performed by random sampling method. The blood sample was collected in a vacutainer from fifty eight individuals after obtaining the informed consent of participants. The blood collected from antecubital vein was centrifuged in an hour and the serum obtained was used for biochemical analysis of free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone. Results Mean free thyroxine (fT4) of Jharkot population is significantly larger (p = 0.001) than Jomsom population. Mean thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with p = 0.597, does not indicate the difference between this two population. There is no significant difference between mean free triiodothyronine (fT3) of Jharkot and Jomsom population (p = 0.345). Conclusion The rise in free thyroid hormone at high altitude is not dependent on the thyroid stimulating hormone released from anterior pituitary. The rise in free thyroxine is found at higher altitude and no difference in fT3 level is detected in population studied at high altitudes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/kumj.v11i1.11017 Kathmandu University Medical Journal Vol.11(1) 2013: 18-21
Relationship Between Arterial Oxygen Saturation and Hematocrit, and Effect of Slow Deep Breathing on Oxygen Saturation in Himalayan High Altitude Populations
Ojashwi Nepal,BR Pokharel,K Khanal,SL Mallik,BK Kapoor,R Koju
Kathmandu University Medical Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/kumj.v10i3.8014
Abstract: Background The oxygen saturation of haemoglobin is reduced in high altitude-living organisms. Increase in the hematocrit is responsible for rise in the hemoglobin concentration so that the oxygen carrying capacity in the hypobaric hypoxic subject is elevated. Objectives To compare two different high altitude populations, in order to study the relationship between arterial oxygen saturation and hematocrit. Methods lIn the cross-sectional study of two populations residing at altitude of 2800 m and 3760 m are compared for the difference in hematocrit. The oxygen carrying capacity of arterial haemoglobin (SaO 2 ) is determined by pulse oximetry. The sample is drawn from the natives of two small villages, Thini at Jomsom (2800 m) and Jharkot (3760 m) in Mustang district of Nepal. The natives at 2800 m are termed as lower high altitude population and local residents at 3760 m are said to be higher altitude population in this study. The sample blood was drawn by venipuncture and packed cell volume was determined by Wintrobe’s method. Results The hematocrit obtained from 3760 m altitude population and the lower high altitude population at altitude of 2800 m differ significantly with the p value < 0.0001and the SaO2 in both the population fails to show any difference with p value > 0.05. Deep breathing exercise in these populations however increased SaO 2 significantly. Conclusion The higher altitude natives have greater arterial oxygen saturation than lower altitude population which is due to rise in red cell concentration. The slow deep breathing raises oxygen saturation irrespective of altitude. Kathmandu University Medical Journal | VOL.10 | NO. 3 | ISSUE 39 | JUL- SEP 2012 | Page 30-34 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/kumj.v10i3.8014
A need for an awareness campaign about nutrition and hygiene while conducting school eye health programs
A Pokharel
Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/nepjoph.v3i2.5285
Abstract: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/nepjoph.v3i2.5285 Ne pal J Ophthalmol 2011; 3(2): 220
Multifocal Tubercular Osteomyelitis Involving Bilateral Symmetrical Second Metacarpals
R Pokharel
Journal of Institute of Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/joim.v34i2.9054
Abstract: Skeletal tuberculosis involving small bones of the hand is less common. We report a case, 6 year old boy, of bilateral symmetrical tubercular osteomyelitis of second metacarpals. He presented with gradually increasing swellings over bilateral hands over duration of one month. There was no other significant history relating to tuberculosis. Hand X-rays showed expansive lesions of bilateral second metacarpals. Thick pus and necrotic tissue was removed from both the swelling and from the bone. Presence of typical tubercular granuloma in the histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. The boy was treated with antitubercular drugs and improved after completion of anti-tubercular treatment. Tuberculosis can present in different ways, and should be kept as one of the possible diagnosis of several bony pathologies including metacarpals and phalanges, especially in this part of the world where tuberculosis endemic. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/joim.v34i2.9054 ? Journal of Institute of Medicine August, 2012; 34:2 42-47
Spontaneous delivery or manual delivery of the placenta during caesarean: A randomized controlled trial
SM Pokharel
Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/jcmsn.v7i2.6676
Abstract: The study was done to compare the blood loss and the time between spontaneous delivery and manual removal of the placenta during caesarean section. We prospectively randomized and compared outcomes of 100 gravid women with manual (n=50) and spontaneous (n=50) placental delivery at caesarean section. Blood loss was measured after placental deliverey at caesarean and was greater in the manually delivered group (100.9 ± 22.5 ml) than in the spontaneous delivery group. (55.11 ±21.07 ml) P< 0.001. The mean interval during the delivery of the newborn and the placenta is longer in spontaneous delivery group (62.02 vs. 50.5 seconds), but the mean duration of the operation was similar. Spontaneous delivery of the placenta as compared to manual expression significantly reduces the blood loss without increasing the operating time.
Changing Relations between High Castes and Tamang in Melamchi Valley
Binod Pokharel
Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4513
Abstract: This paper is about the processes of transformation of social relations between high caste groups and Tamang in Melamchi Valley for the period of 1980-2010. Development interventions made by government of Nepal and (I) NGOs, a decade long undergoing Melamchi Water Supply Project and labor migration are major factors for ongoing changes in the study area. Spread of literacy classes and primary education, availability of credit institutions, introduction of modern farming, road networks, seasonal out migration from the area, etc. primarily define new relations among the groups. Borrowing and lending money were one of the basis of high caste and Tamang relation in past. The latter was regarded as borrower loan from first one. Before 1980s, money and agriculture commodities were controlled by few rich and high castes people. Cash income from various sources made enable the Tamang to stand on an equal footing with high caste people. Open political economy and liberal policy for issuing pass port in 1990s and after that encourage the people to diversify the destination of seasonal migration from India to Gulf countries and East Asia. Various processes of socio-economic and political changes led to local peoples to seek their position and identity in the changing context. Discourse of Tamang, high castes and Dalit entered into the Valley along with the development resources of (I)NGO and political movements of the country. This made possible to Tamang and other disadvantage groups to define and redefine their ethnic identity. Keywords : High castes; Tamang; credit facilities; subsistence farming; identity construction; money lending; wage labor DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4513 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.65-84
Customer Relationship Management: Related Theories, Challenges and Application in Banking Sector
Babin Pokharel
Banking Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/bj.v1i1.5140
Abstract: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/bj.v1i1.5140 Banking Journal Vol.1(1) 2011: 19-28
Politics and problematics of the definition and categorization of ethnicity in Nepal
Ramesh Pokharel
Bodhi: An Interdisciplinary Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/bodhi.v5i1.8042
Abstract: Bodhi: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 5, 2011, Page 1-15 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/bodhi.v5i1.8042
Cooperation between Egypt and Sudan over the Nile River Waters: The challenges of duality
BK Deng
African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie , 2007,
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