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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2497 matches for " BJ Gemandze "
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Transcending the Impasse: Rethinking the ‘State’ and ‘Development’ in Africa
BJ Gemandze
African Journal of International Affairs , 2006,
Abstract: This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on alternative development strategies in Africa by considering some of the alternative theories of ‘development’ that have been advanced in response to the developmental impasse faced by African states. It argues that a serious re-evaluation of what ‘development’ entails is now required that should involve a clear theoretical break with mainstream development theory. After a brief overview of the main alternative theories of development that have been proposed, the paper argues that the way to transcend the development impasse in Africa is through the concept of the ‘developmental state’. It then discusses the major concepts of the developmental state before considering the feasibility of the developmental state in Africa and the key issues of state strength, state autonomy, authoritarianism and the role of the bourgeoisie. The paper argues for the centrality of democratic rural development for the feasibility of developmental states in Africa and concludes with a call to rethink the concept of development and the developmental state from the point of view of democracy and the collective.
Application of Pedagogical Perspectives in the Teaching and Training of New Cataract Surgeons—A Literature-Based Essay  [PDF]
Bj?rn Johansson
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2013.33015

Cataract is the most common cause of visual impairment that can be effectively treated by surgery and cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the world. With modern cataract operation techniques, patients expect excellent results. Teaching and training of new surgeons involve both pedagogical and ethical challenges for teachers and trainees, and also may pose a potential risk to patients. This literature-based essay aims to describe how behavioristic, cognitive and conceptual learning perspectives can be recognized during the trainee surgeons progress. It also describes how teacher-pupil relationships may vary during the training process. Finally it presents the concept of situational tutorship, where the teacher adapts to the stages that the trainee passes through with increasing experience. Teaching and trainee surgeons who are aware of pedagogical concepts such as teacher-pupil relationships and tutoring strategies may use this knowledge to optimize the learning process. Further research is needed to clarify how using this knowledge may affect the training of new cataract surgeons.

Limited Focus on the Use of Health Care by Elderly Migrants—A Literature Review  [PDF]
Katarina Hjelm, Bj?rn Albin
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.46049

Our premise for this literature review is the global demographic change caused by the world’s population living longer and becoming older, and extensive international migration leading to multicultural societies. Increasing age leads to health problems, often long-term or chronic, requiring investments in health care. Worse health and dissimilarities in pattern of morbidity/ mortality have been found in foreign-compared to Swedish-born persons, so it is reasonable to assume that this affects use of health care. The exploratory review focuses on elderly migrants’ (>65 years) use of healthcare. The databases Pub Med, EBSCO, CINAHL and ERIC were searched in 2000-2013. A limited number of studies were found; few had a comparative approach, most were from the USA, and focused on migrants from the former Soviet Union or countries in South-East Asia. A range of factors were identified that influence patterns of health care use: language fluency, ability to communicate, self-reported health status, prevalence of chronic disease, physical distance from care provision, availability of transport to reach care, cost of care, the health insurance system, cultural norms and values regarding different forms of care, level of education, and length of residence in the host country. Most studies treated health care from a general perspective and collected data from community and hospital settings, without analysing usage separately. Some studies indicated elderly migrants making use of health care less than other groups but the pattern is not unambiguous: other studies show that there is an overuse of health care. It is therefore difficult to show any particular pattern, or possible differences in use, regarding community versus in-patient care. Studies focusing on migrants’ actual use of health care are few and further research is needed, especially because elderly people form the largest group of users of health care and will be even larger in the future.

The Transition from Hospital to Home: Older People’s Experiences  [PDF]
Sigrun Hvalvik, Bj?rg Dale
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.57066
Abstract: The amount of older patients who are discharged from hospitals while continuing to need care is increasing in Norway. The transition between different care services has the potential for high rates of medication errors, incomplete or inaccurate information transfer, and lack of appropriate follow-up care. Thus, insight into the transition process is vital to understanding the complexity and vulnerability the patients are exposed to in this process. The aim of this phenomenological hermeneutic study was to describe and illuminate the lived experiences of older home residents during the transitions from hospital to home. Data were collected through narrative interviews, and an interpretation analysis based on a method developed by Lindseth and Norberg was conducted. Two themes and four subthemes, closely related to each other emerged from the structural analysis of the text: The theme “Relating to different systems of care” with the two subthemes “feeling disregarded” and “being humble”; and the theme “Adapting to life conditions” with the two subthemes “feeling vulnerable” and “coping with alterations”. The older people miss being seen as human beings as well as patients during the transition process. Despite the lack of information and participation in the transition process, they were grateful and humble to the systems of care they were a part of. This, however, also encompassed rejections of own needs. It is urgent that health care professionals focus on the older person’s individual needs and preferences. This means that care must be considered from the perspectives of the older person’s biographical as well as medical history, and the complexity of the situation.
Review: "splintervlerk" (Marlise Joubert)
BJ Odendaal
Tydskrif vir letterkunde , 2012,
Abstract: splintervlerk. Marlise Joubert. Pretoria: Protea Boekhuis, 2011. 96 pp. ISBN: 978-1-86919-472-7.
Education and training of medical physicists in South East Asia: accomplishments and challenges
BJ Thomas
Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.2349/biij.7.3.e23
Links Between Future Thinking and Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Major Depression  [PDF]
Ali Sarkohi, Jonas Bj?rehed, Gerhard Andersson
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23041
Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the association between autobiographical memory specificity and future thinking in a depressed sample. A total of 88 individuals who meet the DSM-IV criteria of major depression were included and completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT) and the future thinking task (FTT). The FTT was an index of number of future plausible events, rating of likelihood and emotional valence. The results showed that positive future thinking was significantly correlated with retrieval of specific positive autobio-graphical memories (r = 0.23). Moreover, correlational analyses showed that positive autobiographical memo-ries were negatively correlated with extended autobiographical memories, repeated autobiographical memories, semantic associations and non-responses on the AMT. Self-report measures of depression and anxiety were not correlated with either the FTT or the AMT. The results of this cross-sectional study only give weak support for an association between autobiographical memory specificity and future thinking.
Concealed Integrity Monitoring for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Bj?rn Stelte, Thomas Bühring
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2011.31002
Abstract: Nowadays, sensor networks are widely installed around the world. Typical sensors provide data for healthcare, energy management, environmental monitoring, etc. In the future sensors will become a part of critical infrastructures. In such a scenario the network operator has to monitor the integrity of the network devices, otherwise the trustworthiness of the whole system is questionable. The problem is that every integrity protocol needs a secure channel between the devices. Therefore, we will introduce a covert channel for hidden transportation of integrity monitoring messages. The covert channel enables us to hide integrity check messages embedded into regular traffic without giving potential attackers a hint on the used integrity protocol.
Development of protective antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy children  [PDF]
David Bj?rnheden, Bertil Kaijser, Bill Hesselmar
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2012.21006
Abstract: Aim: To study how immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae normally develops in healthy children. Methods: Ninety two healthy children at 3 - 5, 7 - 9 and 13 - 15 years of age were recruited. No one of the children had previously been given pneumococcal vaccine. Serum was analysed for pooled antigens of the 23 most common pneumococcal polysaccharides with ELISA technique, and results are given in opitical density (OD). A three-level semi-quantitative system was used to assess degree of immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae . Cut-off levels were OD ≤ 0.7 and OD ≥ 1.3, separating low, intermediate and high degree of immunity. Results: Median values for OD differed significantly between the groups, with OD 0.91, 1.18 and 1.10 respectively (p = 0.004). Levels were lower in the youngest age group, but from age 7-9 years, levels were similar trough out childhood. Twenty six percent of the children in the youngest age-group had a low degree of protection (OD ≤ 0.7) to Streptococcus pneumoniae . Such low levels were uncommon from 7 - 9 years of age, found in only 13% of the children. Conclusion: Protective antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae develops mainly during the preschool period. Thereafter, levels are stable throughout childhood up to the age of 15 years.
Diversity in Family Structure—Diversity in Communication between Family Members?  [PDF]
Piia M. Bj?rn, Minna Kytt?l?
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.43A035

This study aims at investigating the parent-adolescent communication of Finnish families from a multi informant perspective. Thirteen- and fourteen-year-old adolescents (n = 171) and their parents were asked to complete a questionnaire examining positive and problematic communication between the two parties. Information about their family structure was collected. The results indicated an interrelationship between parental and adolescent assessments, particularly regarding negative aspects of communication. The boys assessed their communication with parents as more positive than did the girls. The results showed that the mothers still are the synchronizing hearts of communication in modern families, whereas the fathers’ roles in family communication were more modest suggesting that the stereotypical roles in Finnish families persist even today.

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